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Neural correlates of irritability in a community sample of children.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jun 5;292:223-226. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; School of Psychology, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Irritability has been associated with aberrant patterns of neural activation, yet little is known about structural brain correlates of irritability. As such, we aimed to investigate associations between irritability and gray matter volume (GMV) in a community sample of children enriched for irritability. The sample comprised children (n=162) aged 9-11 years with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), participating in a cohort study with magnetic resonance imaging data available. Read More

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Maternal posttraumatic stress and FKBP5 Genotype interact to predict trauma-related symptoms in preschool-age offspring.

J Affect Disord 2021 May 26;292:212-216. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Children of parents with posttraumatic stress (PTS) face heightened risk for developing emotional and behavioral problems, regardless of whether they experience a traumatic event themselves. The current study investigates whether child FKBP5, a stress relevant gene shown to interact with child trauma exposure to increase risk for PTS, also moderates the well-established link between maternal PTS and child symptoms.

Methods: Data are derived from a longitudinal lab-based study for which 205 dyads of trauma-exposed mothers and their preschool-age children from a sample enriched for violence exposure provided DNA samples and completed measures of maternal and child trauma-related symptoms. Read More

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Everyday interactions support toddlers' learning of conventional actions on artifacts.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Jun 12;210:105201. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Children learn to perform actions on artifacts in their environments from infancy, but the ways caregivers support this learning during everyday interactions are relatively unexplored. This study investigated how naturalistic caregiver-child teaching interactions promoted conventional action learning in toddlers. Caregivers of 32 24- to 26-month-old children taught their children to perform novel target actions on toys. Read More

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Children are safe in schools: a review of the Irish experience of reopening schools during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Public Health 2021 Jun 12;195:158-160. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Office of the Clinical Director for Health Protection, HSE, Ireland; Department of Public Health, HSE Midlands, Tullamore, Ireland.

Objectives: Schools in the Republic of Ireland reopened to students and staff in late August 2020. We sought to determine the test positivity rate of close contacts of cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in schools during the first half-term of the 2020/2021 academic year.

Methods: National-level data from the schools' testing pathway were interrogated to determine the positivity rate of close contacts of cases of COVID-19 in Irish primary, postprimary and special schools during the first half-term of 2020/2021 academic year. Read More

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Secretor status strongly influences the incidence of symptomatic norovirus infection in a genotype-dependent manner in a Nicaraguan birth cohort.

J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, National Autonomous University of Nicaragua - León, León, Nicaragua.

Background: The role of histo-blood group on the burden and severity of norovirus gastroenteritis in young infants has not been well documented.

Methods: Norovirus gastroenteritis was assessed in 443 Nicaraguan children followed from birth until 3 years of age. Stool samples were tested for norovirus by RT-qPCR and histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) were determined by phenotyping of saliva and blood. Read More

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Joint effects of children's emotional problems and parental depressive symptoms on the occurrence of internet gaming disorder among children and adolescents: A longitudinal study.

J Behav Addict 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

6Department of Biostatistics, Clinical Research Coordinating Center, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Aims: Parental depressive symptoms may aggravate the effects of children's emotional problems on risks for Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Here we examined the joint effects of children's emotional problems and parents' depressive symptoms on the incidence of IGD.

Methods: A large prospective, population-based cohort tested potential interactions between children's emotional problems, parents' depressive symptoms, and incidence of high risk of IGD (HRIGD). Read More

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A case control study to assess effectiveness of measles containing vaccines in preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jun 15:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Serum Institute of India Pvt Ltd, Pune, India.

Currently, most licensed vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection are approved for adults and not for children. We conducted a test negative case-control study to assess the effectiveness of Measles Containing Vaccines (MCVs) against SARS-CoV-2 infection in Pune, India, in children who were ≥1 year and <18 years of age and were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The enrolled participants included 274 SARS-CoV-2 positive cases (216 vaccinated and 58 unvaccinated) along with 274 SARS-CoV-2 negative controls (265 vaccinated and 9 unvaccinated). Read More

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Free-breathing Accelerated Cardiac MRI Using Deep Learning: Validation in Children and Young Adults.

Radiology 2021 Jun 15:202624. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

From the Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 725 Welch Rd, Stanford, CA 94305 (E.J.Z., A.K., S.S.V.); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif (C.M.S.); and Global MR Applications and Workflow, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, Calif (P.L.).

Background Obtaining ventricular volumetry and mass is key to most cardiac MRI but challenged by long multibreath-hold acquisitions. Purpose To assess the image quality and performance of a highly accelerated, free-breathing, two-dimensional cine cardiac MRI sequence incorporating deep learning (DL) reconstruction compared with reference standard balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP). Materials and Methods A DL algorithm was developed to reconstruct custom 12-fold accelerated bSSFP cardiac MRI cine images from coil sensitivity maps using 15 iterations of separable three-dimensional convolutions and data consistency steps. Read More

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Low social affiliation predicts increases in callous-unemotional behaviors in early childhood.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors predict risk for aggression and rule-breaking. Low social affiliation (i.e. Read More

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Parent responsiveness mediates the association between hyporeactivity at age 1 year and communication at age 2 years in children at elevated likelihood of ASD.

Autism Res 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Program for Early Autism Research, Leadership, and Service (PEARLS), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Studies suggest that higher parent responsiveness is associated with higher child language abilities. Infants and toddlers later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often display hyporeactivity to sensory stimuli, which has also been associated with lower child communication abilities and lower parent responsiveness. Yet, whether parent responsiveness mediates the relationship between child hyporeactivity and later communication outcomes remains unexplored. Read More

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The effect of congenital blindness on resting-state functional connectivity revisited.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12433. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Biological Psychology and Neuropsychology, Institute for Psychology, University of Hamburg, Von-Melle-Park 11, 20146, Hamburg, Germany.

Lower resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between 'visual' and non-'visual' neural circuits has been reported as a hallmark of congenital blindness. In sighted individuals, RSFC between visual and non-visual brain regions has been shown to increase during rest with eyes closed relative to rest with eyes open. To determine the role of visual experience on the modulation of RSFC by resting state condition-as well as to evaluate the effect of resting state condition on group differences in RSFC-, we compared RSFC between visual and somatosensory/auditory regions in congenitally blind individuals (n = 9) and sighted participants (n = 9) during eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Read More

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A large multiethnic GWAS meta-analysis of cataract identifies new risk loci and sex-specific effects.

Nat Commun 2021 06 14;12(1):3595. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), Division of Research, Oakland, CA, USA.

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly worldwide and cataract surgery is one of the most common operations performed in the United States. As the genetic etiology of cataract formation remains unclear, we conducted a multiethnic genome-wide association meta-analysis, combining results from the GERA and UK Biobank cohorts, and tested for replication in the 23andMe research cohort. We report 54 genome-wide significant loci, 37 of which were novel. Read More

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Clinical application of noninvasive prenatal testing in the detection of fetal chromosomal diseases.

Mol Cytogenet 2021 Jun 14;14(1):31. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Affiliated Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Objective: To assess the detection efficiency of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal autosomal aneuploidy, sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA), other chromosome aneuploidy, copy number variation (CNV), and to provide further data for clinical application of NIPT.

Materials And Methods: 25,517 pregnant women who underwent NIPT testing in Anhui Province Maternity and Child Health Hospital from September 2019 to September 2020 were selected, and samples with high-risk test results were subjected to karyotype analysis for comparison by using amniotic fluid, with some samples subjected to further validation by chromosomal microarray analysis, and followed up for pregnancy outcome.

Results: A total of 25,517 pregnant women who received NIPT, 25,502 cases were tested successfully, and 294 high-risk samples (1. Read More

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Prevalence of malocclusion and assessment of orthodontic treatment needs among Syrian refugee children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Oral Health 2021 Jun 14;21(1):305. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Restorative Dentistry, Division of Dentistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

Background: There is a scarcity of data concerning the prevalence and pattern of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs in Syrian refugee. In this study, extra and intra-oral features of malocclusion and the dental health component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) were reported.

Methods: Examination of 606 Syrian children/adolescents refugees attending Zaatari clinic was carried out (males = 280, females = 326, mean age = 11. Read More

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Effect of Perinatal Vitamin D Deficiency on Lung Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Injury Repair Potential.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

The Lundquist Institute, 117316, Pediatrics, Torrance, California, United States;

Stem cells, including resident lung mesenchymal stem cells (LMSCs), are critically important for injury repair. Compelling evidence links perinatal vitamin D (VD) deficiency to reactive airway disease; however, the effects of perinatal VD deficiency on LMSC function is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal VD deficiency alters LMSC proliferation, differentiation, and function, leading to an enhanced myogenic phenotype. Read More

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Comparison of intravascular access methods applied by nurses wearing personal protective equipment in simulated COVID-19 resuscitation: A randomized crossover simulation trial.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Jun 3;49:189-194. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Polish Society of Disaster Medicine, Warsaw, Poland; Maria Sklodowska-Curie Bialystok Oncology Center, Bialystok, Poland. Electronic address:

Background: Prehospital emergency care of children is challenging. In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, when medical personnel should use personal protective equipment against aerosol-generating procedures, the efficiency of medical procedures may decrease. The study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of different intravascular access methods applied by nurses wearing biosafety Level-2 suits in simulated paediatric COVID-19 resuscitation. Read More

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Using the health beliefs model to explore children's attitudes and beliefs on air pollution.

Public Health 2021 Jun 11;196:4-9. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Centre for the Training of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Objectives: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) negatively impacts children's health. Self-protective measures are available, but population uptake is variable. It is essential to understand human beliefs and behaviours related to air pollution in order to understand the lack of self-protection in communities. Read More

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Maternal age at first childbirth and geographical variation in HBV prevalence in Cameroon: Important role of mother-to-child transmission.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Unité d'Épidémiologie des Maladies Émergentes, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Background: The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection varies geographically around the world. However, the underlying reasons for this variation are unknown. Using a nationally representative population-based sample from all 58 administrative divisions in Cameroon, we examined the association between median maternal age at first childbirth in a preceding generation, a proxy for the frequency of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV in a region, and the risk of chronic HBV infection, defined as positive surface antigen (HBsAg), in the index generation. Read More

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Developing Empirical Latent Profiles of Impulsive Aggression and Mood in Youths across Three Outpatient Samples.

J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2021 Jun 14:1-16. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University.

: Aggression with impulsivity and reactivity (AIR) may distinguish a subset of youth from those with attention problems, rule-breaking behavior, or mood disorders, potentially with differential treatment response. Yet, DSM-5 and ICD-10 do not include an AIR diagnosis. Thus, we empirically grouped youths into profiles based on AIR, manic, depressive, rule-breaking, and self-harm behaviors; examined which profiles replicated across three samples; and characterized profile sets on demographic and clinical features. Read More

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The generalizability of empirically derived syndromes of collateral-reported elder psychopathology across 11 societies.

Res Nurs Health 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Psychology, Academia Pedagogiki Specjalnej, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

The purpose of this study was to test whether a syndrome model of elder psychopathology derived from collateral ratings, such as from spouses and adult children, in the United States would be generalizable in 11 other societies. Societies represented South America, Asia, and Europe. The Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL) was completed by collateral informants for 6141 60- to 102-year-olds. Read More

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Normal cerebrospinal fluid protein and associated clinical characteristics in children with tuberculous meningitis.

Ann Med 2021 Dec;53(1):885-889

Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Background: Although abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein can be used to predict the outcome of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and diagnose TBM, normal CSF protein remains a concern in patients with TBM. This retrospective study aimed to assess the clinical characteristics associated with normal CSF protein, to resolve the dilemma of CSF protein in the management of childhood TBM.

Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2019, consecutive child patients (≤15 years old, a diagnosis of TBM, and tested for CSF protein) were included for analysis. Read More

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December 2021

Population-level faecal metagenomic profiling as a tool to predict antimicrobial resistance in isolates causing invasive infections: An exploratory study across Cambodia, Kenya, and the UK.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Jun 30;36:100910. Epub 2021 May 30.

Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in is a global health threat. Capacity for individual-level surveillance remains limited in many countries, whilst population-level surveillance approaches could inform empiric antibiotic treatment guidelines.

Methods: In this exploratory study, a novel approach to population-level prediction of AMR in clinical isolates using metagenomic (Illumina) profiling of pooled DNA extracts from human faecal samples was developed and tested. Read More

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Case-Based Curriculum for Pediatric Residents in Diabetes Fundamentals.

MedEdPORTAL 2021 05 27;17:11157. Epub 2021 May 27.

Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Diabetes and Endocrinology and Section of Nutrition, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital.

Introduction: Pediatricians are at the front line to diagnose new-onset diabetes and treat acute diabetes complications in children. Pediatric residents need a strong foundation in recognizing and managing pediatric diabetes, imposing a demand for a structured, comprehensive pediatric-specific diabetes curriculum.

Methods: This three-module case-based curriculum focused on diabetes fundamentals relevant to pediatricians in the outpatient and inpatient settings. Read More

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Pediatric Obesity-A Potential Risk Factor for Systemic Inflammatory Syndrome Associated to COVID-19, a Case Report.

Front Pediatr 2021 28;9:681626. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Pediatrics III, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Târgu Mureş, Târgu Mureş, Romania.

The well-documented systemic inflammation associated to pediatric obesity might act as an augmenting factor for other inflammatory conditions, such as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) associated to COVID-19. We report the case of 9-year-old boy admitted in our clinic for fever, anorexia, and fatigability. The clinical exam revealed influenced general status, palpebral edema, non-exudative conjunctivitis, and abdominal tenderness. Read More

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Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Children.

Front Pediatr 2021 28;9:668484. Epub 2021 May 28.

Section of Pediatrics, Pediatric Pulmonology Unit, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Since its appearance in Wuhan in mid-December 2019, acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) related 19 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread dramatically worldwide. It soon became apparent that the incidence of pediatric COVID-19 was much lower than the adult form. Morbidity in children is characterized by a variable clinical presentation and course. Read More

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Reliability and validity of a computer game-based tool of upper extremity assessment for object manipulation tasks in children with cerebral palsy.

J Rehabil Assist Technol Eng 2021 Jan-Dec;8:20556683211014023. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

SDM College of Physiotherapy, Dharwad, India.

Introduction: A computer game-based upper extremity (CUE) assessment tool is developed to quantify manual dexterity of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to determine test-retest reliability of the CUE performance measures (success rate, movement onset time, movement error, and movement variation) and convergent validity with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale version 2 (PDMS-2) and the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST).

Methods: Thirty-five children with CP aged four to ten years were tested on two occasions two weeks apart. Read More

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The influence of individual characteristics and non-respiratory diseases on blood eosinophil count.

Clin Transl Allergy 2021 Jun 3;11(4):e12036. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Women's and Children's Health Paediatric Research Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden.

Background: Blood eosinophil (B-Eos) count is an emerging biomarker in the management of respiratory disease but determinants of B-Eos count besides respiratory disease are poorly described. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the influence of non-respiratory diseases on B-Eos count, in comparison to the effect on two other biomarkers: fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and C-reactive protein (CRP), and to identify individual characteristics associated with B-Eos count in healthy controls.

Methods: Children/adolescents (<18 years) and adults with complete B-Eos data from the US National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys 2005-2016 were included, and they were divided into having respiratory diseases ( = 3333 and  = 7,894, respectively) or not having respiratory disease ( = 8944 and  = 15,010, respectively). Read More

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Metabolomic Characterization of Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS).

Front Neurosci 2021 28;15:645267. Epub 2021 May 28.

Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Introduction: PANS is a controversial clinical entity, consisting of a complex constellation of psychiatric symptoms, adventitious changes, and expression of various serological alterations, likely sustained by an autoimmune/inflammatory disease. Detection of novel biomarkers of PANS is highly desirable for both diagnostic and therapeutic management of affected patients. Analysis of metabolites has proven useful in detecting biomarkers for other neuroimmune-psychiatric diseases. Read More

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Co-Inheritance of α-thalassemia gene mutation in patients with sickle cell Disease: Impact on clinical and hematological variables.

Niger J Clin Pract 2021 Jun;24(6):874-882

Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Basra, Basra, Iraq.

Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a monogenic, phenotypically highly variable disease with multisystem pathology. The phenotypic heterogeneity of SCD is attributed to environmental and genetic factors such as fetal hemoglobin and co-inheritance of α-thalassemia.

Objectives: To look for different types of α-thalassemia gene mutations among SCD patients and evaluate the influence of the co-inheritance of α-thalassemia on clinical and hematological variables. Read More

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Perceived quality of essential newborn care implementation among health facility deliveries in North Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

Reprod Health 2021 Jun 13;18(1):127. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Departments of Pediatrics and Child Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Quality of essential newborn care is defined as the extent of health care services to improve the health of newborns. However, studies are scarce regarding the quality of newborn care implementation. Therefore, this study aimed to measure the magnitude and factors associated with essential newborn care implementation perceived quality among health facility deliveries in Northwest Ethiopia. Read More

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