Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States; Child and Brain Development Program, CIFAR, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1M1, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, United States.
The interplay of genes and environments (GxE) is a fundamental source of variation in behavioral and developmental outcomes. Although the role of developmental time (T) in the unfolding of such interactions has yet to be fully considered, GxE operates within a temporal frame of reference across multiple timescales and degrees of biological complexity. Here, we consider GxExT interactions to understand adversity-induced developmental acceleration or deceleration whereby environmental conditions hasten or hinder children's development. Read More