607,175 results match your criteria children aged

ADHD and autism symptoms in youth: a network analysis.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Departamento de Psiquiatria da Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Previous research investigating the overlap between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (henceforth, autism) symptoms in population samples have relied on latent variable modeling in which averaged scores representing dimensions were derived from observed symptoms. There are no studies evaluating how ADHD and autism symptoms interact at the level of individual symptom items.

Methods: We aimed to address this gap by performing a network analysis on data from a school survey of children aged 6-17 years old (N = 7,405). Read More

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Machine learning model on heart rate variability metrics identifies asymptomatic toddlers exposed to Zika virus during pregnancy.

Physiol Meas 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

GYNOB, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, Washington, UNITED STATES.

Objective Although the Zika virus (ZIKV) seems to be prominently neurotropic, there are some reports of involvement of other organs, particularly the heart. Of special concern are those children exposed prenatally to ZIKV and born without microcephaly or other congenital anomalies. Electrocardiogram (ECG) - derived heart rate variability (HRV) metrics represent an attractive, low-cost, widely deployable tool for early identification of developmental functional alterations in exposed children born without such overt clinical symptoms. Read More

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Differences between the child and adult brain in the local functional structure of the cerebral cortex.

Neuroimage 2021 May 10:118150. Epub 2021 May 10.

ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Ciber on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Imaging studies on neuronal network formation provide relevant information as to how the brain matures during adolescence. We used a novel imaging approach combining well-established MRI measures of local functional connectivity that jointly provide qualitatively different information relating to the functional structure of the cerebral cortex. To investigate the adolescent transition into adulthood, we comparatively assessed 169 preadolescents aged 8-12 years and 121 healthy adults. Read More

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The impact of preterm birth on the executive functioning of preschool children: A systematic review.

Appl Neuropsychol Child 2021 May 13:1-18. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurosciences and Behavior, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil.

This paper presents a systematic review of the impact of preterm childbirth on the later executive functioning of preschool-aged children. A systematic search for studies published between 2014 and 2019 was performed using the following keywords: AND AND . The methodological quality of the reports was examined using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. Read More

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Projected lifetime cancer risk from cone-beam computed tomography for orthodontic treatment.

Korean J Orthod 2021 May;51(3):189-198

Department of Orthodontics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: To estimate the projected cancer risk attributable to diagnostic cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed under different exposure settings for orthodontic purposes in children and adults.

Methods: We collected a list of CBCT machines and their specifications from 38 orthodontists. Organ doses were estimated using median and maximum exposure settings of 105 kVp/156. Read More

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Urinary and salivary endocrine measurements to complement Tanner staging in studies of pubertal development.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251598. Epub 2021 May 13.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States of America.

Background: Many studies investigating pubertal development use Tanner staging to assess maturation. Endocrine markers in urine and saliva may provide an objective, sensitive, and non-invasive method for assessing development.

Objective: Our objective was to examine whether changes in endocrine levels can indicate the onset of pubertal development prior to changes in self-rated Tanner stage. Read More

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Teenage pregnancy as a risk factor for placental abruption: Findings from the prospective Japan environment and children's study.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251428. Epub 2021 May 13.

Fukushima Regional Center for the Japan Environmental and Children's Study, Fukushima, Japan.

Objective: Placental abruption is a significant obstetric complication that affects both maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. The present study examined the effect of maternal age on the incidence of placental abruption.

Methods: We used data of singleton pregnancies from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, which was a prospective birth cohort study conducted between January 2011 and March 2014 across 15 regional centers in Japan. Read More

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Does perioperative respiratory event increase length of hospital stay and hospital cost in pediatric ambulatory surgery?

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251433. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand.

Objective: We examined the consequences of perioperative respiratory event (PRE) in terms of hospitalization and hospital cost in children who underwent ambulatory surgery.

Methods: This subgroup analysis of a prospective cohort study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02036021) was conducted in children aged between 1 month and 14 years who underwent ambulatory surgery between November 2012 and December 2013. Read More

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Effect of inappropriate complementary feeding practices on the nutritional status of children aged 6-24 months in urban Moshi, Northern Tanzania: Cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250562. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Community Health, Institute of Public Health, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Moshi, Tanzania.

Introduction: Childhood undernutrition is a major public health problem especially in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). The prevalence of early introduction of complementary feeding, low meal frequency, and low dietary diversity are frequent in LMICs. The effect of inappropriate complementary feeding practices on the nutritional status of children is not well documented in East African countries including Tanzania. Read More

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Risk perception of the pre-distribution of stable iodine to guardians of children living around the Genkai Nuclear Power Plant, Saga Prefecture, Japan.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250570. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Global Health, Medicine and Welfare, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Iodine thyroid blocking (ITB) is effective for preventing childhood thyroid cancer when radioactive iodine is released into the environment during a nuclear power plant accident. Japan employs the pre-distribution of stable iodine (PDSI) to residents living near nuclear power plants; however, the number of residents who have actually received stable iodine to date remains limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of guardians of children living around the Genkai Nuclear Power Plant (GNPP) in Japan. Read More

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Psychometric properties of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS pediatric item banks Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in a general population.

Qual Life Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: This study aims to validate the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS pediatric item banks v2.0 Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms, the short forms 8a, and computerized adaptive tests (CATs) in a general Dutch population and to provide reference data.

Methods: Participants (N = 2,893, aged 8-18), recruited by two internet survey providers, completed both item banks. Read More

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Fear conditioning and stimulus generalization in association with age in children and adolescents.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Center of Mental Health, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

The aim of the study was to investigate age-related differences in fear learning and generalization in healthy children and adolescents (n = 133), aged 8-17 years, using an aversive discriminative fear conditioning and generalization paradigm adapted from Lau et al. (2008). In the current task, participants underwent 24 trials of discriminative conditioning of two female faces with neutral facial expressions, with (CS+) or without (CS-) a 95-dB loud female scream, presented simultaneously with a fearful facial expression (US). Read More

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Severe abrupt (thunderclap) non-traumatic headache at the pediatric emergency department - a retrospective study.

Cephalalgia 2021 May 13:3331024211014612. Epub 2021 May 13.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Adult abrupt severe non-traumatic headache (thunderclap) is often related to serious underlying etiologies such as subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, data are sparse regarding thunderclap headache in the pediatric population.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence, characteristics and causes of thunderclap headache in the pediatric and adolescent population, aged 6-18 years, presenting to a pediatric emergency department. Read More

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Structural Vulnerability and Occupational Injury Among Latinx Child Farmworkers in North Carolina.

New Solut 2021 May 13:10482911211017556. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Family and Community Medicine-Research, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Children as young as ten-years-old can legally work as hired farm labor in the United States. In North Carolina, many hired children are part of the Latinx farmworker community. Agriculture is a hazardous industry, and child workers experience high rates of injury, illness, and mortality. Read More

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Effect of Relative Age on Childhood Mental Health: A Cohort of 9,548,393 Children and Adolescents.

Acta Psychiatr Scand 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: The effect of relative age on the diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorder (DD), anxiety disorder, and depressive disorder and the prescription for ADHD and antidepressant medications remains unclear.

Aim: To clarify the impact of relative age in a school year with the diagnoses of ADHD, DD, anxiety disorder and depressive disorder and the prescription for ADHD and antidepressant medications.

Methods: The annual cutoff birthdate for entry to school in Taiwan is August 31. Read More

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Longitudinal Bidirectional Relations among Parenting Quality, Parenting Stress, and Child Functioning in HIV-affected Families.

J Youth Adolesc 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Mothers living with HIV (MLH) face unique stressors impacting parenting, parenting stress, and child psychosocial functioning, but longitudinal, bidirectional relations among family processes have not been examined in this population. This study examined relations among parenting quality, parenting stress, and child functioning in 174 MLH-child dyads (aged 6-14, M = 9.65, SD = 2. Read More

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Brief Report: Test-Retest Reliability of Cognitive, Affective, and Spontaneous Theory of Mind Tasks Among School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience, Boston Children's Hospital, Two Brookline Place, Brookline, MA, 02445, USA.

The present study evaluates the test-retest reliability of six theory of mind (ToM) tasks that measured cognitive, affective, and spontaneous ToM in 7 to 11 year-old children with autism spectrum disorder. Our results revealed considerable variation in test-retest reliability depending on the type of ToM task, which ranged from poor to good with the majority of the measures exhibiting moderate reliability. Results inform which common measures of cognitive ToM should be selected versus avoided in future intervention work, suggest our measure of spontaneous ToM should be used more widely in intervention and ToM research more broadly, and indicate more work is needed to develop reliable measures of affective ToM. Read More

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Engineering a mobile platform to promote sleep in the pediatric primary care setting.

Sleep Adv 2021 15;2(1):zpab006. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Study Objectives: Pediatricians lack tools to support families at home for the promotion of childhood sleep. We are using the Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) framework to guide the development of a mobile health platform for childhood sleep promotion. The objective of this study is to demonstrate feasibility of a mobile health platform towards treating children with insufficient sleep. Read More

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Knowing How to Fold 'em: Paper Folding across Early Childhood.

J Mot Learn Dev 2018 Jun;6(1):147-166

University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Folding paper is a seemingly simple act that requires planning, bimanual coordination, and manual strength and control to produce specific forces. Although paper folding has been used as an assessment tool and as a way to promote spatial skills, this study represents the first attempt to document when paper folding emerges across early childhood. Seventy-seven children (ages 18 months to 7 years) and an adult reference group (24 college-aged adults) completed three pre-specified folds on a single piece of paper. Read More

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Vitamin A Supplementation Coverage and Ocular Signs among Children Aged 6-59 Months in Aleta Chuko Woreda, Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

J Nutr Metab 2021 23;2021:8878703. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia.

Background: Periodic vitamin A supplementation to children is a cost-effective strategy to avert vitamin A deficiency. However, few pieces of evidence are available about the coverage of vitamin A supplementation at the community level in the study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess vitamin A supplementation coverage and prevalence of ocular signs of vitamin A deficiency among children aged 6-59 months. Read More

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Intestinal Helminth Infections and Associated Risk Factors among School-Aged Children of Bamendjou Community, West Region of Cameroon.

J Parasitol Res 2021 23;2021:6665586. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 067, Dschang, Cameroon.

Background: Infection with intestinal nematodes is of major public health concern worldwide, and school-age children and pregnant women are the principal victims. The present study was undertaken to provide baseline information on the status of gastrointestinal nematodes among school-age children in Bamendjou. . Read More

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Progressive Reduction of Iconic Gestures Contributes to School-Aged Children's Increased Word Production.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:651725. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Psycholinguistics, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Paderborn University, Paderborn, Germany.

The economic principle of communication, according to which successful communication can be reached by least effort, has been studied for verbal communication. With respect to nonverbal behavior, it implies that forms of iconic gestures change over the course of communication and become reduced in the sense of less pronounced. These changes and their effects on learning are currently unexplored in relevant literature. Read More

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Early Adverse Stress and Depressive and Bipolar Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Treatment Interventions.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:650706. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Psicomedica, Clinical and Research Group, Santiago, Chile.

A significant proportion of adults with depressive or bipolar disorders exposed to early adverse stressors do not adequately respond to standard treatments. This review aimed at synthesizing the evidence on the effectiveness of treatment interventions for depressive or bipolar disorders in adult individuals (aged 18 years or more) exposed to adverse stress early in life. Systematic review and meta-analysis including experimental and quasi-experimental published studies indexed in CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Science databases and/or in reference lists. Read More

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The Impact on Service Collaboration of Co-location of Early Childhood Services in Tasmanian Child and Family Centres: An Ethnographic Study.

Int J Integr Care 2021 Apr 29;21(2):14. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Social Sciences, University of Tasmania; Private Bag 22, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia.

Introduction: There is a global trend towards place-based initiatives (PBIs) to break the cycle of disadvantage and promote positive child development. Co-location is a common element of these initiatives and is intended to deliver more coordinated services for families of young children. This paper examines how co-locating early childhood services (ECS) from health and education in Child and Family Centres (CFCs) has impacted collaboration between services. Read More

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Low SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the Austrian capital after an early governmental lockdown.

Sci Rep 2021 05 12;11(1):10158. Epub 2021 May 12.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Health, Vienna, Austria.

We analyzed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in a large, well-described representative Viennese cohort after an early governmental lockdown with respect to the occurrence of symptoms and household transmission. Participants of the LEAD Study, a population-based cohort study from Vienna, Austria, were invited along with their household members (April 20th to May20th 2020). Sera were analyzed using anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay including a neutralization test as a confirmatory assay. Read More

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Association between parents' socioeconomic conditions and nutritional status during childhood and the risk of cardiovascular disease in their adult offspring: an intergenerational study in south India.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Some researchers have suggested that parents' exposure to poor socioeconomic conditions during childhood can increase their offspring's risk of cardiovascular disease, primarily through poor maternal nutrition and growth. However, epidemiological data on this association are limited. In an intergenerational cohort from rural India, we examined the association of parental childhood socioeconomic conditions and stature with offspring's cardiovascular risk, hypothesising an inverse association between the two. Read More

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Simulation-Based Discharge Education Program for Caregivers of Children With Tracheostomies.

Hosp Pediatr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medicine and.

Objectives: To design, implement, and evaluate a simulation-based education (SBE) program for caregivers of children with tracheostomy.

Methods: Self-reported comfort and confidence in knowledge as well as tracheostomy care skills were assessed before and after a single SBE session for 24 consecutively enrolled caregivers of children with tracheostomies aged <21 years who were hospitalized at an academic medical center from August 2018 to September 2019 by using a survey and checklist, respectively. Mean individual and aggregated scores were compared by using a paired samples t-test, and association between instruments was determined with Spearman correlation. Read More

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Prenatal Exposure And Child brain and mental Health (PEACH) study: protocol for a cohort study of children and youth with prenatal alcohol exposure.

BMJ Open 2021 May 11;11(5):e051660. Epub 2021 May 11.

Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Introduction: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), which is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), affects an estimated 4% of North Americans, and is the most common preventable cause of intellectual disability. Mental health problems, including anxiety and depression, are experienced by nearly all individuals with FASD. However, there is very limited knowledge about effective mental health treatments for individuals with FASD; effective treatments are hindered in part due to a lack of understanding of the basic neurobiology underlying internalising disorders in youth with FASD. Read More

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The Australian Child Maltreatment Study (ACMS): protocol for a national survey of the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, associated mental disorders and physical health problems, and burden of disease.

BMJ Open 2021 May 11;11(5):e047074. Epub 2021 May 11.

Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Introduction: Child maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and exposure to domestic violence) is widely understood to be associated with multiple mental health disorders, physical health problems and health risk behaviours throughout life. However, Australia lacks fundamental evidence about the prevalence and characteristics of child maltreatment, its associations with mental disorders and physical health, and the associated burden of disease. These evidence gaps impede the development of public health strategies to better prevent and respond to child maltreatment. Read More

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Clinical phenotypes of childhood food allergies based on immune mechanisms: A multicenter study.

Allergy Asthma Proc 2021 May;42(3):e86-e95

The affiliations of the members of the writing committee and the names of all the authors are provided in the online appendix.

Food allergies (FA) are an important public health concern that place a major burden on the lives of children and their families. The complex pathogenesis of FAs results in multisystemic and heterogenous clinical presentations. To evaluate, according to immune mechanisms, the characteristics and risk factors of childhood FA in Turkey. Read More

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