34,666 results match your criteria chemotherapy neoadjuvant

Surgical perspective on neoadjuvant immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

University of Leeds and St. James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK, Department of Thoracic Surgery.

Background: With a 5% improvement in 5-year overall survival achieved with current neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy, new treatments for resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are urgently needed. The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) is established in metastatic NSCLC and is being evaluated in resectable NSCLC.

Methods: Publications and conference databases and clinicaltrials. Read More

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Clinical Outcomes Following Regionalization of Gastric Cancer Care in a US Integrated Health Care System.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Aug 2:JCO2100480. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

The Permanente Medical Group, Gastric Surgery, Northern California, Oakland, CA.

Purpose: In 2016, Kaiser Permanente Northern California regionalized gastric cancer care, introducing a regional comprehensive multidisciplinary care team, standardizing staging and chemotherapy, and implementing laparoscopic gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy for patients eligible for curative-intent surgery. This study evaluated the effect of regionalization on outcomes.

Methods: The retrospective cohort study included gastric cancer cases diagnosed from January 2010 to May 2018. Read More

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Combined endocrine and targeted therapy in luminal breast cancer.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

AC Camargo Cancer Center, Rua Pires da Mota, 1167, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: For decades, endocrine therapy has been the cornerstone of management for luminal breast cancer. Despite the substantial benefit derived by patients from endocrine therapy, primary and secondary resistance to endocrine therapy are serious clinical issues.

Areas Covered: Today, in the advanced setting, 3 distinct classes of targeted agents - mTOR, CDK 4/6 and PI3K inhibitors are approved for use. Read More

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Neoadjuvant Immunotherapy: The Next Gold Standard Before Radical Surgery for Urothelial Cancer.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2021 Aug 21;30:34-36. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Medical Oncology Department, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy with bilateral pelvic lymph-node dissection is the current standard for cT2-4a N0 M0 urothelial bladder cancer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have recently been tested in the neoadjuvant setting with promising pathological and survival results and a better safety profile. Excellent pathological responses have been observed, especially in cases with higher clinical T stage and PD-L1 expression, in addition to patients with selected gene signatures. Read More

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Outcomes for Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer with Radical Cystectomy or Trimodal Therapy in US Veterans.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2021 Aug 9;30:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Background: Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) remains undertreated despite multiple potentially curative options. Both radical cystectomy (RC) with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy and trimodal therapy (TMT), including transurethral resection of bladder tumor followed by chemoradiotherapy, are standard treatments.

Objective: To evaluate real-world clinical outcomes of RC with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (RC-NAC), RC without NAC, TMT with National Comprehensive Cancer Network guideline-preferred radiosensitizing chemotherapy including cisplatin or mitomycin-C and 5-fluorouracil (pTMT), and TMT with nonpreferred chemotherapy (npTMT). Read More

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Decreasing Non-bladder-cancer Mortality After Radical Cystectomy.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2021 Jul 18;29:15-18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Urology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Life expectancy is increasing in many parts of the world. Using proportional hazard models for competing risks, we investigated whether this increase has changed outcomes after radical cystectomy in a sample of 1419 consecutive patients treated between 1993 and 2018. During the observation period, the mean age and the proportion of patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class 3 or 4 increased, whereas the proportion of patients with heart disease decreased. Read More

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Association of Neo-Family History Score with pathological complete response, safety, and survival outcomes in patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy: An exploratory analysis of two prospective trials.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Aug 17;38:101031. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Breast Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200127, People's Republic of China.

Background: Homologous recombination deficiency is associated with platinum-based chemosensitivity, whereas few studies reported the predictive value of family history of cancer for breast cancer in the neoadjuvant setting. This study aimed to construct a novel family history scoring system and to explore its association with clinical outcomes for patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy.

Methods: This study included 262 patients with locally advanced breast cancer enrolled in the SHPD001 and SHPD002 trials from October 2013 to June 2018. Read More

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History and emerging trends in chemotherapy for gastric cancer.

Ann Gastroenterol Surg 2021 Jul 1;5(4):446-456. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery Kitasato University School of Medicine Sagamihara Japan.

Chemotherapy is indispensable for gastric cancer. For unresectable and/or recurrent gastric cancer, first-line chemotherapy consists of multidrug regimens including oral 5-FU agents such as S1/Xeloda and platinum preparations, as well as Trastuzumab, which is effective in HER2-positive cases. Second- and third-line chemotherapy regimens include taxanes, Ramucirumab (R-mab), and Nivolumab (N-mab), which have different mechanisms of action from first-line chemotherapy. Read More

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Postoperative Adjuvant Treatment Strategy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer after Neoadjuvant Treatment.

Biomed Res Int 2021 28;2021:8852699. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Surgical Oncology and General Surgery, Key Laboratory of Precision Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Tumors, Ministry of Education, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, 155 North Nanjing Street, Heping District, Shenyang City 110001, China.

Background: Neoadjuvant (chemo) radiotherapy is used as a standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), but there is no general consensus on either the efficacy of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with LARC after neoadjuvant treatment and surgery, or whether the addition of oxaliplatin to adjuvant chemotherapy provides survival benefits.

Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of data from the PubMed and Embase databases. We included patients with LARC who received neoadjuvant (chemo) radiotherapy and curative surgery. Read More

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Application Research of Individualized Conditional Reprogramming System to Guide Treatment of Gastric Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:709511. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, China.

Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common causes of malignant tumors in the world. Due to the high heterogeneity of GC and lack of specificity of available chemotherapy regimens, these tumors are prone to resistance, recurrence, and metastasis. Here, we formulated an individualized chemotherapy regimen for GC using a modified individual conditional reprogramming (i-CR) system. Read More

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Management of Clinically Involved Lateral Lymph Node Metastasis in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Radiation Dose Escalation Study.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:674253. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Patients with lateral lymph nodes (LLNs) metastasis are not effectively treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of three neoadjuvant therapeutic regimens, namely, chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, and chemoradiotherapy with a dose boost of LLNs, and to identify the optimal approach for treating LLNs metastasis of locally advanced rectal cancer.

Methods: A total of 202 patients with baseline LLNs metastasis (short axis ≥5 mm) and treated with neoadjuvant treatment, followed by radical surgery from 2011 to 2019, were enrolled. Read More

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Clinical and Genetic Predictive Models for the Prediction of Pathological Complete Response to Optimize the Effectiveness for Trastuzumab Based Chemotherapy.

Front Oncol 2021 15;11:592393. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Breast Surgery, Shanghai Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Trastuzumab shows excellent benefits for HER2+ breast cancer patients, although 20% treated remain unresponsive. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to optimize neoadjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab treatment in HER2+ breast cancer patients.

Methods: Six hundred patients were analyzed to identify clinical characteristics of those not achieving a pathological complete response (pCR) to develop a clinical predictive model. Read More

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A Case of Retroperitoneal Synovial Sarcoma in Pregnancy Treated with Antepartum Doxorubicin plus Ifosfamide Chemotherapy.

Case Rep Oncol Med 2021 16;2021:9982171. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Sarcoma Department, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, USA.

We report a case of a 25-year-old pregnant woman diagnosed with a large, unresectable retroperitoneal synovial sarcoma. Successful neoadjuvant treatment with doxorubicin plus ifosfamide prepartum and continuing postpartum resulted in significant disease response allowing for later tumor resection. Following the first prepartum chemotherapy cycle, a decreased amniotic fluid index was noted, representing a potential complication of chemotherapy. Read More

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Discrepancy of Breast and Axillary Pathologic Complete Response and Outcomes in Different Subtypes of Node-positive Breast Cancer after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

J Cancer 2021 6;12(17):5365-5374. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Few studies have analyzed the discrepancy between breast pathologic complete response (B-pCR) and axillary node pCR (N-pCR) rates and their impact on survival outcomes in different intrinsic subtypes of early breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). We retrospectively reviewed B-pCR, N-pCR, and total (breast and axillary node) pCR (T-pCR) after NAC to assess the discrepancy and outcomes between 2005 and 2017. A total of 968 patients diagnosed with cT1-4c, N1-2, and M0 breast cancer were enrolled in the study. Read More

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Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy DOX and XELOX Regimens for Patients with Resectable Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2021 22;2021:5590626. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of General Surgery, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Hebei Medical University, No.12, Jian-Kang Road, Shijiazhuang 050019, China.

Purpose: This paper is aimed at comparing the short-term efficacy of the combination of docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine (DOX) with the combination of oxaliplatin and capecitabine (XELOX) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of patients with resectable gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.

Methods: A total of 300 patients aged 20-60 years with resectable gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma who were evaluated with cT3/4Nany were randomly assigned into 3 groups: DOX group ( = 100, treated with neoadjuvant DOX plus adjuvant XELOX), XELOX group ( = 100, treated with perioperative XELOX), and surgery group ( = 100, treated with adjuvant XELOX).

Results: A total of 93, 92, and 95 patients were enrolled in the DOX, XELOX, and surgery groups, respectively. Read More

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Immunoscore Signatures in Surgical Specimens and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Pretreatment Biopsy Predict Treatment Efficacy and Survival in Esophageal Cancer.

Ann Surg 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, Suita City, Osaka, Japan Department of Pathology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, Suita City, Osaka, Japan Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Osaka, Japan Department of Pathology, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Osaka, Japan.

Objectives: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have long been recognized as playing an important role in tumor immune microenvironment. Lately, the Immunoscore (IS) has been proposed as a new method of quantifying the number of TILs in association with patient survival in several cancer types.

Methods: In 300 preoperatively untreated esophageal cancer (EC) patients who underwent curative resection at two different institutes, immunohistochemical staining using CD3 and CD8 antibodies was performed to evaluate IS, as objectively scored by auto-counted TILs in the tumor core and invasive margin. Read More

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Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Predicts Poor Response and Prognosis in Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Participant Data From 3 Prospective Studies.

Clin Colorectal Cancer 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Medical Oncology, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, P.R. China.; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Colorectal and Pelvic Floor Diseases, Guangzhou, Guangdong, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the predictive implications and prognosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) with intensified neoadjuvant treatment.

Methods: Individual patient data of LARC patients from 3 prospective clinical trials was analyzed. Neoadjuvant treatment regimens comprised chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with fluorouracil (5-FU) or mFOLFOX6, neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone with mFOLFOX6 or mFOLFOXIRI. Read More

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Primary hepatic mixed germ cell tumor in an adult.

J Pathol Transl Med 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Primary hepatic mixed germ cell tumor (GCT) is very rare, and less than 10 cases have been reported. We report a case of mixed GCT composed of a choriocarcinoma and yolk sac tumor, which occurred in the liver of a 40-year-old woman. A large mass was detected by computed tomography solely in the liver. Read More

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Primary urethral carcinoma: Results from a single center experience.

Actas Urol Esp 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Departamento de Urología, Fundació Puigvert, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, España.

Introduction And Aim Of The Study: Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) is a rare neoplastic disease arising in the urethra, without any evidence of a previous or synchronous carcinoma of the entire urinary tract. Since rare diseases are often incorrectly diagnosed and managed, the aim of this study was to analyze the experience of a single urology center in the treatment of PUC, focusing on neoplasms arising from the male anterior urethra.

Materials And Methods: Medical records of patients with neoplasms at the level of the penile and bulbar urethra who presented at our tertiary referral center between January 1988 and December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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Transanal approach after preoperative imatinib treatment of a rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumors with external anal sphincter invasion: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Jul 19;85:106217. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Isahaya General Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan.

Introduction And Importance: Rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare, and preserving anorectal function can be challenging. We report the case of a patient with rectal GIST with external anal sphincter invasion, treated via the laparoscopic and transanal approaches.

Case Presentation: A 61-year-old man with locally advanced GIST in the right anterolateral wall of the lower rectum was examined. Read More

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Margin Width and Local Recurrence in Patients Undergoing Breast Conservation After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Breast Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: A margin of "no ink on tumor" has been established for primary breast conservation therapy (BCT), but the appropriate margin following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) remains controversial. We examined the impact of margin width on ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) in the NAC-BCT population.

Methods: Consecutive patients receiving NAC-BCT were identified from a prospective database. Read More

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Treatment strategies and outcomes for elderly patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

Surg Today 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo, 135-8550, Japan.

Purpose: A multidisciplinary treatment strategy for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is required to achieve prolonged survival. We aimed to clarify the differences in treatment strategies for locally advanced ESCC and the outcomes of elderly (aged ≥ 75 years) vs. younger patients (aged < 75 years). Read More

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Predictive model for systemic recurrence following cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical nephroureterectomy for high risk upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

Urol Oncol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, Moscow.

Introduction: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is increasingly used prior to radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Systemic recurrence (SR) carries a dismal prognosis. We sought to determine risk factors associated with SR in this setting. Read More

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Long-term changes in nutritional status and body composition in patients with malignant pancreatic disease - A systematic review.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Aug 10;44:85-95. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Royal Surrey Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Egerton Road, Guildford, UK.

Background And Aims: Patients with pancreatic cancer often experience significant deterioration in nutritional status over time. Malnutrition is complex and multifactorial, with malabsorption, pain, toxic dependencies, co-morbidities and malignant processes all playing a role. The aims of this systematic review were to assess nutritional changes over time and identify tolerance of nutritional intervention, thus identifying potential areas for further research to improve patient outcomes. Read More

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Neoadjuvant Intraperitoneal and Systemic Chemotherapy Versus Neoadjuvant Systemic Chemotherapy With Docetaxel, Oxaliplatin, and S-1 for Gastric Cancer With Peritoneal Metastasis: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15330338211036310

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 56652Changzheng Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The optimal treatment for gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis (GCPM) remains debatable. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant intraperitoneal and systemic chemotherapy (NIPS) versus neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy (NSC) for GCPM.

Methods: Patients of GCPM received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel, oxaliplatin and S-1 between January 2011 and June 2019 were retrospectively evaluated. Read More

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Co-clinical FDG-PET radiomic signature in predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Purpose: We sought to exploit the heterogeneity afforded by patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDX) to first, optimize and identify robust radiomic features to predict response to therapy in subtype-matched triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) PDX, and second, to implement PDX-optimized image features in a TNBC co-clinical study to predict response to therapy using machine learning (ML) algorithms.

Methods: TNBC patients and subtype-matched PDX were recruited into a co-clinical FDG-PET imaging trial to predict response to therapy. One hundred thirty-one imaging features were extracted from PDX and human-segmented tumors. Read More

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Neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery versus surgery followed by chemotherapy for initial treatment in advanced ovarian epithelial cancer.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 07 30;7:CD005343. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton, UK.

Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer presents at an advanced stage in the majority of women. These women require a combination of surgery and chemotherapy for optimal treatment. Conventional treatment has been to perform surgery first and then give chemotherapy. Read More

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Treatment Switch in Poor Responders with Locally Advanced Gastric Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Ministry of Education/Beijing), Gastrointestinal Cancer Center, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China.

Background: Among locally advanced gastric cancer (LAGC) patients, poor response to initial neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is associated with unfavorable outcomes; however, changing the postoperative therapy regimen in this group of patients is unclear. We compared the poor responders who continued the original protocols with that of patients who switched treatment after NAC plus D2 gastrectomy.

Methods: Our study included LAGC patients who achieved tumor regression grade 3 according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer/College of American Pathologists system, after NAC, between December 2006 and December 2017 at our institution. Read More

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Primary Small Cell Neuroendocrine Tumour of Gallbladder Presenting as Pyrexia of Unknown Origin.

Cureus 2021 Jun 23;13(6):e15874. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Gastroenterology, School of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, IND.

Herein, we report a case of primary small cell neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the gallbladder in a 45-year-old female who presented with complaints of fever accompanied by abdominal pain on the right upper quadrant for one month. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography abdomen showed a large gallbladder mass. It was infiltrating the segments IVa, IVb, and V of the liver. Read More

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