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Shattered thyroid gland from blunt neck trauma in a child: A case report.

Nelson H Bansil

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Jun 8;49:163-165. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital of Orange County, Orange, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Thyroid gland rupture in a child secondary to blunt trauma is an extremely rare occurrence. The number of published cases of thyroid gland injuries in children is very limited in the research literature. A case report of shattered thyroid gland in a child is presented. Read More

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US estimates for dog bite injuries presenting to emergency departments.

S Ramgopal M L Macy

Public Health 2021 Jun 9;196:1-3. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Emergency Medicine, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; Mary Ann & J. Milburn Smith Child Health Outcomes, Research, and Evaluation Center, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Objectives: Dog bites are a frequent source of injury requiring emergency department (ED) management. We sought to evaluate the longitudinal burden of dog bites presenting to US EDs.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study of a complex survey. Read More

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Epidemiological feature, viral shedding, and antibody seroconversion among asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers and symptomatic/presymptomatic COVID-19 patients.

J Infect Public Health 2021 May 27;14(7):845-851. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Epidemiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address:

Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is pandemic. However, data concerning the epidemiological features, viral shedding, and antibody dynamics between asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers and COVID-19 patients remain controversial.

Methods: We enrolled 193 SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects in Ningbo and Zhoushan, Zhejiang, China, from January 21 to March 6, 2020. Read More

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"A good mother": Impact of motherhood identity on women's substance use and engagement in treatment across the lifespan.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 14;130:108474. Epub 2021 May 14.

Yale School of Medicine AIDS Program, New Haven, CT, United States of America; Yale School of Public Health, Chronic Disease Epidemiology, New Haven, CT, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Women are underrepresented in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Interpersonal and structural factors affect women's access to SUD treatment, but limited research evaluates how motherhood is a potential barrier and facilitator to engagement in SUD treatment. We focus on women from young to middle adulthood, and capture women's identities as mothers, caretakers, and grandmothers, outside of pregnancy and the postpartum period. Read More

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Effectiveness of behaviour change techniques used in hand hygiene interventions targeting older children - A systematic review.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 31;281:114090. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, Bloomsbury, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.

Background: Promoting good hand hygiene in older children is an important measure to reduce the burden of common diseases such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections. The evidence around what works to change this behaviour, however, is unclear.

Objectives: To aid future intervention design and effective use of resources, this review aims to identify the individual components used in hand hygiene interventions and assesses their contribution to intended behavioural change. Read More

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Implications of household tobacco and alcohol use on child health and women's welfare in six low and middle-income countries: An analysis from a gender perspective.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jun 5;281:114102. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Centre for Global Health Research, Unity Health Toronto, University of Toronto, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 1W8, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: To study the implications of household tobacco and alcohol use on child health and women's welfare using a gender lens in Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, and Nigeria with varied geographical and cultural characteristics in the pattern of tobacco and alcohol use.

Methods: We identified child health and women's welfare outcomes that may be impacted by tobacco and alcohol use, with a focus on the crowding-out effects on household resource allocation. For child health indicators, we focussed on engagement in preventative care, nutrition, and responses to acute illness. Read More

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Assessment of dust trace elements in an e-waste recycling area and related children's health risks.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 31;791:148154. Epub 2021 May 31.

Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou 511443, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Children from Guiyu, an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling town, are exposed to trace elements via dust. However, the source, pathways, and influence factors of house dust and the association of house dust with child inflammation in an e-waste recycling area are not well-known. This study investigated dust trace elements in children's living environment and the associations of house dust trace elements with influence factors and child inflammation. Read More

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Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns associated with general psychopathology in children.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 May 28;140:214-220. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/ Psychology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Molecular Epidemiology, Department of Biomedical Data Sciences, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Psychiatric symptoms are interrelated and found to be largely captured by a general psychopathology factor (GPF). Although epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation (DNAm), have been linked to individual psychiatric outcomes, associations with GPF remain unclear. Using data from 440 children aged 10 years participating in the Generation R Study, we examined the associations of DNAm with both general and specific (internalizing, externalizing) factors of psychopathology. Read More

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Mental health mediators of subjective cognitive concerns among World Trade Center responders.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jun 2;140:187-196. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, World Trade Center Health Program General Responder Data Center, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Decline in cognitive functioning among rescue and recovery workers who responded in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) attacks is of emerging interest. Responders are vulnerable to cognitive decline from exposure to airborne toxins present at the WTC site, as well as from WTC-related mental and physical health conditions. To better understand the relationship between occupational WTC exposure, mental health, physical health and subjective cognitive functioning, we examined the mediating role of health status in the association between exposure and subjective cognitive concerns in a multi-site, longitudinal investigation of the WTC General Responder cohort (n = 16,380 responders; n = 58,575 visits) for the period 2002-2015. Read More

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A record of fallout Pu and Pu at World Heritage Bathurst Harbour, Tasmania, Australia.

J Environ Radioact 2021 Jun 9;237:106679. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

ANSTO, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, New South Wales, 2234, Australia. Electronic address:

This study presents the first measurements of anthropogenic plutonium (Pu and Pu) concentrations and atom ratios (Pu/Pu) for Tasmania, in sediment collected from Bathurst Harbour, in the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area, Australia. The weighted mean Pu/Pu atom ratio measured at this site was 0.172 ± 0. Read More

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Differential predictors of birth-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in mothers and fathers - A longitudinal cohort study.

J Affect Disord 2021 May 27;292:121-130. Epub 2021 May 27.

Institute and Outpatient Clinics of Occupational and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine of the Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Medical School Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Child Health and Development, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence on risk factors of birth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in mothers is increasing, whereas fathers are less examined. This study aims to determine differential predictors of PTSD symptoms in mothers and fathers.

Methods: Data derive from the DREAM study, including 1,146 mothers and 828 fathers. Read More

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Depressive symptom trajectories and their relation to body mass index in women of child-bearing age: The Korea Nurses' Health Study.

J Affect Disord 2021 May 27;292:114-120. Epub 2021 May 27.

College of Nursing, Ewha Womans University, 52, Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03760, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: This study investigated the sub-trajectory groups of depressive symptoms in women of child-bearing age and the factors impacting latent class membership. Moreover, differences in body mass index (BMI) as an outcome variable were identified among the sub-trajectory groups.

Methods: Data from the Korea Nurses' Health Study (KNHS) were analyzed, comprising that from 6,918 participants who filled out surveys during modules 1, 5, and 7. Read More

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Randomized trial of high-dose pyridoxine in combination with standard hormonal therapy in West syndrome.

Seizure 2021 May 29;91:75-80. Epub 2021 May 29.

Pediatric Neurology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Objective: To determine whether high-dose, oral pyridoxine in combination with standard adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy has superior effectiveness than ACTH therapy alone in increasing cessation of epileptic spasms for children with West syndrome.

Methods: This study was an open-label, randomized controlled trial with masked endpoint assessments. Eligible children with West syndrome, age ranged 3-18 months, were randomized into the intervention (n = 43) and the standard arm (n = 37) of therapy. Read More

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Health of African refugee children outside Africa: A scoping review.

J Pediatr Nurs 2021 Jun 9;61:199-206. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Educational Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G5, Canada. Electronic address:

Problem: Africa is the largest source continent of refugee children. However, we found no published synthesis of the literature on the health of African refugee children outside Africa. Conducting a review of the literature on this particular population will help illuminate the particular contextual health issues faced by African child refugees who live outside Africa. Read More

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Evaluation of an in-hospital recreation room for hospitalised children and their families.

J Pediatr Nurs 2021 Jun 9;61:191-198. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Sydney, Kensington, New South Wales 2031, Australia; Kids Cancer Centre, Sydney Children's Hospital, High Street, Randwick, New South Wales 2031, Australia.

Objective: Many children's hospitals have established 'recreation rooms' to help reduce distress among hospitalised children and families. We investigated recreation rooms in two Australian children's hospitals to determine: 1) families' first use of the room (including discovery and delays); 2) characteristics of families accessing the room; 3) parents' positive and negative associations with the room; and 4) parents' most and least valued aspects of the room.

Method: Using a concurrent mixed methods design, parents completed questionnaires (Restorative Experiences Tool, Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory) and an optional interview. Read More

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When a house is never a home: Housing instability among youth affected by parental drug abuse.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Jun 9;118:105131. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21215, USA.

Background: The negative consequences of parental substance abuse are significant and longstanding for children. Among other risks, these youth are more likely to experience housing instability. The most common predictor of a child not living with their biological parent is parental substance use. Read More

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Hirschsprung disease with Edward syndrome: A rare association: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Jun 9;84:106084. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of GI and General Surgery, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal. Electronic address:

Introduction And Importance: Edward's syndrome (ES) occurs as a result of trisomy of chromosome 18 and is associated with multisystem congenital anomalies. The association of ES with various gastrointestinal malformations but Hirschsprung disease (HD) is well documented.

Case Presentation: A female infant on her 5th day of life presented with episodes of bilious vomiting along with abdominal distension and no passage of stool. Read More

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Subacute duodenal obstruction caused by Common Celiaco-Mesenteric Trunk anomaly-A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 May 26;83:106043. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of General Surgery, Grant Government Medical College and Sir J&J Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, India.

Introduction And Importance: The origin of the mesenteric vasculature is highly variable. One such variation is the common celiaco-mesenteric trunk (CMT). To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of subacute duodenal obstruction caused by common CMT. Read More

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Improving Vaccination for Young Children (IVY): A Stepped-Wedge Cluster Randomized Trial.

Acad Pediatr 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, 1211 Medical Center Dr, Nashville, TN 37232, Nashville, Tennessee, United States. Electronic address:

Background: High childhood vaccination rates are critical for public health. We hypothesized that implementation of a vaccine education and quality improvement (QI) program, Improving Vaccinations for Young Children (IVY), would improve childhood vaccine rates.

Methods: Eight pediatric practices (3 academic-based, 5 community-based) were randomized to implement IVY within a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial (SWCRT) in middle Tennessee. Read More

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Listening effort and fatigue in native and non-native primary school children.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Jun 9;210:105203. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background noise makes listening effortful and may lead to fatigue. This may compromise classroom learning, especially for children with a non-native background. In the current study, we used pupillometry to investigate listening effort and fatigue during listening comprehension under typical (0 dB signal-to-noise ratio [SNR]) and favorable (+10 dB SNR) listening conditions in 63 Swedish primary school children (7-9 years of age) performing a narrative speech-picture verification task. Read More

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A homozygous nonsense mutation early in exon 5 of BRCA2 is associated with very severe Fanconi anemia.

Eur J Med Genet 2021 Jun 9:104260. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pediatrics III, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45122 Essen, Germany; Department of Otorhinolaryngology & Head/Neck Surgery, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Heinrich Heine University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany. Electronic address:

Fanconi anemia (FA) due to biallelic mutations in the BRCA2 gene is very rare and associated with an extremely high risk of early-onset of aggressive childhood malignancies, predominantly brain tumors, leukemia, and nephroblastoma. Here, we present a consanguineous family with three affected children of the D1 subtype of FA and describe the clinical consequences of the earliest known biallelic nonsense/stop-gain germ-line mutation in BRCA2, exon 5 c.469A>T, that leads to a premature stop of translation, p. Read More

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Short-term and Long-term Psychological Impact and Quality of Life of Patients Undergoing Orthognathic Surgery.

Biomed J 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Background: Orthognathic Surgery (OGS) is a surgery for patients with dento-facial deformity but not all patients are satisfied with its outcome. The purpose of this study is to find out the short-term and long-term psychological impact and quality-of-life of OGS.

Methods: 77 participants receiving OGS and 32 age and gender-matched controls were enrolled. Read More

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Level of Maternal Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) F Antibodies in Hospitalized Children and Correlates of Protection.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Qatar; College of Health Sciences, Qatar University, Qatar. Electronic address:

Background: RSV is a major cause of lower respiratory infections among children, where no vaccine is available. The stabilized form of the fusion (F) protein, pre-F, is a leading vaccine candidate targeting different populations, including pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the magnitude and nature of RSV-directed maternal antibodies (matAbs) in hospitalized children with RSV infection. Read More

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Rationale and protocol for a cluster randomized, cross-over trial of recruitment methods of rural children in primary care clinics: A feasibility study of a pediatric weight control trial in the IDeA States Pediatric Clinical Trials Network.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Jun 9:106476. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Center for Children's Healthy Lifestyles & Nutrition, 610 E 22(nd) Street, Kansas City, MO 64109, United States.

A significant percentage of clinical trials fail due to poor recruitment. Despite this, few studies exist to evaluate clinical trial recruitment strategies using a randomized approach in any population, and none exist to test recruitment strategies for trials involving children or rural populations. For clinical trials focused on weight control, evaluating retention and dose are extremely important, as poor retention can lead to biased samples and existing research shows that dose (i. Read More

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Seroprevalence and SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactivity of endemic coronavirus OC43 and 229E antibodies in Finnish children and adults.

Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 9:108782. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Vaccine Development and Immunology/Vaccine Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Arvo Ylpön katu 34, FI-33520 Tampere, Finland. Electronic address:

Endemic human coronaviruses (hCoVs) are common causative agents of respiratory tract infections, affecting especially children. However, in the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, children are the least affected age-group. The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude of endemic hCoVs antibodies in Finnish children and adults, and pre-pandemic antibody cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Cardiac pathology and outcomes vary between Kawasaki disease and PIMS-TS.

Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 9;229:108780. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Rheumatology, Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, Liverpool L14 5AB, UK; Department of Women's & Children's Health, Life Course and Medical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK. Electronic address:

Overlapping clinical features promoted the discussion of whether Kawasaki disease (KD) and PIMS-TS share pathophysiological features and disease outcomes. Medical records from English patients with KD (2015-02/20, N = 27) and PIMS-TS (02/2020-21, N = 34) were accessed to extract information. Children with PIMS-TS were older and more frequently of minority ethnicity background. Read More

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Tai Chi for health and well-being: A bibliometric analysis of published clinical studies between 2010 and 2020.

Complement Ther Med 2021 Jun 9:102748. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

NICM Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia.

The objective of this bibliometric review was to identify the volume, breadth, and characteristics of clinical studies evaluating Tai Chi published between January 2010 and January 2020. Five English and four Chinese language databases were searched. Following independent screening, 1018 eligible publications representing 987 studies were identified, which was a three-fold increase from the previous decade. Read More

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August Book Forum: We Hear You.

Julie A Chilton

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

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Acupuncture as an adjunctive treatment for pain in hospitalized children with sickle cell disease.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pediatrics, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington DC; Division of Hematology, Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Children's National Hospital, Washington DC. Electronic address:

Context: Acute episodes of pain associated with sickle cell disease (SCD) account for over 100,000 hospitalizations and expenses of nearly 1 billion dollars annually in the United States. New treatment approaches are needed as the current opioid based therapy is often inadequate in controlling pain, resulting in prolonged inpatient stays and high rates of readmission.

Objectives: To evaluate acceptability of acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy and explore the impact of acupuncture on pain related outcomes in a population of youth with SCD hospitalized for management of acute pain. Read More

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Termination of Pregnancy Services in Irish General Practice from January 2019 to June 2019.

Contraception 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Broadlane Family Practice, 72 Great William O'Brien St, Blackpool, Cork, T23 EDX9.

Objective: To describe how a general-practitioner-delivered community medical abortion service is provided in Ireland, including a description of the unique model of care delivered within the framework of new legislation. To investigate the characteristics and contraceptive choices of women attending in the first six months of the service.

Study Design: Twenty-seven general practitioners conducted a retrospective chart review. Read More

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