1,019 results match your criteria children orienting

Automatic classification of children with autism spectrum disorder by using a computerized visual-orienting task.

Psych J 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Early screening and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) primarily rely on behavioral observations by qualified clinicians whose decision process can benefit from the combination of machine learning algorithms and sensor data. We designed a computerized visual-orienting task with gaze-related or non-gaze-related directional cues, which triggered participants' gaze-following behavior. Based on their eye-movement data registered by an eye tracker, we applied the machine learning algorithms to classify high-functioning children with ASD (HFA), low-functioning children with ASD (LFA), and typically developing children (TD). Read More

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On the origins and evolution of the Attention Network Tests.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, 1355 Oxford Street, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2, Canada. Electronic address:

Attention is a pivotal cognitive function and efforts to understand its properties and operations are fundamental. Building upon the best known taxonomy of attention put forward by Posner and Petersen (1990), the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan et al., 2001) was designed to efficiently provide scores that reflect the efficacy of alerting, orienting and executive control. Read More

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The COVID PIVOT - Re-orienting Child and Youth Mental Health Care in the Light of Pandemic Restrictions.

Psychiatr Q 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Alfred Health, Child and Youth Mental Health Service, 999 Nepean Hwy, Moorabbin, VIC, 3189, Australia.

The COVID pandemic required significant changes in the provision of youth mental health services during the period of lockdown/stay at home orders. Things which were identified as changing significantly during this period included: service via telehealth; working from home, split teams (to reduce infection risk), and social (physical) distancing. An online survey of clinicians was conducted involving both closed and open ended questions. Read More

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Attention recruits frontal cortex in human infants.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(12)

Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511.

Young infants learn about the world by overtly shifting their attention to perceptually salient events. In adults, attention recruits several brain regions spanning the frontal and parietal lobes. However, it is unclear whether these regions are sufficiently mature in infancy to support attention and, more generally, how infant attention is supported by the brain. Read More

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Parental genetic contributions to neonatal temperament in a nonhuman primate (Macaca mulatta) model.

Dev Psychobiol 2021 Mar 14. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Psychology Department, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA.

Temperament is an individual's nature and is widely believed to have a heritable foundation. Few studies, however, have evaluated paternal and maternal contributions to the triadic dimensions of temperament. Rhesus monkeys are widely utilized to model genetic contributions to human development due to their close genetic-relatedness and common temperament structure, providing a powerful translational model for investigating paternal and maternal genetic influences on temperament. Read More

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Development of attention networks from childhood to young adulthood: A study of performance, intraindividual variability and cortical thickness.

Cortex 2021 Feb 13;138:138-151. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

PROMENTA Research Center, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; NORMENT, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Psychiatric Research, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Human cognitive development is manifold, with different functions developing at different speeds at different ages. Attention is an important domain of this cognitive development, and involves distinct developmental trajectories for separate functions, including conflict processing, selection of sensory input and alertness. In children, several studies using the Attention Network Test (ANT) have investigated the development of three attentional networks that carry out the functions of executive control, orienting and alerting. Read More

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February 2021

Turning to the negative: attention allocation to emotional faces in adolescents with dysregulation profile-an event-related potential study.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2021 Mar 10;128(3):381-392. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

LWL-University Hospital for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Hamm, Germany.

Patients with irritability, temper outbursts, hyperactivity and mood swings often meet the dysregulation profile (DP) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) or the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which have been investigated over the past few decades. While the DP has emerged as a transdiagnostic marker with a negative impact on therapeutic outcome and psychosocial functioning, little is known about its underlying mechanisms such as attention and emotion regulation processes. In this study, we tested whether adolescent psychiatric patients (n = 27) with the SDQ-DP show impaired emotional face processing for task-irrelevant stimuli compared to psychiatric patients without the SDQ-DP (n = 30) and non-clinical adolescents (n = 21). Read More

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Rethinking attention in time: Expectancy violations reconcile contradictory developmental evidence.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Jun 15;206:105070. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Cognition, Development and Educational Psychology, University of Barcelona, 08035 Barcelona, Spain; Institute of Neurosciences, University of Barcelona, 08035 Barcelona, Spain; Cognition and Brain Plasticity Unit, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL), 08908 L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, Spain.

Temporal expectations critically influence perception and action. Previous research reports contradictory results in children's ability to endogenously orient attention in time as well as the developmental course. To reconcile this seemingly conflicting evidence, we put forward the hypothesis that expectancy violations-through the use of invalid trials-are the source of the mixed evidence reported in the literature. Read More

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Impaired inhibition of return during free-viewing behaviour in patients with schizophrenia.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 5;11(1):3237. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Pathology of Mental Diseases, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Ogawa-Higashi 4-1-1, Kodaira, Tokyo, 187-8553, Japan.

Schizophrenia affects various aspects of cognitive and behavioural functioning. Eye movement abnormalities are commonly observed in patients with schizophrenia (SZs). Here we examined whether such abnormalities reflect an anomaly in inhibition of return (IOR), the mechanism that inhibits orienting to previously fixated or attended locations. Read More

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February 2021

Emotional vs. Neutral Face Exploration and Habituation: An Eye-Tracking Study of Preschoolers With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2020 13;11:568997. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Psychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Diminished orienting to social stimuli, and particularly to faces, is a core feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Impaired face processing has been linked to atypical attention processes that trigger a cascade of pathological development contributing to impaired social communication. The aim of the present study is to explore the processing of emotional and neutral faces using an eye-tracking paradigm (the emotional faces task) with a group of 24 children with ASD aged 6 and under and a group of 22 age-matched typically developing (TD) children. Read More

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January 2021

Longitudinal touchscreen use across early development is associated with faster exogenous and reduced endogenous attention control.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 26;11(1):2205. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Psychological Sciences, Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK.

Childhood screen time is associated with both attentional difficulties (for television viewing) and benefits (in action video gamers), but few studies have investigated today's pervasive touchscreen devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets), which combine salient features, interactive content, and accessibility from toddlerhood (a peak period of cognitive development). Read More

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January 2021

Superior Detection of Faces in Male Infants at 2 Months.

Child Dev 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

University of Miami.

Females generally attend more to social information than males; however, little is known about the early development of these sex differences. With eye tracking, 2-month olds' (N = 101; 44 females) social orienting to faces was measured within four-item image arrays. Infants were more likely to detect human faces compared to objects, suggesting a functional face detection system. Read More

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January 2021

Prenatal maternal psychological distress and fetal developmental trajectories: associations with infant temperament.

Dev Psychopathol 2020 12;32(5):1685-1695

Department of Psychology, Chapman University, Orange, CA, USA.

Associations between prenatal maternal psychological distress and offspring developmental outcomes are well documented, yet relatively little research has examined links between maternal distress and development in utero, prior to postpartum influences. Fetal heart rate (FHR) parameters are established indices of central and autonomic nervous system maturation and function which demonstrate continuity with postnatal outcomes. This prospective, longitudinal study of 149 maternal-fetal pairs evaluated associations between prenatal maternal distress, FHR parameters, and dimensions of infant temperament. Read More

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December 2020

Reasons for disagreement between proxy-report and self-report rating of symptoms in children receiving cancer therapies.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children, Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 0A4, Canada.

Purpose: To qualitatively describe reasons for disagreement in ratings of bothersome symptoms between child self-report and parent proxy-report.

Methods: We enrolled child and parent dyads, who understood English and where children (4-18 years of age) were diagnosed with cancer or were hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. Each child and parent separately reported symptoms using self-report or proxy-report Symptom Screening in Pediatrics Tool (SSPedi). Read More

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January 2021

Black American Maternal Prenatal Choline, Offspring Gestational Age at Birth, and Developmental Predisposition to Mental Illness.

Schizophr Bull 2020 Nov 13. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

Black Americans have increased risk for schizophrenia and other mental illnesses with prenatal origins. Prenatal choline promotes infant brain development and behavioral outcomes, but choline has not been specifically assessed in Black Americans. Pregnant women (N = 183, N = 25 Black Americans) enrolled in a study of prenatal stressors and interactions with prenatal choline. Read More

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November 2020

Children's automatic evaluation of self-generated actions is different from adults.

Dev Sci 2020 Oct 8:e13045. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Cap Lab, Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology, Ghent University, 9000, Gent, Belgium.

Performance monitoring (PM) is central to learning and decision-making. It allows individuals to swiftly detect deviations between actions and intentions, such as response errors, and adapt behavior accordingly. Previous research showed that in adult participants, error monitoring is associated with two distinct and robust behavioral effects. Read More

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October 2020

The rise of languaging.

Biosystems 2020 Dec 15;198:104264. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.

In this paper, we turn to languaging, defined here as activity in which wordings play a part. On such a view, while activity is paramount, people also orient to acts of vocalization as wordings. These physical wordings can be used as tools that shape attending, with recourse to neither mental representations nor symbols that store and transmit information. Read More

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December 2020

Associations between individual variations in visual attention at 9 months and behavioral competencies at 18 months in rural Malawi.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(10):e0239613. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Infant Cognition Laboratory, Center for Child Health Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

Theoretical and empirical considerations suggest that individual differences in infant visual attention correlate with variations in cognitive skills later in childhood. Here we tested this hypothesis in infants from rural Malawi (n = 198-377, depending on analysis), who were assessed with eye tracking tests of visual orienting, anticipatory looks, and attention to faces at 9 months, and more conventional tests of cognitive control (A-not-B), motor, language, and socioemotional development at 18 months. The results showed no associations between measures of infant attention at 9 months and cognitive skills at 18 months, either in analyses linking infant visual orienting with broad cognitive outcomes or analyses linking specific constructs between the two time points (i. Read More

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November 2020

[Trans-Identity in Minors: Basic Ethical Principles for Individual Decision-Making in Healthcare].

Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr 2020 Sep;69(6):517-523

Institut für Ethik und Geschichte der Medizin Universitätsmedizin Göttingen Humboldtallee 36 37073 Göttingen Deutschland Institut für Ethik und Geschichte der Medizin.

The treatment of minors with gender incongruence has been the subject of controversial discussion for some time. In 2020, the German Ethics Council adopted the ad-hoc recommendation "Trans-identity in children and adolescents: Therapeutic Controversies - Ethical Orientations" with the aim of sensitising to the relevant ethically problematic aspects and of setting out orienting guidelines for medical and psychotherapeutic support and treatment. According to the Ethics Council, every person has the constitutional right to lead a life in accordance with one's own gender identity and to be respected in this identity. Read More

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September 2020

Trajectories of Mismatch Negativity and P3a Amplitude Development From Ages 9 to 16 Years in Children With Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 12 25;5(12):1085-1094. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

School of Psychology and Counselling, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a amplitude reductions are robust abnormalities of sensory information processing in schizophrenia, but they are variably present in different profiles of risk (family history vs. clinical high risk) for the disorder. This study aimed to determine whether these abnormalities characterize children presenting replicated risk factors for schizophrenia, using longitudinal assessment over the ages of 9-16 years in children with multiple replicated antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz) and with family history of schizophrenia (FHx), relative to typically developing (TD) peers. Read More

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December 2020

Delayed gaze shifts away from others' eyes in children and adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jan 11;278:280-287. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm Health Care Services, Region Stockholm, CAP Research Centre, Gävlegatan 22, SE-113 30 Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is linked to atypical attention to other's eyes. Empirical literature about this phenomenon in childhood and adolescence is scarce. Previous studies in adults have suggested that SAD may be characterized by either rapid avoidance of eye contact, or by impaired shifting of attention away from eyes once eye contact has been established. Read More

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January 2021

Family management ofchildren who experience sickle cell disease: a qualitative study.

Rev Bras Enferm 2020 21;73(suppl 4):e20190521. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei. Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Objective: to know the family management experience of children with sickle cell disease in the light of the Family Management Style Framework.

Methods: a qualitative case study carried out between September/2015 and July/2016 with 12 members of eight families registered in a blood center in Minas Gerais. The semi-structured interviews were recorded, and the data were analyzed and interpreted by the hybrid model thematic analysis. Read More

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September 2020

Developing attention in typical children related to disabilities.

Handb Clin Neurol 2020 ;173:215-223

Department of Psychiatry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

We define attention by three basic functions. The first is obtaining and maintaining the alert state. The second is orienting overtly or covertly to sensory stimuli. Read More

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January 2020

The longitudinal associations between temperament and sleep during the first year of life.

Infant Behav Dev 2020 11 18;61:101485. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku; Centre for Population Health Research, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Department of Child Psychiatry, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Finland.

Temperament and sleep in infants are related but also distinct concepts. The longitudinal effects of temperament on sleep in infancy remain unclear, although this information is potentially important for the prevention and treatment of early sleep problems. We examined how various temperament features influence sleep development during the first year of life in a large birth cohort. Read More

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November 2020

Foundations of attention sharing: Orienting and responding to attention in term and preterm 5-month-old infants.

Infant Behav Dev 2020 11 11;61:101466. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Institute for Fiscal Studies, London, UK; UNICEF, New York, NY, USA.

Attention is the gateway to perceptual, cognitive, and socioemotional development in humans. We observed 104 5-month-old term and preterm infants and their mothers in social interactions to address three questions about the role of maturation in orienting and responding to attention. We used a fine-grained coding system to allow parallel comparisons across infant and maternal orienting, and sequential analysis to evaluate infant and maternal responding to attention. Read More

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November 2020

Orienting child- and family-centered care toward equity.

J Child Health Care 2020 Aug 27:1367493520953354. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

School of Nursing, 8166The University of British Columbia, Canada.

Child- and family-centered care (CFCC) is being increasingly adopted internationally as a fundamental philosophical approach to the design, delivery, and evaluation of children's services in diverse primary and acute health care contexts. CFCC has yet to be explored in the context of families and children whose health and health care is likely to be compromised by multifaceted social and structural factors, including racialization, material deprivation, and historically entrenched power imbalances. To date, an equity orientation for CFCC has not been examined or developed. Read More

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Visual Attentional Training Improves Reading Capabilities in Children with Dyslexia: An Eye Tracker Study During a Reading Task.

Brain Sci 2020 Aug 15;10(8). Epub 2020 Aug 15.

UMR 7114 MoDyCo, CNRS-Université Paris Nanterre, 92000 Nanterre, France.

Dyslexia is a specific disorder in reading abilities. The aim of this study was to explore whether a short visual attentional training could improve reading capabilities in children with reading disorders by changing their oculomotor characteristics. Two groups (G1 and G2) of 25 children with reading disabilities and who are matched in IQ (intelligence quotient), sex, and age participated in the study. Read More

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Autism Adversely Affects Auditory Joint Engagement During Parent-toddler Interactions.

Autism Res 2021 02 18;14(2):301-314. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

The A.J. Drexel Autism Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

This study documents the early adverse effects of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on auditory joint engagement-the sharing of sounds during interactions. A total of 141 toddlers (49 typically developing [TD], 46 with ASD, and 46 with non-ASD developmental disorders [DD]; average age 22.6 months) were observed during a semi-naturalistic play session with a parent. Read More

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February 2021

A preliminary study on functional activation and connectivity during frustration in youths with bipolar disorder.

Bipolar Disord 2020 Aug 13. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Yale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Objectives: Frustration is associated with impaired attention, heightened arousal, and greater unhappiness in youths with bipolar disorder (BD) vs healthy volunteers (HV). Little is known about functional activation and connectivity in the brain of BD youths in response to frustration. This exploratory study compared BD youths and HV on attentional abilities, self-reported affect, and functional activation and connectivity during a frustrating attention task. Read More

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Rationale, design, and methods of the Autism Centers of Excellence (ACE) network Study of Oxytocin in Autism to improve Reciprocal Social Behaviors (SOARS-B).

Contemp Clin Trials 2020 Nov 8;98:106103. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Duke Center for Autism and Brain Development, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States of America.

Objective: To describe the rationale, design, and methods of the Autism Centers of Excellence (ACE) network Study of Oxytocin in Autism to improve Reciprocal Social Behaviors (SOARS-B).

Method: This phase 2 clinical trial was designed to evaluate the use of intranasal oxytocin treatment to improve social difficulties in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In total, 290 participants ages 3 to 17 years with a DSM-5 diagnosis of ASD were enrolled to receive 24 weeks of treatment with either oxytocin or a matched placebo at one of seven collaborating sites. Read More

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November 2020