1,363,609 results match your criteria chemotherapy patients

Integration and interplay of machine learning and bioinformatics approach to identify genetic interaction related to ovarian cancer chemoresistance.

Brief Bioinform 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Public health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, 2052, Sydney, Australia.

Although chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for ovarian cancer (OCa) patients, chemoresistance (CR) decreases their progression-free survival. This paper investigates the genetic interaction (GI) related to OCa-CR. To decrease the complexity of establishing gene networks, individual signature genes related to OCa-CR are identified using a gradient boosting decision tree algorithm. Read More

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Comparisons of Efficacy and Safety between Triple (Inhaled Corticosteroid/Long-Acting Muscarinic Antagonist/Long-Acting Beta-Agonist) Therapies in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Systematic Review and Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis.

Respiration 2021 May 10:1-13. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Jongno-Gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Various combinations of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), and long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) have been used as triple therapy for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Objective: Our study was conducted to answer whether there were significant differences among various combinations in efficacy, for reducing exacerbation or mortality, and in safety, for increasing cardiovascular events or pneumonia.

Method: We searched parallel-group randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ICS/LAMA/LABA with other inhaled drugs in patients with stable COPD for at least 12 weeks in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and clinical trial registries from inception to December 31, 2019. Read More

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Non-parameningeal head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma in children, adolescents, and young adults: Experience of the European paediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group (EpSSG) - RMS2005 study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 7;151:84-93. Epub 2021 May 7.

SIREDO Oncology Center, Institute Curie, PSL University, Paris, France.

Background/objectives: The primary aim of this study was to analyse and evaluate the impact of different local treatments on the pattern of relapse in children with primary head and neck non-parameningeal (HNnPM) rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), treated in the European paediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group (EpSSG) RMS2005 study. The secondary aim was to assess whether current risk stratification is valid for this specific site.

Design/methods: This study includes all patients with localised HNnPM RMS enrolled in the RMS2005 study between 2005 and 2016. Read More

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Constitutive JAK/STAT signaling is the primary mechanism of resistance to JAKi in TYK2-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Cancer Lett 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Cancer Program, Precision Medicine Theme, South Australian Health & Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI), Adelaide, Australia; Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia; Faculty of Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia; Australian Genomics Health Alliance (AGHA), Australia. Electronic address:

Activating TYK2-rearrangements have recently been identified and implicated in the leukemogenesis of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (HR-ALL) cases. Pre-clinical studies indicated the JAK/TYK2 inhibitor (JAKi), cerdulatinib, as a promising therapeutic against TYK2-rearranged ALL, attenuating the constitutive JAK/STAT signaling resulting from the TYK2 fusion protein. However, following a period of clinical efficacy, JAKi resistance often occurs resulting in relapse. Read More

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Apatinib as second-line or later therapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (AHELP): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Intervention, Fujian Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) has shown antitumour activity in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, but few studies of VEGFR inhibitors have been done in populations with a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of apatinib in patients with pretreated advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

Methods: AHELP was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial done at 31 hospitals in China, in patients (aged ≥18 years) with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who had previously been refractory or intolerant to at least one line of systemic chemotherapy or targeted therapy. Read More

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Regulating Twisted Skeleton to Construct Organ-Specific Perylene for Intensive Cancer Chemotherapy.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, 100190, Beijing, CHINA.

The systemic use of pharmaceutical drugs for cancer patients is a compromise between desirable therapy and side effects because of the intrinsic shortage of organ-specific pharmaceutical drug. Design and construction of pharmaceutical drug to achieve the organ-specific delivery is thus desperately desirable. We herein regulate perylene skeleton to effect organ-specificity and present an example of lung-specific distribution on the basis of bay-twisted PDIC-NC. Read More

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Long-term outcome of 177Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy in heavily pre-treated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0251375. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Thyroid Clinic, AIIMS, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Objective: Investigators have extensively explored the short-term safety and efficacy data on 177Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy (RLT) in mCRPC patients. However, scarce literature is reported on the long-term outcome of these patients. The current goal of this study is focused on the long-term outcome of mCRPC patients treated with 177Lu-PSMA-617 RLT. Read More

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Barriers to initiation of hepatitis C virus therapy in Germany: A retrospective, case-controlled study.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0250833. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine II, Leipzig University Medical Center, Leipzig, Germany.

Despite the availability of highly effective and well-tolerated direct-acting antivirals, not all patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection receive treatment. This retrospective, multi-centre, noninterventional, case-control study identified patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection initiating (control) or not initiating (case) treatment at 43 sites in Germany from September 2017 to June 2018. It aimed to compare characteristics of the two patient populations and to identify factors involved in patient/physician decision to initiate/not initiate chronic hepatitis C virus treatment, with a particular focus on historical barriers. Read More

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Computational and Synthetic Target-Based Approaches to the Discovery of Novel Anticonvulsant Compounds.

Curr Med Chem 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Laboratory of Bioactive Research and Development (LIDeB), Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Exact Sciences, National University of La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: During the past decades, an important number of anticonvulsant drugs have been incorporated into the collection of drugs to treat epilepsy. However, two main difficulties remain unsolved in therapy: the development of drug-resistant epilepsy and the occurrence of severe toxic effects caused by the medication in responsive patients. The retrospective analysis of the strategies for discovering known anticonvulsant drugs showed that screening campaigns on animal models of epilepsy had been almost the exclusive strategy for identifying the marketed compounds. Read More

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Risk of Ophthalmic Adverse Events in Patients Treated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Regimens: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 May 10:1-11. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) -induced adverse events (AEs) have been reported affecting almost all human organs. However, studies about ocular AEs are few. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the risks of ICI-related ophthalmic AEs compare to chemotherapy. Read More

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Impact of anti-cancer therapy on disease severity and mortality in cancer patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

The First Clinical Medical College of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310053 China.

Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) poses a serious health threat to people around the world, particularly in patients with cancer. Whether or not cancer patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) receive anti-cancer therapy is associated with a poor prognosis is unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess whether anti-cancer therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy will increase the severity and mortality of cancer patients with COVID-19. Read More

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Fixed-dose combination of rosuvastatin and ezetimibe: treating hypercholesteremia according to cardiovascular risk.

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Cardiology Department, University Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with lipid-lowering therapies has been associated with a decrease in the frequency of cardiovascular events.

Areas Covered: A systematic search was conducted on PubMed (MEDLINE), using the MeSH terms [Rosuvastatin] + [Ezetimibe] + [Dyslipidemia] + [treatment]. Original data from clinical trials, prospective and retrospective studies and more useful reviews were selected. Read More

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Accessing Targeted Therapies: A Potential Roadblock to Implementing Precision Oncology?

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 May 10:OP2000927. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division on Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Purpose: Advances in genomic techniques have led to increased use of next-generation sequencing (NGS). We evaluated the extent to which these tests guide treatment decisions.

Methods: We developed and distributed a survey assessing NGS use and outcomes to a survey pool of ASCO members. Read More

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Phase II Study of Maintenance Rucaparib in Patients With Platinum-Sensitive Advanced Pancreatic Cancer and a Pathogenic Germline or Somatic Variant in , , or .

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 10:JCO2100003. Epub 2021 May 10.

Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: Olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (PARPi), is approved as maintenance therapy for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (PC) and a germline or pathogenic variant (PV). This investigator-initiated, single-arm phase II study assessed the role of the PARPi rucaparib as maintenance therapy in advanced PC with germline or somatic PV in , , or .

Patients And Methods: Eligible patients had advanced PC; germline (g) or somatic (s) PVs in , , or , and received at least 16 weeks of platinum-based chemotherapy without evidence of platinum resistance. Read More

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Diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes.

FP Essent 2021 May;504:11-15

University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School Department of Population Health, 1601 Trinity St. Bldg. B Stop Z0500, Austin, TX 78712.

Type 1 diabetes is defined as a state of hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency caused by autoimmune pancreatic beta-cell destruction. The risk among individuals in the general population has been estimated at 0.5%. Read More

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Real-World Utilization of EGFR TKIs and Prognostic Factors for Survival in EGFR-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Brain Metastases.

Int J Cancer 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Institute of Cancer Research and Basic Medical Sciences of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

Brain metastases (BMs) cause morbidity and mortality in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The optimal management of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated NSCLC with BM is debatable. We aimed to investigate the impact of different treatments among patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Read More

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Metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and heart failure: a review.

Endokrynol Pol 2021 ;72(2):163-170

3rd Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Silesian Center for Heart Diseases, Zabrze, Poland.

Diabetes mellitus is a major, global problem. Among the numerous complications of diabetes, there is increasing concern over the coexisting heart failure. Metformin is the most frequently used oral antidiabetic drug that is considered to be safe and effective in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Read More

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January 2021

Indirect Treatment Comparison of Liso-Cel vs. Salvage Chemotherapy in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: TRANSCEND vs. SCHOLAR-1.

Adv Ther 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Celgene, a Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Boudry, Switzerland.

Most patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have exhausted their treatment options and are deemed palliative. CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has recently been introduced as a new option for these patients. Lisocabtagene maraleucel (liso-cel) is an investigational CAR T-cell therapy that has shown promising activity in this setting. Read More

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A comparative study between CT, MRI, and intraoral US for the evaluation of the depth of invasion in early stage (T1/T2) tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

Oral Radiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 2-5274 Gakkocho-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata, 951-8514, Japan.

Objectives: This study aimed to clarify the accuracy of intraoral ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative image depth of invasion (DOI) measurement of T1/T2 tongue cancer through comparison with histopathological measurements.

Methods: Imaging of the primary lesions was performed at our hospital; the lesions were classified into T1 and T2 based on the 8th edition of the AJCC/UICC, and surgery performed. There was histopathological confirmation of lesions as squamous cell carcinoma in 48 patients with tongue cancer. Read More

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Management of Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Extremities: Variation in Treatment Recommendations and Surveillance According to Specialty and Continent.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Orthopedic Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: This study aimed to provide an insight into clinical decision-making and surveillance strategy of sarcoma specialists for patients with primary soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities (eSTS). The secondary aim was to quantify the role of patient- and tumor-specific factors in the perioperative management.

Methods: Members of sarcoma societies were sent a Web-based 21-item survey about eSTS management. Read More

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Ligation of the middle hepatic vein to increase hypertrophy induction during the ALPPS procedure.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, 07747, Jena, Germany.

Purpose: Here, we analyse the technical modification of the ALPPS procedure, ligating the middle hepatic vein during the first step of the operation to enhance remnant liver hypertrophy.

Methods: In 20 of 37 ALPPS procedures, the middle hepatic vein was ligated during the first step. Hypertrophy of the functional remnant liver volume was assessed in addition to postoperative courses. Read More

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Muscle mass change during chemotherapy in children with high-risk neuroblastoma: a retrospective case series of 24 patients.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Hematology & Oncology, Children's Cancer Center, Kobe Children's Hospital, Minatojima-Minamimachi 1-6-7, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0047, Japan.

The clinical characteristics, cause, and risk factors of sarcopenia are unclear in children. The aim of this study was to describe the course of and identify the factors related to muscle mass change during chemotherapy in children with neuroblastoma. A total of 24 consecutive patients aged below 18 years with newly diagnosed high-risk neuroblastoma between 2010 and 2018 in our hospital were enrolled in a case-series study. Read More

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A Case Report of Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis Secondary to Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma after Avelumab.

Perm J 2021 May;25

Kaiser Permanente Riverside Medical Center, Riverside, CA.

Introduction: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine cancer with a high mortality rate of 33% to 46%. Merkel cell is a type of epidermis cell receptor responsible for contact sensitivity and is known to have neuroendocrine properties. Treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma with avelumab has been prominsing, but its rarity and poor prognosis necessitates close follow up. Read More

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Utilization of Nivolumab in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma After Progression on Platinum-Based Chemotherapy.

Perm J 2021 May;25

Ochsner Cancer Institute, New Orleans, LA.

Introduction: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant neoplasm within the secretory glands of the head and neck. Clinical findings include a lump on the palate, tongue, or bottom of the mouth. Because symptoms can be mild, patients go for long periods of time without investigation. Read More

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Prediction of Radiation Pneumonitis With Machine Learning in Stage III Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15330338211016373

Eskisehir Osmangazi University Center of Research and Application for Computer Aided Diagnosis and Treatment in Health, Eskisehir, Turkey.

Background: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a dose-limiting toxicity in lung cancer radiotherapy (RT). As risk factors in the development of RP, patient and tumor characteristics, dosimetric parameters, and treatment features are intertwined, and it is not always possible to associate RP with a single parameter. This study aimed to determine the algorithm that most accurately predicted RP development with machine learning. Read More

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Rapid progression of an IDH-wild type histological low-grade glioma harbouring TERT promoter mutation and diffuse CD34 expression: a case report.

Folia Neuropathol 2021 ;59(1):104-111

Department of Pathology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai, China.

IDH-wild type (WT) histological low-grade gliomas are a rare group with distinct character and prognostic heterogeneity. Studies involving genetic and molecular analyses are warranted to stratify these patients into specific entities for the facilitation of tumour management. In this study, we reported a novel IDH-WT glioma with histological characteristics of a low-grade tumour. Read More

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January 2021

Adverse events associated with weekly short course isoniazid and rifapentine therapy in pediatric patients with latent tuberculosis: a chart and literature review.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Infectious Disease, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, 45229, USA.

Background: Effective yet safe treatment of latent tuberculosis is important for preventing the spread of tuberculosis and the progression to active disease in pediatric patients. As of 2017, the short course combination regimen of weekly isoniazid and rifapentine (3HP) administered by directly observed therapy (DOT) has replaced 9 months of isoniazid as the standard of treatment for latent tuberculosis in pediatric patients. The literature, limited in size, has established the 3HP regimen's superior safety and adherence. Read More

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Survival and pretreatment prognostic factors for extensive-stage small cell lung cancer: A comprehensive analysis of 358 patients.

Thorac Cancer 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing Key Laboratory of Clinical Study on Anticancer Molecular Targeted Drugs, Beijing, China.

Background: Extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) is deemed as a fatal malignancy with a poor prognosis. Although immunotherapy has gradually played an important role in the treatment of ES-SCLC since 2018, ES-SCLC treatment data and patient outcome before 2018, when chemotherapy served as a fundamental therapeutic strategy, is still meaningful as a summary of the situation regarding previous medical treatment and is a baseline for comparative data. In addition, the prognostic factors of ES-SCLC have failed to reach a consensus until now. Read More

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Lysosome Fe release is responsible for etoposide- and cisplatin-induced stemness of small cell lung cancer cells.

Environ Toxicol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, China.

Iron metabolism has been shown to hand over cancer stem cell, which is regarded as the root of tumor progression, recurrence and chemoresistance. This study aims to explore whether iron metabolism is involved in etoposide- and cisplatin-induced stemness in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. Here, analysis on tumor-sphere formation and stemness marker expression is performed to determine whether etoposide and cisplatin can induce SCLC cell stemness. Read More

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Antibiotyping and Genotyping of Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR) Salmonella Spp. Isolated from Clinical Samples of Lahore, Pakistan.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, 54590.

Aims: Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of XDR Salmonella among local population of Lahore and genotyping of isolates for antibiotic resistant genes.

Methods And Results: A total of 200 blood samples from suspected typhoid fever patients were collected. Read More

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