3,504,814 results match your criteria chemotherapy primary


Integration and interplay of machine learning and bioinformatics approach to identify genetic interaction related to ovarian cancer chemoresistance.

Brief Bioinform 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Public health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, 2052, Sydney, Australia.

Although chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for ovarian cancer (OCa) patients, chemoresistance (CR) decreases their progression-free survival. This paper investigates the genetic interaction (GI) related to OCa-CR. To decrease the complexity of establishing gene networks, individual signature genes related to OCa-CR are identified using a gradient boosting decision tree algorithm. Read More

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Comparisons of Efficacy and Safety between Triple (Inhaled Corticosteroid/Long-Acting Muscarinic Antagonist/Long-Acting Beta-Agonist) Therapies in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Systematic Review and Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis.

Respiration 2021 May 10:1-13. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Jongno-Gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Various combinations of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), and long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) have been used as triple therapy for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Objective: Our study was conducted to answer whether there were significant differences among various combinations in efficacy, for reducing exacerbation or mortality, and in safety, for increasing cardiovascular events or pneumonia.

Method: We searched parallel-group randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ICS/LAMA/LABA with other inhaled drugs in patients with stable COPD for at least 12 weeks in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and clinical trial registries from inception to December 31, 2019. Read More

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Green surfactant-dendrimer aggreplexes: An ingenious way to launch dual attack on arch-enemy cancer.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 May 5;204:111821. Epub 2021 May 5.

Centre for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali, 160062, Punjab, India. Electronic address:

Combination therapy, which combines anti-cancer drugs with different oligonucleotides, have shown potential in cancer treatment. However, delivering a hydrophobic anti-cancer drug and a hydrophilic oligonucleotide simultaneously is a herculean task. This study takes advantage of interactions between histidine-lauric acid-based green surfactant and poly(amidoamine) dendrimers to achieve this aim. Read More

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VDAC1 as a target in cisplatin anti-tumor activity through promoting mitochondria fusion.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 7;560:52-58. Epub 2021 May 7.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology of Hunan Province, School of Medicine, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, PR China. Electronic address:

Cisplatin is one of the most effective anti-cancer drugs, but its efficacy is limited by the development of resistance. Previous studies have shown that mitochondria play critical roles in cisplatin cytotoxicity, however, the exact mechanism of mitochondria involved in cisplatin sensitivity has not been clarified. In this study, cisplatin triggered mitochondrial oxidative stress and the decrease of mitochondria membrane potential in human cervical cancer cells. Read More

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Mixed pancreatic hepatoid carcinoma: A surgical case report and literature review.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 30;83:105951. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Gastrointestinal and Hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery, Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

Background: Hepatoid carcinoma (HC) is a rare type of malignant tumor that shared similar features of morphology and immunohistochemistry with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pancreatic HC exists as either pure or mixed type. Mixed pancreatic HC is extremely rare, with only a few cases reported in the literature to date. Read More

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miR-133b inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma by targeting CDCA8.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Apr 28;223:153459. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Cancer Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy, Zhejiang Quhua Hospital, Quzhou, 324004, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common type of lung cancer. This study aims to explore the mechanism by which CDCA8 regulates cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of LUAD, and to generate novel insights into targeted therapy of LUAD.

Methods: Expression profiles of mature microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs, along with clinical data of LUAD were downloaded from TCGA database for differential analysis and survival analysis to mine differentially expressed mRNAs. Read More

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Non-parameningeal head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma in children, adolescents, and young adults: Experience of the European paediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group (EpSSG) - RMS2005 study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 7;151:84-93. Epub 2021 May 7.

SIREDO Oncology Center, Institute Curie, PSL University, Paris, France.

Background/objectives: The primary aim of this study was to analyse and evaluate the impact of different local treatments on the pattern of relapse in children with primary head and neck non-parameningeal (HNnPM) rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), treated in the European paediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group (EpSSG) RMS2005 study. The secondary aim was to assess whether current risk stratification is valid for this specific site.

Design/methods: This study includes all patients with localised HNnPM RMS enrolled in the RMS2005 study between 2005 and 2016. Read More

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Constitutive JAK/STAT signaling is the primary mechanism of resistance to JAKi in TYK2-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Cancer Lett 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Cancer Program, Precision Medicine Theme, South Australian Health & Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI), Adelaide, Australia; Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia; Faculty of Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia; Australian Genomics Health Alliance (AGHA), Australia. Electronic address:

Activating TYK2-rearrangements have recently been identified and implicated in the leukemogenesis of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (HR-ALL) cases. Pre-clinical studies indicated the JAK/TYK2 inhibitor (JAKi), cerdulatinib, as a promising therapeutic against TYK2-rearranged ALL, attenuating the constitutive JAK/STAT signaling resulting from the TYK2 fusion protein. However, following a period of clinical efficacy, JAKi resistance often occurs resulting in relapse. Read More

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Recent advancements in therapeutic targeting of the Warburg effect in refractory ovarian cancer: A promise towards disease remission.

Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer 2021 May 7:188563. Epub 2021 May 7.

Amity Institute of Molecular Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Amity University, Sector-125, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201303, India. Electronic address:

Epithelial ovarian cancer, the most lethal gynecological malignancy, is diagnosed at advanced stage, recurs and displays chemoresistance to standard chemotherapeutic regimen of taxane/platinum drugs. Despite development of recent therapeutic approaches including poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors, this fatal disease is diagnosed at advanced stage and heralds strategies for early detection and improved treatment. Recent literature suggests that high propensity of ovarian cancer cells to consume and metabolize glucose via glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen (the 'Warburg effect') can significantly contribute to disease progression and chemoresistance and hence, it has been exploited as novel drug target. Read More

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Etravirine-loaded dissolving microneedle arrays for long-acting delivery.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK. Electronic address:

A key challenge of HIV treatment with multiple antiretroviral drugs is patient adherence. Thus, there is an urgent need for long-acting depot systems for delivering drugs over an extended duration. Although the parenteral route is preferred for depot systems, it is associated with obvious drawbacks, such as painful injections, potentially-contaminated sharps waste, and the necessity of trained healthcare personnel for administration. Read More

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Hydrophobic and polar interactions of FDA-approved small protein kinase inhibitors with their target enzymes.

Authors:
Robert Roskoski

Pharmacol Res 2021 May 7:105660. Epub 2021 May 7.

Blue Ridge Institute for Medical Research 3754 Brevard Road, Suite 116, Box 19 Horse Shoe, North Carolina 28742-8814, United States. Electronic address:

Dysregulation and mutations of protein kinases play causal roles in many diseases including cancer. The KLIFS (kinase-ligand interaction fingerprint and structure) catalog includes 85 ligand binding-site residues occurring in both the small and large protein kinase lobes. Except for allosteric inhibitors, all FDA-approved drug-target enzyme complexes display hydrophobic interactions involving catalytic spine residue-6 (KLIFS-77), catalytic spine residue-7 (KLIFS-11), and catalytic spine residue-8 (KLIFS-15) within the small lobe and residues within the hinge-linker region (KLIFS-46-52). Read More

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Post-surgical complications after bladder outlet reducing surgery: an analysis of the FDA Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database.

Urology 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Urology, Oregon Health & Science University. Electronic address:

Objective: To examine voluntary reports in the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database, categorize complications and assign device-related causality with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), prostatic urethral lift (PUL), and transurethral water vapor therapy (TWVT).

Methods: A review was performed using the terms "Urolift," "Rezum," and "transurethral resection of the prostate" between 01/01/2015 and 12/31/2019. Duplicate and incomplete reports were excluded. Read More

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Apatinib as second-line or later therapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (AHELP): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Intervention, Fujian Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) has shown antitumour activity in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, but few studies of VEGFR inhibitors have been done in populations with a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of apatinib in patients with pretreated advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

Methods: AHELP was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial done at 31 hospitals in China, in patients (aged ≥18 years) with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who had previously been refractory or intolerant to at least one line of systemic chemotherapy or targeted therapy. Read More

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Regulating Twisted Skeleton to Construct Organ-Specific Perylene for Intensive Cancer Chemotherapy.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, 100190, Beijing, CHINA.

The systemic use of pharmaceutical drugs for cancer patients is a compromise between desirable therapy and side effects because of the intrinsic shortage of organ-specific pharmaceutical drug. Design and construction of pharmaceutical drug to achieve the organ-specific delivery is thus desperately desirable. We herein regulate perylene skeleton to effect organ-specificity and present an example of lung-specific distribution on the basis of bay-twisted PDIC-NC. Read More

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Long-term outcome of 177Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy in heavily pre-treated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0251375. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Thyroid Clinic, AIIMS, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Objective: Investigators have extensively explored the short-term safety and efficacy data on 177Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy (RLT) in mCRPC patients. However, scarce literature is reported on the long-term outcome of these patients. The current goal of this study is focused on the long-term outcome of mCRPC patients treated with 177Lu-PSMA-617 RLT. Read More

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Barriers to initiation of hepatitis C virus therapy in Germany: A retrospective, case-controlled study.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0250833. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine II, Leipzig University Medical Center, Leipzig, Germany.

Despite the availability of highly effective and well-tolerated direct-acting antivirals, not all patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection receive treatment. This retrospective, multi-centre, noninterventional, case-control study identified patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection initiating (control) or not initiating (case) treatment at 43 sites in Germany from September 2017 to June 2018. It aimed to compare characteristics of the two patient populations and to identify factors involved in patient/physician decision to initiate/not initiate chronic hepatitis C virus treatment, with a particular focus on historical barriers. Read More

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Appraisal of Nano-lipidic Astaxanthin cum Thermoreversible Gel and its Efficacy in Haloperidol Induced Parkinsonism.

Curr Drug Deliv 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, India.

Background: Parkinsonism has a toxic cascade of neurodegeneration, with akinesia as a major manifestation. Some antioxidants have shown promise against the disease. Astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, demonstrates free radical scavenging, and is also a potential neuroprotective agent. Read More

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Computational and Synthetic Target-Based Approaches to the Discovery of Novel Anticonvulsant Compounds.

Curr Med Chem 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Laboratory of Bioactive Research and Development (LIDeB), Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Exact Sciences, National University of La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: During the past decades, an important number of anticonvulsant drugs have been incorporated into the collection of drugs to treat epilepsy. However, two main difficulties remain unsolved in therapy: the development of drug-resistant epilepsy and the occurrence of severe toxic effects caused by the medication in responsive patients. The retrospective analysis of the strategies for discovering known anticonvulsant drugs showed that screening campaigns on animal models of epilepsy had been almost the exclusive strategy for identifying the marketed compounds. Read More

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Medicinal plant compounds as promising inhibitors of coronavirus (COVID-19) main protease: an study.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 May 10:1-12. Epub 2021 May 10.

Clinical Biochemistry Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

The novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has spread rapidly across the globe and has involved more than 215 countries and territories. Due to a lack of effective therapy or vaccine, urgent and concerted efforts are needed to identify therapeutic targets and medications. COVID-19 main protease represents a major target for drug treatment to inhibit viral function. Read More

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Risk of Ophthalmic Adverse Events in Patients Treated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Regimens: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 May 10:1-11. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) -induced adverse events (AEs) have been reported affecting almost all human organs. However, studies about ocular AEs are few. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the risks of ICI-related ophthalmic AEs compare to chemotherapy. Read More

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Impact of anti-cancer therapy on disease severity and mortality in cancer patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

The First Clinical Medical College of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310053 China.

Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) poses a serious health threat to people around the world, particularly in patients with cancer. Whether or not cancer patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) receive anti-cancer therapy is associated with a poor prognosis is unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess whether anti-cancer therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy will increase the severity and mortality of cancer patients with COVID-19. Read More

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Fixed-dose combination of rosuvastatin and ezetimibe: treating hypercholesteremia according to cardiovascular risk.

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Cardiology Department, University Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with lipid-lowering therapies has been associated with a decrease in the frequency of cardiovascular events.

Areas Covered: A systematic search was conducted on PubMed (MEDLINE), using the MeSH terms [Rosuvastatin] + [Ezetimibe] + [Dyslipidemia] + [treatment]. Original data from clinical trials, prospective and retrospective studies and more useful reviews were selected. Read More

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Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors: a recent update on inhibitor design and clinical trials (2016-2020).

Expert Opin Ther Pat 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

DSC 362, Department of Chemistry, The University of Nebraska at Omaha, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68182, USA.

Introduction: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase-B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway plays a central role in regulating cell growth and proliferation and thus have been considered as effective anticancer drug targets. Many PI3K inhibitors have been developed and progressed to various stages of clinical trials and some even have been approved in recent years by the regulatory agency as anticancer treatment. In this review, we discuss the drug design and clinical development of PI3K inhibitors in the past four years. Read More

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Accessing Targeted Therapies: A Potential Roadblock to Implementing Precision Oncology?

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 May 10:OP2000927. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division on Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Purpose: Advances in genomic techniques have led to increased use of next-generation sequencing (NGS). We evaluated the extent to which these tests guide treatment decisions.

Methods: We developed and distributed a survey assessing NGS use and outcomes to a survey pool of ASCO members. Read More

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Phase II Study of Maintenance Rucaparib in Patients With Platinum-Sensitive Advanced Pancreatic Cancer and a Pathogenic Germline or Somatic Variant in , , or .

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 10:JCO2100003. Epub 2021 May 10.

Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: Olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (PARPi), is approved as maintenance therapy for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (PC) and a germline or pathogenic variant (PV). This investigator-initiated, single-arm phase II study assessed the role of the PARPi rucaparib as maintenance therapy in advanced PC with germline or somatic PV in , , or .

Patients And Methods: Eligible patients had advanced PC; germline (g) or somatic (s) PVs in , , or , and received at least 16 weeks of platinum-based chemotherapy without evidence of platinum resistance. Read More

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Targeting nonapoptotic pathways with functionalized nanoparticles for cancer therapy: current and future perspectives.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Nanobiotech Lab, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, India.

Apoptotic death evasion is a hallmark of cancer progression. In this context, past decades have witnessed cytotoxic agents targeting apoptosis. However, owing to cellular defects in the apoptotic machinery, tumors develop resistance to apoptosis-based cancer therapies. Read More

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Cancer nanomedicine developed from total human serum: a novel approach for making personalized nanomedicine.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Centre for Nanosciences & Molecular Medicine, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi, Kerala, 682041, India.

To develop a method for making total serum nanoparticles (TSN) loaded with cytotoxic chemodrugs for cancer therapy. TSN loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) or piperlongumine (PL) were prepared using high-pressure homogenization and tested for immunogenicity in healthy animals and antitumor properties in pancreatic cancer xenograft models. TSN-PL nanoparticles of average size 104 nm and encapsulation efficiency approximately 50% showed enhanced dose-dependent cytotoxicity compared with TSN-PTX or clinically used combination of gemcitabine and nano-PTX in two pancreatic cell lines. Read More

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Safe Polycationic Dendrimers as Potent Oral In Vivo Inhibitors of : A New Therapy to Take Down Tuberculosis.

Biomacromolecules 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination du CNRS, 205 Route de Narbonne, BP 44099, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4, France.

The long-term treatment of tuberculosis (TB) sometimes leads to nonadherence to treatment, resulting in multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. Inadequate bioavailability of the drug is the main factor for therapeutic failure, which leads to the development of drug-resistant cases. Therefore, there is an urgent need to design and develop novel antimycobacterial agents minimizing the period of treatment and reducing the propagation of resistance at the same time. Read More

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Diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes.

FP Essent 2021 May;504:11-15

University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School Department of Population Health, 1601 Trinity St. Bldg. B Stop Z0500, Austin, TX 78712.

Type 1 diabetes is defined as a state of hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency caused by autoimmune pancreatic beta-cell destruction. The risk among individuals in the general population has been estimated at 0.5%. Read More

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On the potential of microscale electrokinetic cascade devices.

Electrophoresis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Microscale Bioseparations Laboratory and Biomedical Engineering Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, 14623, USA.

Phages used for phage therapy of multi-drug resistant bacteria must be highly purified prior to use. There are limited purification approaches that are broadly applicable to many phage types. Electrokinetics has shown great potential to manipulate phages, but obstructions from the cell debris produced during phage propagation can severely diminish the capacity of an electrokinetic device to concentrate and purify phage samples. Read More

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