61 results match your criteria chihuahuas

Three-Dimensional Kinematic Motion of the Craniocervical Junction of Chihuahuas and Labrador Retrievers.

Front Vet Sci 2021 20;8:709967. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Institute of Zoology and Evolutionary Research, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena, Germany.

All vertebrate species have a distinct morphology and movement pattern, which reflect the adaption of the animal to its habitat. Yet, our knowledge of motion patterns of the craniocervical junction of dogs is very limited. The aim of this prospective study is to perform a detailed analysis and description of three-dimensional craniocervical motion during locomotion in clinically sound Chihuahuas and Labrador retrievers. Read More

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Persistent fontanelles in Chihuahuas. Part I. Distribution and clinical relevance.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jul 24;35(4):1834-1847. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The Chihuahua dog breed is known for frequent occurrence of a bregmatic fontanelle on the dorsal skull. A common conception is that this skull defect is a clinically irrelevant finding. No studies, however, describe its prevalence or whether it is accompanied by other persistent fontanelles (PFs). Read More

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Identifying causes of death of companion dogs in Japan using data from pet cemeteries.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Jul 17;83(7):1039-1043. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.

This study aimed to identify the causes of death in dogs that were buried at pet cemeteries. Using data obtained from a questionnaire completed by 5,118 dog owners from 1 April 2016 to 31 March 2017, we estimated the life expectancy and the odds ratio for principal causes of death using multiple logistic regression analysis with potential risk factors as independent variables. The life expectancy determined at birth was 13. Read More

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Persistent fontanelles in Chihuahuas. Part II: Association with craniocervical junction abnormalities, syringomyelia, and ventricular volume.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jul 3;35(4):1848-1856. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Persistent fontanelles (PFs) are, in Chihuahuas, almost ubiquitous. Furthermore, Chihuahuas are predisposed to other craniomorphological abnormalities, including syringomyelia (SM), ventriculomegaly, and craniocervical junction (CCJ) overcrowding resulting in neural tissue deviation. It is, however, undetermined if PFs are more common in dogs with these structural abnormalities, and their etiology is unknown. Read More

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Comparative microcomputed tomographic structural analysis of the trabecular and cortical bone architecture of radius and ulna in toy dog breeds.

Res Vet Sci 2021 May 13;136:324-335. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Clinic for Small Animal Surgery and Reproduction, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Veterinärstr. 13, 80539 Munich, Germany.

Radius and ulna fractures can be detected in dogs with an incidence of 18.0% and occur more frequently in toy breeds with increased complication rates. The reasons for the predisposition and the increased complication rate of antebrachial fractures in toy breeds are not yet fully understood. Read More

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Intracardiac heartworms in dogs: Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics in 72 cases (2010-2019).

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jan 6;35(1):88-97. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

Background: Heartworms, a cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in dogs, can migrate from the pulmonary arteries into the heart resulting in life-threatening caval syndrome (CS).

Objectives: To describe clinical and echocardiographic characteristics in dogs with intracardiac heartworms including estimated heartworm burden and frequency of PH and pigmenturia.

Animals: Seventy-two client-owned dogs with heartworms. Read More

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January 2021

Transoesophageal echocardiography-guided hybrid balloon valvuloplasty for severe pulmonic stenosis in small dogs.

J S Afr Vet Assoc 2021 Jan 25;92(0):e1-e5. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Division of Veterinary Research, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido.

Pulmonic stenosis (PS) is the most common congenital heart disease in dogs and is commonly seen in small breeds, such as Chihuahuas. Conventional treatments have limitations specific to small dogs, including the invasive nature of open-heart surgery and size limitations in percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty. Here, transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE)-guided balloon valvuloplasty via thoracotomy was performed for three small dogs with PS. Read More

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January 2021

Frameshift Deletion in a Mixed Breed Dog with Progressive Epidermal Nevi.

Genes (Basel) 2020 10 30;11(11). Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3001 Bern, Switzerland.

Loss-of-function variants in the gene have been associated with epidermal nevi in humans with congenital hemidysplasia, ichthyosiform nevi, and limb defects (CHILD) syndrome and in companion animals. The gene codes for the NAD(P)-dependent steroid dehydrogenase-like protein, which is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In this study, a female Chihuahua cross with a clinical and histological phenotype consistent with progressive epidermal nevi is presented. Read More

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October 2020

A radiographic study of breed-specific vertebral heart score and vertebral left atrial size in Chihuahuas.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2021 Jan 27;62(1):20-26. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Although echocardiography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of cardio-structural disease, thoracic radiography is a rapid, cost-effective, and widely accessible method for evaluating cardiac size in dogs. The vertebral heart score (VHS) and the vertebral left atrial size (VLAS) are established as objective measures of cardiomegaly on thoracic radiographs. However, several studies have shown significant variations in the VHS among different breeds. Read More

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January 2021

Estimated date of delivery in Chihuahua breed bitches, based on embryo-fetal biometry, assessed by ultrasonography.

Anim Reprod 2020 Aug 4;17(3):e20200037. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Setor de Reprodução Animal e Obstetrícia, Hospital Veterinário, Escola de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brasil.

Due to the peculiarities of the reproductive cycle of the female dog, which makes it difficult to accurately ascertain the date of conception, it may be challenging to precisely estimate the gestational age in bitches. Using fetal measurements obtained by ultrasound, it is possible to estimate the gestational age in dogs; however, due to the differences in size of the various breeds, such estimates may have a significant standard deviation, which represents less accuracy when specifying the date of birth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnant female Chihuahuas, establishing relations between the fetal dimensions measured by ultrasound and the remaining time until delivery. Read More

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Epidemiological study of congenital heart diseases in dogs: Prevalence, popularity, and volatility throughout twenty years of clinical practice.

PLoS One 2020 27;15(7):e0230160. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Cardiology, Clinica Veterinaria Gran Sasso, Milan, Italy.

The epidemiology of Congenital Heart Diseases (CHDs) has changed over the past twenty years. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of CHDs in the population of dogs recruited in a single referral center (RC); compare the epidemiological features of CHDs in screened breeds (Boxers) versus non-screened (French and English Bulldogs, German Shepherds); investigate the association of breeds with the prevalence of CHDs; determine the popularity and volatility of breeds over a 20-year period; analysed the trends of the most popular breeds in the overall population of new-born dogs registered in the Italian Kennel Club (IKC) from 1st January 1997 to 31st December 2017. The RC's cardiological database was analysed, and 1,779 clinical records were included in a retrospective observation study. Read More

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September 2020

Evaluation of Efficacy of a Dental Chew to Reduce Gingivitis, Dental Plaque, Calculus, and Halitosis in Toy Breed Dogs.

J Vet Dent 2020 Mar;37(1):22-28

Research and Development Department, Affinity-Petcare, Barcelona, Spain.

The aim of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of a dental chew with mechanical and chemical properties in 2 toy dog breeds. Eight Yorkshire terriers and 9 Chihuahuas participated in a crossover design trial. Gingivitis, dental plaque, calculus, and volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in the breath were assessed after 4 weeks and 9 weeks, respectively. Read More

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Dental disease and obesity cause problems in Chihuahuas.


Vet Rec 2020 03;186(9):266-267

discusses new research from VetCompass, which examines the disorders most likely to affect Chihuahuas. Read More

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Demography and commonly recorded clinical conditions of Chihuahuas under primary veterinary care in the UK in 2016.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Feb 12;16(1):42. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Pathobiology and Population Science, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Herts, AL9 7TA, UK.

Background: The Chihuahua, the world's smallest dog breed, is a popular breed in the UK today. The VetCompass™ Programme collates de-identified clinical records from primary-care veterinary practices in the UK for epidemiological research. This study aimed to characterise the demography, age at death and common disorders of Chihuahuas under primary veterinary care during 2016 in the UK. Read More

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February 2020

A missense variant in the NSDHL gene in a Chihuahua with a congenital cornification disorder resembling inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevi.

Anim Genet 2019 Dec 1;50(6):768-771. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

DermFocus, University of Bern, 3001, Bern, Switzerland.

Congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects syndrome in humans is a genodermatosis characterized by inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevi (ILVEN), often showing a striking lateralization pattern. It is caused by variants in the NSDHL gene encoding a 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase involved in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. In the present study, we investigated a female Chihuahua, which showed clinical and histological signs of ILVEN. Read More

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December 2019

Flexed radiographic angles for determination of atlantoaxial instability in dogs.

Vet Surg 2019 Nov 10;48(8):1406-1415. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Milliken Associates, Manhattan, Kansas.

Objective: To determine a flexed position for radiographic diagnosis of atlantoaxial instability (AAI) and to identify radiographic measurement cutoffs to differentiate affected dogs from neurologically healthy toy breeds.

Study Design: Retrospective case series and prospective case controls.

Animals: Thirty-nine client-owned toy breed dogs in which AAI had been diagnosed and 20 neurologically healthy client-owned toy breed dogs. Read More

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November 2019

Compound heterozygosity for TNXB genetic variants in a mixed-breed dog with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Anim Genet 2019 Oct 31;50(5):546-549. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Vetsuisse Faculty, Institute of Genetics, University of Bern, 3001, Bern, Switzerland.

The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDSs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders characterized by skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility and tissue fragility. Inherited disorders similar to human EDS have been reported in different mammalian species. In the present study, we investigated a female mixed-breed dog with clinical signs of EDS. Read More

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October 2019

Canine ischaemic dermatopathy: a retrospective study of 177 cases (2005-2016).

Vet Dermatol 2019 Oct 12;30(5):403-e122. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3900 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Background: Ischaemic dermatopathy encompasses a poorly understood subset of canine diseases that share similar clinical and histological features. Very little information is currently available regarding population characteristics, progression and outcome.

Hypothesis/objectives: This study aimed to describe the clinical features and therapeutic outcomes of ischaemia dermatopathy, excluding familial dermatomyositis, using cases diagnosed by histopathological analysis. Read More

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October 2019

[Vaccinovigilance: Reported adverse reactions of immunological veterinary medicinal products in 2018].

Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2019 May;161(5):299-306

Impfstoffkontrolle, Institut für Virologie und Immunologie (IVI), Mittelhäusern.

Introduction: The registration of adverse events after the use of immunological veterinary medicinal products (VMP) is the aim of the vaccinovigilance reporting system in Switzerland. Adverse events comprise suspected adverse reactions and lack of expected efficacy. Since the Institute of virology and immunology (IVI) is the competent authority for the regulation of immunological VMP in Switzerland, the reporting system is administrated by the IVI. Read More

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Femoral and tibial alignments in chihuahuas with patellar luxation by radiograph: Angular values and intra- and inter-observer agreement of measurements.

PLoS One 2019 28;14(3):e0214579. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department for Companion Animals and Horses, University Clinic for Small Animals, Small Animal Surgery, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

Measurement of fore and pelvic limb alignment in veterinary orthopedics is significant, as it is in human medicine. The establishment of reference ranges for alignments and comparing measured ranges in diseased animals to these reference values would allow veterinarians to specify the quantitative degree of an angular deformity, plan suitable treatments and evaluate treatment outcomes. Patellar luxation is a common orthopedic disease in small animal clinics. Read More

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December 2019

Dog sperm swimming parameters analysed by computer-assisted semen analysis of motility reveal major breed differences.

Reprod Domest Anim 2019 May 14;54(5):795-803. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Cellular Biology, Functional Biology and Physical Anthropology, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Spain.

Dogs have undergone an intensive artificial selection process ever since the beginning of their relationship with humans. As a consequence, a wide variety of well-defined breeds exist today. Due to the enormous variation in dog phenotypes and the unlikely chance of gene exchange between them, the question arises as to whether they should still be regarded as a single species or, perhaps, they be considered as different taxa that possess different reproductive traits. Read More

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Survey of owners on population characteristics, diagnosis, and environmental, health, and disease associations in dogs with megaesophagus.

Jillian M Haines

Res Vet Sci 2019 Apr 30;123:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, PO Box 647060, Pullman, WA 99164-7060, USA. Electronic address:

Megaesophagus affects dogs worldwide but limited information is available regarding its characteristics in the general population of dogs. The objectives of this study were to provide information on a large population of dogs diagnosed with megaesophagus in regards to population characteristics, medical and family history, diagnosis, concurrent disease, and predisposing factors. A link to a web-based survey was provided on megaesophagus support websites and 838 eligible surveys were evaluated. Read More

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A new candidate gene for patellar luxation in Chihuahua dogs.

Vet World 2018 Sep 17;11(9):1277-1284. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

Aim: The objective of this study was to uncover new candidate genes related to patellar luxation (PL) in dogs to select for those with low susceptibility for breeding purposes.

Materials And Methods: The inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) technique was performed to construct DNA fingerprints of 61 Chihuahua dogs with PL and 30 healthy Chihuahua dogs. DNA polymorphisms were detected by comparing the sequences between the affected and unaffected dogs, using the pairwise alignments in MultAlin. Read More

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September 2018

Superficial keratectomy as a treatment for non-healing corneal ulceration associated with primary corneal endothelial degeneration.

Vet Ophthalmol 2019 Jul 26;22(4):485-492. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Objective: To analyze a study population of dogs with primary corneal endothelial degeneration (PCED) for information on the patterns of disease and to report the efficacy of superficial keratectomy (SK) for resolution of non-healing corneal ulcers associated with PCED.

Animals Studied: Primary corneal endothelial degeneration was diagnosed in 238 dogs between 1998 and 2017. Corneal ulceration associated with PCED was present in 89 dogs (109 eyes), of which 47 eyes were treated with SK. Read More

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Cervical Intervertebral Disk to Vertebral Body Ratios of Different Dog Breeds Based on Sagittal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Front Vet Sci 2018 5;5:248. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Division of Small Animal Surgery, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

To establish sagittal area and length reference values and ratios between apparently normal canine cervical vertebrae and intervertebral disks using magnetic resonance imaging. Retrospective evaluation of cervical vertebral column magnetic resonance imaging studies of 44 dogs representing 5 different breeds (Labrador Retriever, = 10; French Bulldog, = 10; Great Dane, = 9; Chihuahua, = 10; Dachshund, = 5). Mid-sagittal measurements of vertebral body and disk areas were obtained from C3 through C7 vertebrae and C2/C3 through C6/C7 intervertebral disks. Read More

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October 2018

Retrospective characterization of coma and stupor in dogs and cats presenting to a multicenter out-of-hours service (2012-2015): 386 animals.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2018 Nov 16;28(6):559-565. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Veterinary Clinical and Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Objective: To describe the signalment, etiology, and short-term outcome of dogs and cats presenting in a coma or stupor.

Design: Retrospective study conducted between May 2012 and February 2015.

Setting: Multicenter out-of-hours emergency service provider. Read More

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November 2018

A Comparison of Angular Values of the Pelvic Limb with Normal and Medial Patellar Luxation Stifles in Chihuahua Dogs Using Radiography and Computed Tomography.

Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2018 Feb 13;31(2):114-123. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objective:  This article aimed to determine and compare the angular values of the pelvic limb in normal and medial patellar luxation (MPL) stifles in Chihuahuas using radiography and computed tomographic (CT) scan, to identify the relationship between pelvic limb angles and severity of MPL. In addition, radiographic and CT images were compared to determine the more suitable method of limb deformity assessment.

Methods:  Sixty hindlimbs of Chihuahuas were divided into normal and grade 1, 2, 3 and 4 MPL groups. Read More

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February 2018

Gallbladder Agenesis in 17 Dogs: 2006-2016.

J Vet Intern Med 2018 Jan;32(1):188-194

Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: Gallbladder agenesis (GBA) is extremely rare in dogs.

Hypothesis/objectives: To describe the history, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of dogs with GBA.

Animals: Seventeen client-owned dogs with GBA. Read More

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January 2018

Evaluation of mortality rate and predictors of outcome in dogs receiving outpatient treatment for parvoviral enteritis.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017 Nov;251(9):1035-1041

OBJECTIVE To determine mortality rates and prognostic factors for dogs with parvoviral enteritis receiving outpatient treatment. DESIGN Retrospective case series and case-control study. ANIMALS 130 client-owned dogs with a diagnosis of parvoviral enteritis between August 1, 2012, and January 31, 2015, that were treated with outpatient care. Read More

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November 2017

Syringomyelia and Craniocervical Junction Abnormalities in Chihuahuas.

J Vet Intern Med 2017 Nov 11;31(6):1771-1781. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) are widely reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Griffon Bruxellois dogs. Increasing evidence indicates that CM and SM also occur in other small and toy breed dogs, such as Chihuahuas.

Objectives: To describe the presence of SM and craniocervical junction (CCJ) abnormalities in Chihuahuas and to evaluate the possible association of CCJ abnormalities with SM. Read More

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November 2017