4,211 results match your criteria childhood pneumonia


Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of narrow-spectrum versus broad-spectrum antibiotics for the treatment of childhood pneumonia.

SAGE Open Med 2021 9;9:20503121211044379. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Objectives: The main objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of empiric treatment with narrow-spectrum therapy versus broad-spectrum therapy for children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Methods: Institutional-based retrospective chart review was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital (GURH) pediatrics ward from 1 February 2016 to 30 April 2016. The collected data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Infection as Trigger for Congenital Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in an Adult Patient.

J Med Cases 2021 Sep 25;12(9):339-342. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico.

Congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (cTTP) is an inherited disease that is sometimes fatal in early childhood. cTTP is similar to idiopathic thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP); both are characterized by varying levels of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), and end-organ damage secondary to occlusion of the microvasculature. cTTP is caused by a partial or total deficiency or loss of function of ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Barriers to seeking timely treatment for severe childhood pneumonia in rural Bangladesh.

Arch Dis Child 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Nutrition and Clinical Services Division (NCSD), icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objective: Delays in seeking medical attention for childhood pneumonia may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at identifying the drivers of delayed seeking of treatment for severe childhood pneumonia in rural Bangladesh.

Methods: We conducted a formative study from June to September 2015 in one northern district of Bangladesh. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

[SOME CYTOGENETIC PARAMETERS IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE LEUKEMIA ASSOCIATED WITH COVID-19 INFECTION (CASE REPORTS)].

Georgian Med News 2021 Jul-Aug(316-317):119-123

2Tbilisi State Medical University, Georgia.

There are data about 6 cases of acute leukemia in children who have been diagnosed with COVID-19 infection 1-1,5 months before, or at the same time. In 5 patients lymphoblastic and in one monoblastic acute leukemia were diagnosed. The course of leukemia passed without any particular complications. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

COVID-19 Screening by Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Seropositivity: Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Food Intake Quality.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 08 26;18(17). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Institute of Research in Biomedical Sciences, University Center for Health Sciences (CUCS), University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara 44100, Mexico.

Developing countries have reported lower molecular diagnostic testing levels due to a lack of resources. Therefore, antibody tests represent an alternative to detect exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and analyze possible risk factors. We aimed to describe and compare the clinical-epidemiological characteristics and the quality of food intake in Mexican individuals with a positive or negative test to antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Early experience of COVID-19 vaccination in adults with systemic rheumatic diseases: results from the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance Vaccine Survey.

RMD Open 2021 09;7(3)

Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: We describe the early experiences of adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received the COVID-19 vaccine.

Methods: From 2 April to 30 April 2021, we conducted an online, international survey of adults with systemic rheumatic disease who received COVID-19 vaccination. We collected patient-reported data on clinician communication, beliefs and intent about discontinuing disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) around the time of vaccination, and patient-reported adverse events after vaccination. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Prevalence of diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections, and malaria over time (1995-2017): A regional analysis of 23 countries in West and Central Africa.

J Glob Health 2021 10;11:13008. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), West and Central Africa Regional Office, Dakar, Senegal.

Backgound: The global community recognizes the urgent need to end preventable child deaths, making it an essential part of the third Sustainable Development Goal. Pneumonia, diarrhoea, and malaria still remain the leading causes of deaths among children under five years, especially in one of the poorest geographic regions of the world - West and Central Africa. This region carries a disproportionately high share of the global burden, both in terms of morbidity and mortality. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Pediatric Multisystemic Inflammatory Syndrome Temporarily associated with COVID-19: Clinical characteristics and management in a Pediatric Critical Care Unit.

Andes Pediatr 2021 Jun;92(3):395-405

Hospital de niños Dr. Exequiel González Cortés, Santiago, Chile.

Introduction: In April 2020, the pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporarily associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C) was described for the first time. MIS-C could have a severe course and may require critical care support.

Objective: To describe the clinical, laboratory, and management characteristics of hospitalized children who meet MIS-C criteria with severe presentation in a pediatric critical pa tient unit. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessment of outcomes of elective cancer surgeries in children during coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: Retrospective cohort study from a tertiary cancer center in India.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Sep;100(35):e26752

Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), Mumbai, India.

Abstract: To describe the outcomes of elective cancer surgeries and adverse consequences on the patients and medical staff due to the surgical interventions in children during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.The study included children younger than 15 years who underwent elective cancer surgeries from March 4, 2020 and December 3, 2020.A total of 121 patients (62% male; median age, 3 years) underwent surgery. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Scared, powerless, insulted and embarrassed: hesitancy towards vaccines among caregivers in Cavite Province, the Philippines.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 09;6(9)

Heidelberg Institute of Global Health, Ruprecht Karls Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Background: Several studies have highlighted that vaccine hesitancy (VH) is among the most important threats to global health, especially in low- and middle-income countries, including the Philippines. However, there is a dearth of literature exploring family experiences of-or concerns related to-childhood vaccinations that gives voice to vaccine hesitant caregivers (VHCs) of small children. Here, we present insights from VHCs from the Philippines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13-17 Years - United States, 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Sep 3;70(35):1183-1190. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents aged 11-12 years routinely receive tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap); meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY); and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. Catch-up vaccination is recommended for hepatitis B (HepB); hepatitis A (HepA); measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR); and varicella (VAR) vaccines for adolescents whose childhood vaccinations are not current. Adolescents are also recommended to receive a booster dose of MenACWY vaccine at age 16 years, and shared clinical decision-making is recommended for the serogroup B meningococcal vaccine (MenB) for persons aged 16-23 years (1). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Diagnosis and management of community-acquired pneumonia in children: South African Thoracic Society guidelines.

Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med 2020 13;26(3). Epub 2020 Oct 13.

South African Medical Research Council Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Analytics Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality amongst South African children. More comprehensive immunisation regimens, strengthening of HIV programmes, improvement in socioeconomic conditions and new preventive strategies have impacted on the epidemiology of pneumonia. Furthermore, sensitive diagnostic tests and better sampling methods in young children improve aetiological diagnosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Megadose Methylprednisolone for Immune Thrombocytopenia in an Infant Positive for SARS-CoV-2: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Sep 2;22:e931517. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Lambung Mangkurat University, Ulin General Hospital, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

BACKGROUND Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is rare in infants under 1 year old. Bleeding often occurs when the platelet count is <20 000/uL. The disease can progress because of accompanying COVID-19 disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Disruption in essential health services in Mexico during COVID-19: an interrupted time series analysis of health information system data.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 09;6(9)

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted health systems around the world. The objectives of this study are to estimate the overall effect of the pandemic on essential health service use and outcomes in Mexico, describe observed and predicted trends in services over 24 months, and to estimate the number of visits lost through December 2020.

Methods: We used health information system data for January 2019 to December 2020 from the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), which provides health services for more than half of Mexico's population-65 million people. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Multicentric Hospital-Based Surveillance of Pertussis Amongst Infants Admitted in Tertiary Care Facilities in India.

Indian Pediatr 2021 Aug;58(8):709-717

Department of Pediatrics, KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune, India. Correspondence to: Dr Ashish Bavdekar, Associate Professor, Consultant Pediatric Gastroenterologist, Department of Pediatrics, KEM Hospital, Rasta Peth, Pune, Maharashtra 411 011.

Objective: To estimate the disease and economic burden of pertussis amongst hospitalised infants in India.

Design: Multicentric hospital-based surveillance study.

Participants: Hospitalised infants with clinical suspicion of pertussis based on predefined criteria. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Indirect effects of COVID-19 on maternal, neonatal, child, sexual and reproductive health services in Kampala, Uganda.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 08;6(8)

MRC/UVRI and LSHTM Uganda Research Unit, Entebbe, Wakiso, Uganda

Background: COVID-19 impacted global maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. We hypothesised that the early, strict lockdown that restricted individuals' movements in Uganda limited access to services.

Methods: An observational study, using routinely collected data from Electronic Medical Records, was carried out, in Kawempe district, Kampala. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A cluster randomised trial of cookstove interventions to improve infant health in Ghana.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Aug;6(8)

Kintampo Health Research Centre, Research and Development Division, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana.

Introduction: Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion for cooking and heating is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. We hypothesised that clean cooking interventions delivered during pregnancy would improve child health.

Methods: We conducted a cluster randomised trial in rural Ghana to test whether providing pregnant women liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cookstoves or improved biomass cookstoves would reduce personal carbon monoxide and fine particulate pollution exposure, increase birth weight and reduce physician-assessed severe pneumonia in the first 12 months of life, compared with control participants who continued to cook with traditional stoves. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Therapist-Led, Internet-Delivered Treatment for Early Child Social Anxiety: A Waitlist-Controlled Evaluation of the iCALM Telehealth Program.

Behav Ther 2021 09 18;52(5):1171-1187. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Columbia University Irving Medical Center.

Despite recent advances in the treatment of early child social anxiety, the broad accessibility of brick-and-mortar services has been limited by traditional barriers to care, and more recently by new obstacles related to efforts to slow the spread of COVID-19. The present waitlist-controlled trial examined the preliminary efficacy of a family-based behavioral parenting intervention (i.e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Epidemiology and Seasonality of Endemic Human Coronaviruses in South African and Zambian Children: A Case-Control Pneumonia Study.

Viruses 2021 07 31;13(8). Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Medical Research Council: Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Analytics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa.

Endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) are capable of causing a range of diseases from the common cold to pneumonia. We evaluated the epidemiology and seasonality of endemic HCoVs in children hospitalized with clinical pneumonia and among community controls living in countries with a high HIV burden, namely South Africa and Zambia, between August 2011 to October 2013. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected from all cases and controls and tested for endemic HCoV species and 12 other respiratory viruses using a multiplex real-time PCR assay. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Original antigenic sin responses to Betacoronavirus spike proteins are observed in a mouse model, but are not apparent in children following SARS-CoV-2 infection.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(8):e0256482. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.

Background: The effects of pre-existing endemic human coronavirus (HCoV) immunity on SARS-CoV-2 serologic and clinical responses are incompletely understood.

Objectives: We sought to determine the effects of prior exposure to HCoV Betacoronavirus HKU1 spike protein on serologic responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein after intramuscular administration in mice. We also sought to understand the baseline seroprevalence of HKU1 spike antibodies in healthy children and to measure their correlation with SARS-CoV-2 binding and neutralizing antibodies in children hospitalized with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

The Etiology of Childhood Pneumonia in Bangladesh: Findings From the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) Study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Sep;40(9S):S79-S90

From the Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Pneumonia remains the leading infectious cause of death among children <5 years, but its cause in most children is unknown. We estimated etiology for each child in 2 Bangladesh sites that represent rural and urban South Asian settings with moderate child mortality.

Methods: As part of the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study, we enrolled children 1-59 months of age with World Health Organization-defined severe and very severe pneumonia, plus age-frequency-matched controls, in Matlab and Dhaka, Bangladesh. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

The Etiology of Pneumonia in HIV-uninfected South African Children: Findings From the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) Study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Sep;40(9S):S59-S68

From the South African Medical Research Council Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Analytics Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Pneumonia is the major contributor to under 5 childhood mortality globally. We evaluated the etiology of pneumonia amongst HIV-uninfected South African children enrolled into the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health case-control study.

Methods: Cases, 1-59 months of age hospitalized with World Health Organization clinically defined severe/very severe pneumonia, were frequency-matched by age and season to community controls. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

The Etiology of Pneumonia in HIV-infected Zambian Children: Findings From the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) Study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Sep;40(9S):S50-S58

From the Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Despite recent declines in new pediatric HIV infections and childhood HIV-related deaths, pneumonia remains the leading cause of death in HIV-infected children under 5. We describe the patient population, etiology and outcomes of childhood pneumonia in Zambian HIV-infected children.

Methods: As one of the 9 sites for the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study, we enrolled children 1-59 months of age presenting to University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, with World Health Organization-defined severe and very severe pneumonia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

The Etiology of Pneumonia in Zambian Children: Findings From the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) Study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Sep;40(9S):S40-S49

From the Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Childhood pneumonia in developing countries is the foremost cause of morbidity and death. Fresh information on etiology is needed, considering the changing epidemiology of pneumonia in the setting of greater availability of effective vaccines, changing antibiotic use and improved access to care. We report here the Zambia site results of the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study on the etiology of pneumonia among HIV-uninfected children in Lusaka, Zambia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

The Etiology of Pneumonia in HIV-uninfected Children in Kilifi, Kenya: Findings From the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) Study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Sep;40(9S):S29-S39

From the Epidemiology and Demography Department, KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, CGMR-Coast, Kilifi, Kenya.

Background: In the 1980s, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were identified as the principal causes of severe pneumonia in children. We investigated the etiology of severe childhood pneumonia in Kenya after introduction of conjugate vaccines against H. influenzae type b, in 2001, and S. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

The Etiology of Childhood Pneumonia in Mali: Findings From the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) Study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Sep;40(9S):S18-S28

From the Department of Pediatrics, Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: We present findings from the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) site in Bamako, Mali.

Methods: Cases were patients 28 days to 59 months of age, admitted to hospital with severe or very severe pneumonia (2005 World Health Organization definition). Community controls were frequency matched by age. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

The Etiology of Childhood Pneumonia in The Gambia: Findings From the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) Study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Sep;40(9S):S7-S17

From the Medical Research Council Unit, Basse, The Gambia.

Background: Pneumonia remains the leading cause of death in young children globally. The changing epidemiology of pneumonia requires up-to-date data to guide both case management and prevention programs. The Gambia study site contributed a high child mortality, high pneumonia incidence, low HIV prevalence, Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines-vaccinated rural West African setting to the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) Study. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

RSV pneumonia with or without bacterial co-infection among healthy children.

J Formos Med Assoc 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of childhood pneumonia, but there is limited understanding of whether bacterial co-infections affect clinical severity.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at National Taiwan University Hospital from 2010 to 2019 to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes between RSV with and without bacterial co-infection in children without underlying diseases, including length of hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ventilator use, and death.

Results: Among 620 inpatients with RSV pneumonia, the median age was 1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reducing burden from respiratory infections in refugees and immigrants: a systematic review of interventions in OECD, EU, EEA and EU-applicant countries.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Aug 26;21(1):872. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine II, Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Straße 55, 79106, Freiburg im Breisgau, DE, Germany.

Background: Respiratory diseases are a major reason for refugees and other immigrants seeking health care in countries of arrival. The burden of respiratory diseases in refugees is exacerbated by sometimes poor living conditions characterised by crowding in mass accommodations and basic living portals. The lack of synthesised evidence and guideline-relevant information to reduce morbidity and mortality from respiratory infections endangers this population. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Breastmilk Feeding during the First 4 to 6 Months of Age and Childhood Disease Burden until 10 Years of Age.

Nutrients 2021 Aug 17;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 61469, Korea.

Background: Breastfeeding is recommended due to its beneficial effects on human health. However, the effect of breastfeeding on health differs, resulting in various childhood diseases.

Objective: Our purpose was to investigate the association between breastfeeding at least in the first 4 months and the subsequent development of 15 certainly defined childhood diseases until 10 years of age, the all-cause hospitalization rate and growth at 6-7 years of age. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF