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A machine learning approach to inform developmental milestone achievement for children with autism.

JMIR Med Inform 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Ubicomp Lab, Department of Computer Science, Marquette University, 1422 W Kilbourn Ave102, Milwaukee, US.

Background: Care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be challenging for families and medical care systems. This is especially true in Low-and-Middle-Income-countries (LMIC) like Bangladesh. To improve family-practitioner communication and developmental monitoring of children with ASD, [spell out] (mCARE) was developed. Read More

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Effects of a one-year physical activity intervention on fundamental movement skills of boys with severe intellectual disabilities.

Res Dev Disabil 2021 May 10;114:103980. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Physical Education and Sport Training, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China. Electronic address:

Background: Little is known about the effectiveness of using physical activity-based interventions to improve fundamental movement skills (FMS) of children with severe intellectual disabilities (ID).

Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a one-year physical activity intervention on FMS among boys with severe ID.

Methods And Procedures: Forty-two boys with severe ID (M= 9. Read More

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Predicting outcome of patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures after diagnosis in an epilepsy monitoring unit.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 10;120:108004. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; Psychology, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: To identify predictors of Psychogenic NonEpileptic Seizure (PNES) improvement and anti-seizure medication (ASM) discontinuation in patients with PNES only.

Methods: This is a retrospective study of a consecutively enrolled cohort of 271 patients diagnosed with PNES by video-EEG (vEEG) telemetry in our Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU) between May 2000 and February 2010. Patients with any possibility of past or present comorbid epilepsy based on clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging, or less than one year of follow-up after discharge were excluded. Read More

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Effectiveness of family-based eHealth interventions in cardiovascular disease risk reduction: A systematic review.

Prev Med 2021 May 10:106608. Epub 2021 May 10.

Integrated Care Academy, University of Suffolk, Ipswich, UK. Electronic address:

Family-based eHealth interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk have potential as a primary prevention strategy to improve the health of parents and their children. This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of such interventions in modifying parent and child/adolescent risk factors such as body mass index, physical activity, dietary intakes and alcohol use. Five electronic databases were searched up to April 2020. Read More

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Cerebral Visual Impairment Characterized by Abnormal Visual Orienting Behavior With Preserved Visual Cortical Activation.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 May;62(6):15

University of Washington, Department of Ophthalmology, Seattle, Washington, United States.

Purpose: Children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI) often have abnormal visual orienting behaviors due to impaired or damaged visual cortex. Alternatively, visual-cortical function is intact but visual information is not transformed downstream into an appropriate oculomotor output (visuomotor dysfunction). We examined visual, anatomic, and oculomotor assessments to distinguish visuomotor dysfunction from CVI associated with severely reduced visual-cortical response. Read More

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Multisystemic Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Associated With SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Case Series Report in a Pediatric Center in Mexico.

J Med Cases 2020 Dec 21;11(12):375-378. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Evidence-Based Medicine Department, Hospital Pediatrico de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Mexico.

We report four cases of patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, of which three patients presented characteristics of Kawasaki disease (KD). All presented fever of more than 3 days, and gastrointestinal involvement, significant increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), polymorphonuclear cells, procalcitonin, D-dimer, fibrinogen and troponin, lymphopenia and hypoalbuminemia. Myocardial involvement was observed in two patients. Read More

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December 2020

Microbiota-host communications: Bacterial extracellular vesicles as a common language.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 13;17(5):e1009508. Epub 2021 May 13.

Section on Intercellular Interaction, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

Both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain components from their mother cells. Bacterial EVs are similar in size to mammalian-derived EVs and are thought to mediate bacteria-host communications by transporting diverse bioactive molecules including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and metabolites. Bacterial EVs have been implicated in bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions, promoting health or causing various pathologies. Read More

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Teenage pregnancy as a risk factor for placental abruption: Findings from the prospective Japan environment and children's study.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251428. Epub 2021 May 13.

Fukushima Regional Center for the Japan Environmental and Children's Study, Fukushima, Japan.

Objective: Placental abruption is a significant obstetric complication that affects both maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. The present study examined the effect of maternal age on the incidence of placental abruption.

Methods: We used data of singleton pregnancies from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, which was a prospective birth cohort study conducted between January 2011 and March 2014 across 15 regional centers in Japan. Read More

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The effect of remuneration schedule on data completion and retention in the pregnancy eating attributes study (PEAS).

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251533. Epub 2021 May 13.

Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Social and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

Maximizing data completion and study retention is essential in population research. This study examined the effect of remuneration schedule and data collection modality on data completion and retention in the Pregnancy Eating Attributes Study cohort. Participants (n = 458) completed online surveys and attended six in-person study visits. Read More

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Long-term changes in body composition and their relationships with cardiometabolic risk factors: A population-based cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251486. Epub 2021 May 13.

Child Health Big Data Research Center, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, China.

The aim of the present study was to classify the latent body fat trajectories of Chinese adults and their relationships with cardiometabolic risk factors. Data were obtained from the China Health Nutrition Survey for 3,013 participants, who underwent six follow-up visits between 1993 and 2009. Skinfold thickness and other anthropometric indicators were used to estimate body composition. Read More

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Serum cytokine patterns are modulated in infants fed formula with probiotics or milk fat globule membranes: A randomized controlled trial.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251293. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Proteins and lipids of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and probiotics are immunomodulatory. We hypothesized that Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei strain F19 (F19) would augment vaccine antibody and T helper 1 type immune responses whereas MFGM would produce an immune response closer to that of breastfed (BF) infants. Read More

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Modeling non-Gaussian data analysis on determinants of underweight among under five children in rural Ethiopia: Ethiopian demographic and health survey 2016 evidences.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251239. Epub 2021 May 13.

Statistics Department, Under Natural and Computational Science College, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Childhood under-nutrition is a major global health problem. Although the rate of under-nutrition in Ethiopia has declined in the last decade, but it still remains being the major causes of morbidity and mortality of children under-five years. The problem is even worse in rural areas. Read More

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Characteristics of Office-based Physician Visits, 2018.

NCHS Data Brief 2021 May(408):1-8

In 2018, 85% of adults and 96% of children in the United States had a usual place to receive health care (1,2). Most children and adults listed a doctor's office as the usual place they received care (1,2). In 2018, an estimated 860. Read More

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Predictors of hearing technology use in children.

Int J Audiol 2021 May 13:1-8. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Objective: To identify and describe predictors of daily hearing technology (HT) use in children.

Design: Retrospective review of clinical records. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify predictors. Read More

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Robot-Mediated Interventions for Teaching Children with ASD a New Intraverbal Skill.

Assist Technol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Applied Behavior Analysis Autism Clinic, Oakland University.

Socially assistive robots (SAR) have the potential to impact therapies for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) by supporting clinicians in increasing learning opportunities presented to individuals. Recent research on robot-mediated intervention (RMI) delivery has predominantly addressed social deficits in ASD with positive outcomes. Current literature has minimal focus on teaching children with ASD a skill not known apriori by the individual. Read More

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Evaluation of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures of Positive Psychosocial Constructs in Children and Adolescent/Young Adults with Cancer: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.

Children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer are a vulnerable population in whom improvements in psycho-oncology care would be valuable. We previously published a scoping review exploring what is known about positive psychological constructs in this population. A key finding was that evidence-based patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were needed to standardize psycho-oncology research. Read More

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Antipsychotic treatment for youth in foster care: Perspectives on improving youths' experiences in providing informed consent.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(2):258-270

Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research and School of Social Work, Rutgers University.

The disproportionate prescribing of high-risk antipsychotic medication for youth in foster care is a significant social problem across the U.S. This qualitative study examined stakeholder perceptions of prescribing, being prescribed, or overseeing prescriptions for youth in foster care. Read More

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January 2021

"Web-based, second-best togetherness": Psychosocial group intervention with children of Holocaust survivors during COVID-19.

Irit V Felsen

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(2):171-180

Department of Psychology, Columbia University.

Evidence from multiple samples of trauma-exposed populations across the globe suggests that intergenerational trauma constitutes a biopsychological risk factor which manifests itself throughout the life cycle of offspring of trauma survivors. Prior empirical studies have shown that adult children of Holocaust survivors (OHS, also referred to in select quotes as 2G for "Second Generation") are vulnerable to life-threatening situations. This study aimed to examine the reactions of OHS to the COVID-19 pandemic, which posed a serious threat to the lives of many, in particular to older adults. Read More

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January 2021

Make up or break up? Charting the well-being of low-income help-seeking couples through the breakup process.

J Fam Psychol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Miami.

Divorce or separation concerns have typically been identified as a common reason why couples seek treatment for their relationship. However, to our knowledge, no study has investigated the breakup process in a help-seeking sample. Using a low-income sample of individuals who broke up with their partner during a large randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of two web-based relationship education programs (NBroke up = 286), and a matched sample of individuals who did not break up (NMatched = 286; NTotal = 572), the current study sought to: (a) examine changes in individual functioning and co-parenting among those who broke up; (b) examine post-breakup differences in changes between those who did and did not break up; and (c) identify moderators of any differential post-breakup functioning between those who did and did not break up. Read More

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Can laboratory findings predict pulmonary involvement in children with COVID-19 infection?

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Health Sciences Dr. Behçet Uz Child Disease and Pediatric Surgery Training and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey.

Background: Studies investigating clinical and imaging findings of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and predictors for lung injury mostly focus on adults. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of laboratory findings in predicting lung involvement in children with COVID-19.

Methods: Children with COVID-19 confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction or COVID-19 IgM and who underwent chest computed tomography (CT) scans were reviewed retrospectively. Read More

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A two-step, test-guided Mokken scale analysis, for nonclustered and clustered data.

Qual Life Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Research Institute of Child Development and Education, University of Amsterdam, P. O. Box 15776, 1001 NG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Mokken scale analysis (MSA) is an attractive scaling procedure for ordinal data. MSA is frequently used in health-related quality of life research. Two of MSA's prime features are the scalability coefficients and the automated item selection procedure (AISP). Read More

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Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging: normal values of spleen stiffness in healthy children.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pediatric Radiology, University Children's Hospital Geneva, 6 rue Willy Donzé, CH 1211, Genéve 14, Suisse.

Background: Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is a noninvasive ultrasound elastography technique for evaluating tissue stiffness. The association of liver and spleen stiffness provides additional information in the assessment of portal hypertension. The technique and normal values of spleen stiffness by point shear wave elastography (p-SWE) in pediatrics have not been well documented. Read More

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The Volume-Outcome Effect Calls for Centralization of Care in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: Results From a Large National Cancer Registry.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):811-815

1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado; 2Adult and Child Center for Health Outcomes Research, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA; 3Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA; 4Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA; 5Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; 6Department of Population and Data Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas, USA; 7Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, USA; 8Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Introduction: Using the National Cancer Database, we assessed the relationship between facility overall esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) case volume and survival.

Methods: We categorized facilities into volume quintiles based on annual EAC patient volume and performed a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression between facility patient volume and survival.

Results: In a cohort of 116,675 patients, facilities with higher vs lower (≥25 vs 1-4 cases) annual EAC patient volume demonstrated improved survival (adjusted hazard ratio: 0. Read More

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A Multicenter Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial of a Home-Based Exercise Program for Patients With Cirrhosis: The Strength Training Intervention (STRIVE).

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):717-722

1Department of Medicine, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA; 2Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA; 3Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 4Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Introduction: We developed the strength training intervention (STRIVE), a home-based exercise program targeting physical function in patients with cirrhosis. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of STRIVE.

Methods: Eligible were adult patients with cirrhosis at 3 sites. Read More

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A Pre-TACE Radiomics Model to Predict HCC Progression and Recurrence in Liver Transplantation. A Pilot Study on a Novel Biomarker.

Transplantation 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

1Multi-Organ Transplant Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Sinai Health System, Mount Sinai Hospital, Joseph & Wolf Lebovic Health Complex. Phone: + 1 (416) 586-8224. Ext 7804, Address: 600 University Avenue, 6th floor, office 6-200. M5G 1X5, Toronto, ON, Canada. 3Joint Department Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 4Genetics and Genome Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Despite Trans-Arterial Chemo Embolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a significant number of patients will develop progression on the liver transplant (LT) waiting list or disease recurrence post-LT. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of a pre-TACE radiomic model, an imaging-based tool to predict these adverse outcomes.

Methods: We analyzed the pre-TACE computed tomography images of patients waiting for a LT. Read More

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January 2021

Intra-articular silencing of periostin via nanoparticle-based siRNA ameliorates post-traumatic osteoarthritis in mice.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Musculoskeletal Research Center, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States.

Objective: Recent evidence delineates an emerging role of Periostin (Postn) in osteoarthritis (OA) as its expression subsequent to knee injury is detrimental to the articular cartilage. We hypothesize that intra-articular knockdown of Postn in a murine model of post-traumatic OA would ameliorate OA.

Methods: Post-traumatic OA was induced in 10-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (n=24) by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) and analyzed 8-week post-surgery. Read More

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Temporal trends in between and within-country inequalities in caesarean delivery in low- and middle-income countries: a Bayesian analysis.

BJOG 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute for Social Science Research, The University of Queensland, Indooroopilly, Queensland, 4068, Australia.

Objective: To provide updated information about between-country variations, temporal trends, and changes in inequalities within countries in caesarean delivery (CD) rates.

Design: Cross-sectional study of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) during 1990-2018 SETTING: 74 low- and middle-income countries POPULATION: Women 15-49 years of age who had live births in the last three years METHODS: Bayesian linear regression analysis was performed, and absolute differences were calculated MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Population-level CD by countries and socio-demographic characteristics of mothers over time.

Results: CD rates, based on the latest DHS rounds, varied substantially between the study countries, from 1. Read More

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Development of a Predictive Enrichment Marker for the Oral GH Secretagogue LUM-201 in Pediatric Growth Hormone Deficiency.

J Endocr Soc 2021 Jun 25;5(6):bvab030. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Lumos Pharma, Inc., 4200 Marathon Blvd., Suite 200, Austin, Texas 78756, USA.

Context: We hypothesize, based on the degree of residual hypothalamic-pituitary function, that some, but not all, children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) may have beneficial growth responses to the orally administered growth hormone (GH) secretagogue LUM-201.

Objective: To determine if pretreatment testing can identify predictive enrichment markers (PEM) for subjects with adequate residual function who are responsive to LUM-201.

Methods: We performed an analysis of a completed, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of LUM-201, a GH secretagogue receptor agonist, in which all randomized subjects had pretreatment testing. Read More

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Corroboration of Height Velocity Prediction Markers for rhGH With an Oral GH Secretagogue Treatment in Children With GHD.

J Endocr Soc 2021 Jun 25;5(6):bvab029. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Lumos Pharma, Inc., Austin, TX, USA.

Context: Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is approved for treatment of pediatric growth hormone deficiency (GHD), with greatest growth responses observed in those with severe GHD. Orally administered GH secretagogues (GHS) may be useful treatment in patients with moderate GHD. Distinguishing children with severe moderate GHD could identify children who would be better treated with rhGH or GHS. Read More

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