105,638 results match your criteria child psychiatry


Change of pace: How developmental tempo varies to accommodate failed provision of early needs.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States; Child and Brain Development Program, CIFAR, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1M1, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, United States.

The interplay of genes and environments (GxE) is a fundamental source of variation in behavioral and developmental outcomes. Although the role of developmental time (T) in the unfolding of such interactions has yet to be fully considered, GxE operates within a temporal frame of reference across multiple timescales and degrees of biological complexity. Here, we consider GxExT interactions to understand adversity-induced developmental acceleration or deceleration whereby environmental conditions hasten or hinder children's development. Read More

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September 2021

Androgen-induced insulin resistance is ameliorated by deletion of hepatic androgen receptor in females.

FASEB J 2021 Oct;35(10):e21921

Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Androgen excess is one of the most common endocrine disorders of reproductive-aged women, affecting up to 20% of this population. Women with elevated androgens often exhibit hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. The mechanisms of how elevated androgens affect metabolic function are not clear. Read More

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October 2021

Parental Depressive Symptoms, Parent Attributional Style, and Child Coping as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in Children of Parents with Anxiety or Mood Disorders.

Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Human Development, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.

Few studies have examined the effects of parental depressive symptoms on children in China. The present study examined the relationships between parental depression, parental attributional style, children's coping strategies and 5-12-year-old children's depressive symptoms in a sample of Chinese children whose parents had been diagnosed with an anxiety or a mood disorder. The present study confirmed that children of parents with anxiety or mood disorders would show high levels of depressive symptoms. Read More

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September 2021

The Tavistock First-Time Parent Study: a pilot randomised controlled feasibility trial of a brief couple-focused perinatal intervention to reduce inter-parental discord.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Research and Development Unit, The Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, 120 Belsize Lane, London, NW3 5BA, UK.

Numerous studies report that some first-time parents experience a decline in relationship quality and an increase in conflict after the birth of a first baby. Inter-parental discord that is frequent, intense, and poorly resolved increases the likelihood of relationship breakdown and adversely impacts child development. We investigated the feasibility of a brief preventative couple-focused psychotherapeutic intervention in the perinatal period in a general population sample. Read More

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September 2021

Associations between changes in behavioral difficulties and levels of problematic smartphone use in adolescents over a 1-year period.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

LIFE Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, Leipzig University, Philipp-Rosenthal-Strasse 27, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Objectives: The present longitudinal study investigates associations between changes in externalizing and internalizing behavioral difficulties and changes in problematic smartphone usage within the same 1-year period in healthy adolescents.

Methods: The project is part of the LIFE Child cohort study conducted in Leipzig, Germany. Ten- to 16-year-old adolescents (n = 363) provided information on behavioral difficulties [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)], the duration of daily smartphone use, and symptoms of smartphone addiction [Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS)] at two consecutive study visits, t1 and t2 (1 year after t1). Read More

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September 2021

Disparities in Physician Compensation by Gender in Ontario, Canada.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2126107. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Ontario Medical Association, Toronto, Canada.

Importance: Men and women should earn equal pay for equal work. An examination of the magnitude of pay disparities could inform strategies for remediation.

Objective: To examine gender-based differences in pay within a large, comprehensive physician population practicing within a variety of payment systems. Read More

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September 2021

Norwegian Clinicians' Experiences of Learnability and Usability of SCID-II, SCID-5-PD and SCID-5-AMPD-I Interviews: A Sequential Multi-Group Qualitative Approach.

J Pers Assess 2021 Sep 21:1-14. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Research and Innovation, Clinic for Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

The DSM-5 presents two competing diagnostic frameworks for personality disorders: the standard categorical model and the Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD). The AMPD was initially criticized for being too complex and theory laden for clinical implementation. Though inter-rater reliability studies have contested initial claims of the model's complexity, little attention has been paid to how clinicians experience the usability and learnability of either model. Read More

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September 2021

Transition outcomes for young people discharged from adolescent medium secure services in England: A qualitative study exploring adolescents' and carers' experiences.

Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 Sep 21:13591045211026048. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Health Sciences, Mental Health and Wellbeing, Warwick Medical School, Coventry, UK.

Background: Young people in secure services present with multiple vulnerabilities; therefore, transition periods are especially challenging for this group. In this study, we followed up young people discharged from adolescent medium secure services to adult and community settings with the aim to explore transition experiences and outcomes.

Methods: Participants were recruited from 15 child and adult mental health services in England. Read More

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September 2021

Early and Late Neural Correlates of Mentalizing: ALE Meta-Analyses in Adults, Children and Adolescents.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

The ability to understand mental states of others is referred to as mentalizing and enabled by our Theory of Mind. This social skill relies on brain regions comprising the mentalizing network, as robustly observed in adults, but also in a growing number of developmental studies. We summarized and compared neuroimaging evidence in children/adolescents and adults during mentalizing using coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses to inform about brain regions consistently or differentially engaged across age categories. Read More

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September 2021

Insights into the expanding phenotypic spectrum of inherited disorders of biogenic amines.

Nat Commun 2021 Sep 20;12(1):5529. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

University Children's Hospital Heidelberg, Dietmar-Hopp Metabolic Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

Inherited disorders of neurotransmitter metabolism are rare neurodevelopmental diseases presenting with movement disorders and global developmental delay. This study presents the results of the first standardized deep phenotyping approach and describes the clinical and biochemical presentation at disease onset as well as diagnostic approaches of 275 patients from the registry of the International Working Group on Neurotransmitter related Disorders. The results reveal an increased rate of prematurity, a high risk for being small for gestational age and for congenital microcephaly in some disorders. Read More

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September 2021

Individuals at increased risk for development of bipolar disorder display structural alterations similar to people with manifest disease.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Sep 20;11(1):485. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

In psychiatry, there has been a growing focus on identifying at-risk populations. For schizophrenia, these efforts have led to the development of early recognition and intervention measures. Despite a similar disease burden, the populations at risk of bipolar disorder have not been sufficiently characterized. Read More

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September 2021

ITAlian Partnership for Psychosis Prevention (ITAPP): improving the mental health of young people.

Eur Psychiatry 2021 Sep 21:1-21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Dipartimento di Salute Mentale e Fisica e Medicina Preventiva, Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

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September 2021

What is a processing speed weakness? Importance of cognitive ability when defining processing speed in a child psychiatric population.

Child Neuropsychol 2021 Sep 20:1-21. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

MGH Psychiatry Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

There is growing evidence that processing speed (PS) deficits in youth with neuropsychiatric conditions are associated with functional difficulties. However, there is no consistent definition of slower PS; specifically, whether slower PS should be defined as a discrepancy from same-aged peers (normative weakness) or as an intrapersonal deficit relative to overall cognitive ability (relative weakness). In a sample of clinically-referred youth, we calculated slower PS both ways and examined the impact on adaptive, academic, and psychopathology outcomes in relation to different levels of cognitive ability. Read More

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September 2021

At-risk early adolescents profiles in the community: A cluster analysis using the strengths and difficulties questionnaire.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Sep 11;305:114209. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Educational, Psychological and Communication Sciences, Suor Orsola Benincasa University, Italy.

Early adolescence, with its several changes and demands, represents a delicate period of life. Several studies highlighted that during early adolescence, emotional and behavioral problems tend to increase. Using a person-centered approach, the present study explored the emotional and behavioral functioning profiles in a sample of Italian preadolescent students. Read More

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September 2021

The relationship between dietary elimination and maternal psychopathology in breastfeeding mothers of infants with food allergy.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Koc University, School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Allergy, Istanbul.

Background: There has been no study evaluating the psychopathology in breastfeeding mothers of infants with food allergy (FA).

Objective: To investigate the relationship between dietary elimination and maternal psychopathology, specifically, anxiety, depression and mother-to-infant bonding in breastfeeding mothers of infants with food allergy.

Methods: Breastfeeding mothers following an elimination diet due to FA in their children aged 1-to-12 months were compared with the healthy controls. Read More

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September 2021

Neurocognitive Outcomes from Memantine: A Pilot, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2021 Sep;31(7):475-484

Holland Bloorview Children's Rehabilitation Hospital, Ontario, Canada.

Studies interrogating therapeutics which alter the excitation-inhibition balance in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have reported mixed results on social and behavioral outcomes. The aim of this randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial was to evaluate neurocognitive effects of memantine over a 24-week trial. Twenty-three children ages 6-12 years old with ASD were randomized to memantine or placebo. Read More

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September 2021

Chlorpromazine-Induced Skin Pigmentation in a Pediatric Patient.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2021 Sep;31(7):516-517

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

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September 2021

Home-Based Telemental Health: A Proposed Privacy and Safety Protocol and Tool.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2021 Sep;31(7):464-474

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.

To describe the development of a protocol and practical tool for the safe delivery of telemental health (TMH) services to the home. The COVID-19 pandemic forced providers to rapidly transition their outpatient practices to home-based TMH (HB-TMH) without existing protocols or tools to guide them. This experience underscored the need for a standardized privacy and safety tool as HB-TMH is expected to continue as a resource during future crises as well as to become a component of the routine mental health care landscape. Read More

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September 2021

Financial and Work Burden, Psychosocial Functioning, and Family Interactions During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia: Effects on Child Outcomes.

Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Parenting and Family Support Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected all aspects of family life worldwide. This study aimed to examine the effects of several family factors on child outcomes during the pandemic in Indonesia, a country with approximately 260 million people. A range of child maladjustment and child competency variables were examined, along with a set of associated variables, including family income, psychosocial functioning, and family interactions, which were modelled via Structural Equation Modelling to understand the interrelationships between variables associated with child adjustment. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of Preemptive Intervention on Developmental Outcomes Among Infants Showing Early Signs of Autism: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Outcomes to Diagnosis.

JAMA Pediatr 2021 Sep 20:e213298. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Importance: Intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) typically commences after diagnosis. No trial of an intervention administered to infants before diagnosis has shown an effect on diagnostic outcomes to date.

Objective: To determine the efficacy of a preemptive intervention for ASD beginning during the prodromal period. Read More

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September 2021

Correlation between concentrations of four heavy metals in cord blood and childhood blood of Jamaican children.

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2021 Sep 20:1-10. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Louis A Faillace, MD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

This study investigated whether the concentrations of four metals [lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), and aluminum (Al)] are correlated in cord blood and childhood blood samples from Jamaican children. Cord blood samples were obtained from 21 pregnant women enrolled in the second Jamaican Birth Cohort Study from July 1, 2011 to September 30, 2011, and blood samples were drawn from their children who participated in a follow up study when the children were 4-8 years old. Correlations were assessed by the Pearson or the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Read More

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September 2021

Development and Implementation of a Pilot Integrative Day Hospital Program for Youth with Severe Obesity and Mental Health Issues.

Child Obes 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Adolescents with severe obesity and comorbid mental health issues are the most resistant to traditional weight management approaches and have poor treatment outcomes. Our objective was to implement and evaluate a pilot day hospital treatment program for adolescents with severe obesity, or risk for severe obesity, and significant mental health comorbidities. This was a prospective cohort study of adolescents 12-18 years of age with severe obesity (BMI >99th percentile), or at risk for severe obesity, and comorbid mental health issues. Read More

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September 2021

Emotion regulation in adolescents with anorexia and bulimia nervosa: Differential use of adaptive and maladaptive strategies compared to healthy adolescents.

Int J Eat Disord 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany.

Objective: Adolescents with anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) often struggle with emotion regulation (ER). These difficulties have predominantly been assessed across emotions, without considering adaptive and maladaptive ER separately. We compared adolescents with AN or BN to healthy adolescents (HCs) regarding the adaptive and maladaptive ER of three emotions. Read More

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September 2021

A methylation study implicates the rewiring of brain neural circuits during puberty in the emergence of sex differences in depression symptoms.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Center for Biomarker Research and Precision Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

Background: Women are 1.5-3 times more likely to suffer from depression than men. This sex bias first emerges during puberty and then persists across the reproductive years. Read More

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September 2021

I'm not alone,' said the boy. 'I've got a puppy.

Authors:
Nadia Micali

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

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September 2021

Epileptiform discharges relate to altered functional brain networks in autism spectrum disorders.

Brain Commun 2021 19;3(3):fcab184. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-0934, Japan.

Many individuals with autism spectrum disorders have comorbid epilepsy. Even in the absence of observable seizures, interictal epileptiform discharges are common in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. However, how these interictal epileptiform discharges are related to autistic symptomatology remains unclear. Read More

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Cortical thickness across the lifespan in a Colombian cohort with autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease: A cross-sectional study.

Alzheimers Dement (Amst) 2021 14;13(1):e12233. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Psychiatry Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School Boston Massachusetts USA.

Introduction: Cortical thinning is a marker of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the age-related trajectory of cortical thickness across the lifespan (9-59 years) in a Colombian kindred with autosomal dominant AD (ADAD).

Methods: Two hundred eleven participants (105 presenilin-1 [] E280A mutation carriers, 16 with cognitive impairment; 106 non-carriers) underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

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September 2021

Masked Tardive Dyskinesia in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Era.

Cureus 2021 Aug 8;13(8):e16999. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Pennsylvania State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, USA.

The universal donning of masks during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic led to a decreased ability to read people's facial expressions. In this context, it is prudent to think about how diagnoses can be missed or worsened by the practice of mandatory masking. Here, we report the case of an adolescent white male who presented with new-onset agitation, akathisia, and orofacial dyskinesia in the context of chronic stimulant use for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and antipsychotic use for oppositional defiant disorder. Read More

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