36,999 results match your criteria children autism


Theory of Mind in children and adolescents with Down syndrome.

Res Dev Disabil 2021 Apr 13;113:103945. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Rehabilitation and Special Education, University of Cologne, Herbert-Lewin-Str. 10, Köln, 50931, Germany. Electronic address:

Introduction: To date, the evidence regarding False Belief (FB) abilities in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) has been both sparse and contradictory. Our study is the first systematic investigation targeting the relation between FB, mental age (MA), syntactic abilities (SA) and verbal short-term memory (VSTM) in individuals with DS so far.

Method: 27 German-speaking children/adolescents with DS (aged 10;0-20;1 years) completed a location-change FB-task and four standardized measures assessing nonverbal intelligence & MA, VSTM, receptive and productive SA. Read More

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Long-term epilepsy control, motor function, cognition, sleep and quality of life in children with West syndrome.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Apr 2;173:106629. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Pediatric Neurology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India. Electronic address:

Purpose: To assess epilepsy, motor function, cognitive, sleep, and quality of life outcomes and their predictors in a follow-up cohort with West syndrome (WS) at ≥5 years of age.

Methods: Cross-sectional evaluation in a follow-up cohort of WS (aged 5-14 years), between July 2018 and December 2019, was performed at a tertiary-care referral center in Northern India. 164 children were assessed in-person for epilepsy severity, functional status (gross motor and hand function), social quotient, behavioral comorbidities, sleep problems, and quality of life (QoL) using Early Childhood Epilepsy Severity Scale, Gross Motor Function Classification System, Manual Ability Classification System, Vineland Social Maturity Scale, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders-5 criteria, Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and PedsQL-Epilepsy module respectively. Read More

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Beyond Baby Siblings-Expanding the Definition of "High-Risk Infants" in Autism Research.

Curr Psychiatry Rep 2021 Apr 16;23(6):34. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, 760 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Much of our understanding of early development in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comes from studies of children with a family history of autism. We reviewed the current literature on neurodevelopmental profiles and autism prevalence from other high-risk infant groups to expose gaps and inform next steps. We focused on infants with early medical risk (e. Read More

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Sleep Dysregulation and Daytime Electrodermal Patterns in Children With Autism: A Descriptive Study.

J Genet Psychol 2021 Apr 16:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA.

Sleep deficiency influences emotion and behavior regulation but the mechanisms of influence are poorly understood. Emotion, behavioral, and sleep theories highlight differences in autonomic function as a potential pathway of influence and research in typical populations draw links between sleep deficiency and autonomic dysregulation (e.g. Read More

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Comorbid chronic tic disorder and tourette syndrome in children requiring inpatient mental health treatment.

Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 16:13591045211007918. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

National and Specialist Acorn Lodge Inpatient Children's Unit, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, South London and the Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Objective: Children needing admission to an inpatient mental health unit often present with severe neuropsychiatric disorders characterised by complex psychopathology. We aimed to examine all admitted children with comorbid chronic tic disorder (CTD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) over a 10-year period and determine the clinical significance of these diagnoses.

Method: A retrospective, naturalistic study was conducted, comparing children with and without CTD/TS in terms of co-morbid diagnoses, medication use, access to education, aggression contributing to the admission, duration of admission, functional outcomes and satisfaction with treatment. Read More

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A neurogenetic analysis of female autism.

Brain 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

Females versus males are less frequently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and while understanding sex differences is critical to delineating the systems biology of the condition, female ASD is understudied. We integrated functional MRI and genetic data in a sex-balanced sample of ASD and typically developing youth (8-17 years old) to characterize female-specific pathways of ASD risk. Our primary objectives were to: (i) characterize female ASD (n = 45) brain response to human motion, relative to matched typically developing female youth (n = 45); and (ii) evaluate whether genetic data could provide further insight into the potential relevance of these brain functional differences. Read More

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A Protocol for the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder Structured in Machine Learning and Verbal Decision Analysis.

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 30;2021:1628959. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

University of Fortaleza (UNIFOR)-Graduate Program in Applied Informatics, Av. Washington Soares, 1321-Bl J Sl 30-60.811-905 Fortaleza, Brazil.

Autism Spectrum Disorder is a mental disorder that afflicts millions of people worldwide. It is estimated that one in 160 children has traces of autism, with five times the higher prevalence in boys. The protocols for detecting symptoms are diverse. Read More

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A Review on the Mechanism Between Different Factors and the Occurrence of Autism and ADHD.

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2021 9;14:393-403. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Medical Administration Department, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University/West China Women's and Children's Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

The incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders especially in children has been on the rise in recent decades, which is possibly caused by many different factors. In order to further explain this situation and arouse enough attention, this review will specifically elaborate genetic aspects and pathogenic hypothesis of these two kinds of neurodevelopmental diseases in children, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while analyzing the relationship between different environmental toxins and these two disorders. The effects of these pathogenic factors such as heavy metal lead, mercury, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their strong pathogenicity will be explained in detail through literature data retrieval and analysis. Read More

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Predicting ASD Diagnosis in Children with Synthetic and Image-based Eye Gaze Data.

Signal Process Image Commun 2021 May 16;94. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

University of California, Davis.

As early intervention is highly effective for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), it is imperative to make accurate diagnosis as early as possible. ASD has often been associated with atypical visual attention and eye gaze data can be collected at a very early age. An automatic screening tool based on eye gaze data that could identify ASD risk offers the opportunity for intervention before the full set of symptoms is present. Read More

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Moral obligations in conducting stem cell-based therapy trials for autism spectrum disorder.

J Med Ethics 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Research Compliance and Integrity Office, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Unregulated patient treatments and approved clinical trials have been conducted with haematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While the former direct-to-consumer practice is usually considered rogue and should be legally constrained, regulated clinical trials could also be ethically questionable. Here, we outline principal objections against these trials as they are currently conducted. Read More

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Project Rosetta: a childhood social, emotional, and behavioral developmental feature mapping.

J Biomed Semantics 2021 Apr 15;12(1). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Cognoa, Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Background: A wide array of existing instruments are commonly used to assess childhood behavior and development for the evaluation of social, emotional and behavioral disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety. Many of these instruments either focus on one diagnostic category or encompass a broad set of childhood behaviors. We analyze a wide range of standardized behavioral instruments and identify a comprehensive, structured semantic hierarchical grouping of child behavioral observational features. Read More

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Autism-associated synaptic vesicle transcripts are differentially expressed in maternal plasma exosomes of physiopathologic pregnancies.

J Transl Med 2021 Apr 15;19(1):154. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Sino-US Center of Translational Medicine for Development Disabilities, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Background: During intrauterine development, the formation and function of synaptic vesicles (SVs) are thought to be fundamental conditions essential for normal development of the brain. Lacking advanced technology during the intrauterine period, such as longitudinal real-time monitoring of the SV-associated transcripts (SVATs), which include six pairs of lncRNA-mRNA, has limited acquisition of the dynamic gene expression profile (GEP) of SVATs. We previously reported the differential expression of SVATs in the peripheral blood of autistic children. Read More

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The effect of early autism intervention on parental sense of efficacy in a randomized trial depends on the initial level of parent stress.

Autism 2021 Apr 16:13623613211005613. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

University of California, Davis, USA.

Lay Abstract: This is a study of the secondary effects of interventions for young children with autism on their parents. Specifically, we were interested in the impact on parent's sense of efficacy, or how confident and competent a parent feels about themselves as a parent. We tested three ideas: (1) that the style of the intervention, whether it was more or less structured and whether the parent had a more or less formal role, would impact a parent's sense of efficacy; (2) that the intensity of the intervention, how many hours per week the intervention was delivered, would impact parental efficacy; and (3) that the parent's level of stress prior to intervention would impact how intensity and style effected efficacy. Read More

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Autism-specific parenting self-efficacy: An examination of the role of parent-reported intervention involvement, satisfaction with intervention-related training, and caregiver burden.

Autism 2021 Apr 16:1362361321990931. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Emerson College, USA.

Lay Abstract: Parents of children with autism experience enormous challenges managing the complex needs of caring for their children. This includes coordinating multiple and complex therapies and acting as partners in treatment. Parenting self-efficacy is the confidence a person has in their ability to manage the tasks that are part of raising a child. Read More

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The pediatric psychopharmacology of autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review - Part I: The past and the present.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 12:110326. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, School of Medicine Universidad Complutense, IiSGM, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a severe and lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, with high social costs and a dramatic burden on the quality of life of patients and family members. Despite its high prevalence, reaching 1/54 children and 1/45 adults in the United States, no pharmacological treatment is still directed to core symptoms of ASD, encompassing social and communication deficits, repetitive behaviors, restricted interests, and abnormal sensory processing. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of psychopharmacological therapy available today for ASD in children and adolescents, in order to foster best practices and to organize new strategies for future research. Read More

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Comparing the initial impact of COVID-19 on burden and psychological distress among family caregivers of children with and without developmental disabilities.

Sch Psychol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Educational Psychology, University of Connecticut.

The current COVID-19 pandemic is presenting challenges for families (Cluver et al., The Lancet, 2020), which may be exacerbated for caregivers of children with developmental disabilities (DDs; Center on the Developing Child, Stress, hope, and the role of science: Responding to the coronavirus pandemic, 2020). The purpose of this study was to explore caregiver burden and psychological distress among caregivers of children with DD as compared to caregivers of typically developing children across the United States as a result of COVID-19. Read More

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An appraisal of current service delivery and future models of care for young people with gender dysphoria.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Hospital for Children, 1345 Govan Road, Glasgow, G51 4TF, UK.

The clinical needs of young people with gender dysphoria (GD) have outpaced the capacity of health services to provide appropriate care. The study aimed to explore the interface of Paediatric Endocrinology and young people with GD, detailing the clinical characteristics and the clinical care provided, in order to inform future service development. Medical records of all young people with GD (n=91, 59 (65%) birth-assigned females and 32 (35%) birth-assigned males) referred to Paediatric Endocrinology during 2011-2019 for puberty suppression were reviewed. Read More

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Clinical characteristics of children affected by autism spectrum disorder with and without generalized hypotonia.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Unit of Neurology, Division of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the association between generalized hypotonia (GH) and demographic features and clinical characteristics in toddlers (2 to 5 years) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Among 93 children, 32 (34.4%) had GH. Read More

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Factors affecting the ability to speak in children with autism spectrum disorders.

J Public Health Res 2021 Apr 14;10(2). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Lecturer of the Health Polytechnic of the Ministry of Health, Surabaya.

Background: Communication deficit is one of the characteristics of autism spectrum disorder. Some children with this condition cannot communicate verbally and some have very limited speech skills. This study aims to analyze the factors that affect speaking ability in children with autism, namely age, sex, emotions, attention, and memory. Read More

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Prevalence and factors associated with diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: A report from a tertiary medical center in Central Pennsylvania.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2021 Apr 12;4(2):e00186. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Division of Pediatric Diabetes and Endocrinology Penn State Hershey Medical Center Hershey PA USA.

Objective: To explore the rate and factors associated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a single tertiary medical centre in Central Pennsylvania.

Methods: Retrospective chart review of all individuals ≤ 18 years of age who were diagnosed with T1D (N = 350) at the Penn State Hershey Pediatric Diabetes Clinic from January 2017 to December 2019. We report logistic regression models for DKA at diagnosis of T1D for age, gender, race/ethnicity, BMI percentile, health insurance, outcome of any healthcare encounter 30 days prior to T1D diagnosis, HbAc level, altered mental status at diagnosis, and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and a multivariable logistic regression model including all aforementioned variables. Read More

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The Association Between Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test Performance and Intelligence Quotient in Children and Adolescents With Asperger Syndrome.

Front Psychiatry 2021 29;12:642799. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Departamento de Psicología, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain.

There has been an extensive debate about a potential association between intelligence and social cognition. In this study, we aimed to assess the association between social cognition as measured with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RMET) and intelligence as measured with the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) in children and adolescents diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome (AS). We conducted a cross-sectional study among 84 children diagnosed with AS aged 6-16 years (mean = 11. Read More

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Presymptomatic Detection and Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Pediatrics 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Treuman Katz Center for Pediatric Bioethics, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington.

Universal screening for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is recommended during pediatric primary care visits in the first 2 years of life. However, many children are missed by initial screening and not diagnosed with ASD until years later. Research efforts are underway to develop and evaluate new objective measures of risk for ASD that can be used in infancy, before symptoms emerge. Read More

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A Missense De Novo Variant in the CASK-interactor KIRREL3 Gene Leading to Neurodevelopmental Disorder with Mild Cerebellar Hypoplasia.

Neuropediatrics 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Developmental Neurology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.

is a gene important for the central nervous system development-in particular for the process of neuronal migration, axonal fasciculation, and synaptogenesis-and colocalizes and cooperates in neurons with gene. Alterations of have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, ranging from developmental delay, to autism spectrum disorder, to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The underlying mechanism is not yet fully understood, as it has been hypothesized a fully dominant effect, a risk factor role of partially penetrating variants, and a recessive inheritance pattern. Read More

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Potential Risk Factors for Autism in Children Requiring Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Neuropediatrics 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Instituto de Pesquisa Pelé Pequeno Príncipe, Curitiba, Brazil.

Background:  The etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is complex and involves the interplay of genetic and environmental factors.

Aim:  We sought to identify potential prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal risk factors for ASD in a unique population of children who had perinatal complications and required care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Methods:  This prospective cohort study included 73 patients discharged from a NICU who received long-term follow-up at the largest children's hospital in Brazil. Read More

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Uptake of an Integrated Electronic Questionnaire System in Community Pediatric Clinics.

Appl Clin Inform 2021 Mar 14;12(2):310-319. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

UPMC Children's Community Pediatrics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.

Objective:  The study aimed to evaluate an integrated electronic questionnaire system implementation in outpatient community pediatric practices on workflow, completion rates, and recorded scores.

Methods:  We evaluated the implementation and outcomes of an integrated electronic questionnaire system at 45 community pediatric practices that used standardized questionnaires to screen for autism, depression, and substance use and to measure asthma control. Electronic health record (EHR) data for all well child visits were extracted for the 3 months before and after implementation. Read More

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Near-point Findings in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and in Typical Peers.

Optom Vis Sci 2021 Apr;98(4):384-393

Health Professions Division, College of Optometry, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida Pennsylvania College of Optometry, Salus University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania The Ohio State University, College of Optometry, Columbus, Ohio

Significance: Clinicians can better diagnose and manage vision problems of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children by establishing a standard of care for this population. Results also reinforce the importance of a comprehensive binocular vision evaluation in all patients with ASD.

Purpose: The purposes of this study were to compare near-point and ocular motility test findings in ASD children and typically developing (TD) peers and to compare findings among ASD children by level of verbal communication. Read More

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A Modeling-Guided Case Study of Disordered Speech in Minimally Verbal Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2021 Apr 14:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Sargent College, Boston University, MA.

Purpose Understanding what limits speech development in minimally verbal (MV) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important for providing highly effective targeted therapies. This preliminary investigation explores the extent to which developmental speech deficits predicted by Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA), a computational model of speech production, exemplify real phenotypes. Method Implementing a motor speech disorder in DIVA predicted that speech would become highly variable within and between tokens, while implementing a motor speech plus an auditory processing disorder predicted that DIVA's speech would become highly centralized (schwa-like). Read More

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How Does Temperament in Toddlers at Elevated Likelihood for Autism Relate to Symptoms of Autism and ADHD at Three Years of Age?

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Box 1225, 751 42, Uppsala, Sweden.

The current study investigated longitudinal associations between parent-rated temperament, observed exuberance and accelerometer activity level at 18-months and symptoms of ASD and ADHD at 36-months in a sample of 54 children at elevated likelihood for ASD. For the specific parent-rated temperament scales, most observed significant associations appeared to be specific for either ASD or ADHD symptoms. Indeed, by controlling for overlapping symptoms a different pattern of associations emerged. Read More

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Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities in China.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Health Professions and Wellness, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL, USA.

Background: Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has become a worldwide epidemic. There are several studies that have concentrated on the prevalence rate of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), whereas data on such a population on the mainland of China remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate of overweight and obesity among school-aged children and adolescents with ID on China's mainland. Read More

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Priming Global Processing Strategy Improves the Perceptual Performance of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences (ICBS), Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

We investigated (1) if the perceptual integration performance is different in children with ASD in comparison with their typically developed (TD) counterparts; and (2) if activating- priming- the global processing strategy, could benefit the integration performance of children with ASD in the subsequent task. We observed that in comparison with the TD group, children with ASD had lower performance in an information integration task that required identification of illusory shapes. Additionally, we observed that priming the global processing strategy increased the correct identification of the illusory shapes in the subsequent task. Read More

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