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INFLAMMATION IN CHILDHOOD EPILEPSY SYNDROMES.

Georgian Med News 2021 Mar(312):88-92

Tbilisi State Medical University, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Georgia.

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorder affecting up to 1% of the world population. It is a heterogeneous disorder and includes genetic, structural, metabolic causes, sometimes reason is unknown. In recent 20 years inflammation has been considered as a possible etiologic factor in angiogenesis and epileptogenesis in experimental models but there is still lack of evidence if inflammation could be seen in clinical cases of children with different forms of epilepsy. Read More

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INFLUENCE OF URSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID ON THE CHOLECYSTOKININ LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH GASTRO-ESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS.

Georgian Med News 2021 Mar(312):67-71

State Higher Educational Institution «Uzhhorod National University», Medical Faculty, Ukraine.

Of particular interest is the study of the peculiarities of clinical findings and diagnostics of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of the research - to study the dynamics of cholecystokinin (CCK) level on the background of complex therapy using the ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) drug in patients with GERD with type 2 DM. 68 patients with combination of type 2 DM and GERD were examined. Read More

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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the liver accompanied by primary biliary cholangitis: A rare and difficult-to-diagnose tumor with portal venous thrombosis.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 30;82:105936. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Surgery, Shiga General Hospital, Moriyama, 5-4-30 Moriyama, Moriyama, Shiga 524-8524, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction And Importance: The most common liver malignancies are hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and metastatic tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma may invade the portal vein (PV). An association between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) remains unclear. Read More

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Biliary tree neuroendocrine tumor, an incidental finding.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 30;82:105940. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

General Surgery Department, School of Medicine, University of Jordan, Jordan. Electronic address:

Introduction And Importance: Biliary tree neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare, with 100 cases in the literature, and have an excellent prognosis. Although they are rarely diagnosed before surgery, complete surgical excision offers optimal treatment.

Case Presentation: We report a case of a 36-year-old female patient referred to the surgical team with obstructive jaundice for which she was investigated and found to have a common bile duct tumor showing proximal obstruction. Read More

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Ischiorectal fossa metastasis from colon cancer: Case report of a rare entity and review of literature.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 27;82:105912. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Surgery, King Fahad Specialist Hospital-Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction And Importance: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers both nationally and internationally. It commonly metastases to local lymph nodes, liver and lungs, with few reported cases of rare sites of metastasis such as adrenal glands, breast and skin.

Case Presentation: We report a 55-year-old-female admitted as case of large bowel obstruction and unintentional weight loss. Read More

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Advanced eco-friendly UV spectrophotometric approach for resolving overlapped spectral signals of antihypertensive agents in their binary and tertiary pharmaceutical dosage form.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Apr 19;258:119855. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Badr City 11829, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Cardiovascular disorders are among the foremost causes of death worldwide, especially hypertension, a silent killer syndrome that requires multiple drug therapy for proper management. This work presents novel and green spectrophotometric methods for the concurrent analysis of Amlodipine (AML), Telmisartan (TEL), Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), and Chlorthalidone (CLO) in their pharmaceutical dosage form. The suggested methods were Fourier-self deconvolution, amplitude factor, and first derivative methods developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of a tertiary mixture of AML, TEL, and HCTZ in TELVAS 3D 80 mg tablet and a binary mixture of TEL and CLO in TELMIKIND-CT 40 tablets. Read More

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Circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA level post induction chemotherapy contributes to prognostication in advanced-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 5;151:63-71. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, No. 651 Dongfeng Eastern Road, Guangzhou, 510060, China. Electronic address:

Background: To investigate the value of post-induction chemotherapy (IC) cell-free Epstein-Barr virus DNA (cfEBV DNA) for prognostication in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC).

Methods: A total of 910 histologically proven LA-NPC undergoing radical IC + concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) or targeted radiotherapy (CTRT) or both (CTCRT) were involved. The concentration of cfEBV DNA was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction pre-IC (cfEBV DNA) and at IC completion. Read More

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Clinical features and surgical results of pediatric pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: analysis of 17 cases with a literature review.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

The Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, PR China, No. 119, Southwest 4th Ring Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, PR China, 100070. Electronic address:

Background: Pediatric pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare brain tumor. To date, there are very few studies dedicated to this kind of pediatric tumor. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of pediatric PXA. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and overall survival prognostic nomogram for oligodendroglioma: a SEER population-based analysis.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of medicine, TaikangXianlin Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210046, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate demographics, outcomes, and prognostic factors of all oligodendroglioma cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database and to build a clinical prognosis model for the prediction of survival time for oligodendroglioma patients.

Methods: Cases diagnosed between 1975 and 2016 were selected from the SEER Program. Age, sex, race, insurance, year of diagnosis, marital status, tumor location, tumor size, summary stage, surgery method, and use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy were evaluated with respect to overall survival by univariate and multivariate analysis. Read More

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In vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam against ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hospitalized patients in Germany.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Ruhr-University Bochum, German National Reference Centre for Multidrug-Resistant Gram-negative Bacteria, Bochum, Germany.

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Prognostic value of preoperative psoas muscle index as a measure of nutritional status in patients with esophageal cancer receiving neoadjuvant therapy.

Nutrition 2021 Mar 6;90:111232. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

First Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan.

Objectives: It has been reported that preoperative nutritional status in some gastrointestinal cancers has a significant effect on postoperative prognosis. However, there are few reports on esophageal cancer, especially for esophageal cancer patients who have undergone neoadjuvant therapy and surgery. Psoas muscle index (PMI) is widely known as an index for assessing preoperative nutritional status, and has recently been reported for its prognostic value in many malignancies. Read More

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Folate-targeted verrucarin A reduces the number of activated macrophages in a mouse model of acute peritonitis.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 May 5:128091. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN 47907 USA; Institute for Drug Discovery, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN 47907 USA. Electronic address:

Activated macrophages contribute prominently to the progression and maintenance of almost all inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Although non-specific elimination of these phagocytes has been shown to treat animal models of inflammatory disease, the same therapies have been compromised by unacceptable toxicities, because they also kill quiescent macrophages in healthy tissues. In the studies below, we exploit upregulation of folate receptor beta (FRβ) on inflammatory (but not resting) macrophages to target a cytotoxic drug selectively to the inflammatory subset of macrophages. Read More

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Nanobodies as efficient drug-carriers: Progress and trends in chemotherapy.

J Control Release 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México (UNAM), Apartado Postal 1-1010, Queretaro, Queretaro 76000, Mexico.

Nanobodies (Nb) have a promising future as a part of next generation chemodrug delivery systems. Nb, or VHH, are small (15 kDa) monomeric antibody fragments consisting of the antigen binding region of heavy chain antibodies. Heavy chain antibodies are naturally produced by camelids, however the structure of their VHH regions can be readily reproduced in industrial expression systems, such as bacteria or yeast. Read More

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Comparison of clinical efficacy of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy between lower and higher radiation dose for carcinoma of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction: a systematic review.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radio-Chemotherapy, Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: Neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) plus surgery has been a standard treatment for locoregionally advanced esophageal cancer and carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction (EC/GEJ), but an optimal preoperative radiation dose is still unclear.

Purpose: We performed this systematic review to explore the treatment efficacy and toxicity of different radiation dose levels and find an optimal dose-fractionation strategy in EC/GEJ patients receiving nCRT.

Methods: Embase and Ovid Medline were searched for articles involving operable squamous and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and GEJ receiving nCRT up to a dose of 50. Read More

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Differential expression and role of miR-200 family in multiple tumors.

Anal Biochem 2021 May 5:114243. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou, 563000, PR China. Electronic address:

microRNA (miRNA) can maintain the homeostasis of the human by participating in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and metabolism. During the entire stage of tumorigenesis, miRNA can maintain the heterogeneity of cancer stem cells by regulating the formation and metastasis of the tumor, which leads to chemotherapy resistance. miR-200 family consists of five members, which can regulate the proliferation, invasion, and migration of cancer cells by inhibiting the transcription of downstream genes (including zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 and 2, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, transforming growth factor-β, and cancer stem cell related-proteins). Read More

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Specific inhibition of oncogenic RAS using cell-permeable RAS-binding domains.

Cell Chem Biol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

United Graduate School of Drug Discovery and Medical Information Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193, Japan. Electronic address:

Oncogenic RAS proteins, common oncogenic drivers in many human cancers, have been refractory to conventional small-molecule and macromolecule inhibitors due to their intracellular localization and the lack of druggable pockets. Here, we present a feasible strategy for designing RAS inhibitors that involves intracellular delivery of RAS-binding domain (RBD), a nanomolar-affinity specific ligand of RAS. Screening of 51 different combinations of RBD and cell-permeable peptides has identified Pen-cRaf-v1 as a cell-permeable pan-RAS inhibitor capable of targeting both G12C and non-G12C RAS mutants. Read More

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Pharmacological SARM1 inhibition protects axon structure and function in paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.

Brain 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Disarm Therapeutics, a wholly owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly & Co., Cambridge MA 02142, USA.

Axonal degeneration is an early and ongoing event that causes disability and disease progression in many neurodegenerative disorders of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major cause of morbidity and the main cause of dose reductions and discontinuations in cancer treatment. Preclinical evidence indicates that activation of the Wallerian-like degeneration pathway driven by SARM1 is responsible for axonopathy in CIPN. Read More

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When to ask for an MRI of the scrotum.

Andrology 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Radiological, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome Viale Regina Elena, 324, 00161, Roma, Italy.

Background: Multiparametric MRI of the scrotum has been established as a useful second-line diagnostic tool for the investigation of scrotal diseases. Recently, recommendations on clinical indications for scrotal MRI were issued by the Scrotal and Penile Imaging Working Group of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology.

Objective: To update current research on when to ask for an MRI of the scrotum. Read More

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Tolerability of four-drug antiretroviral combination therapy in primary HIV-1 infection.

HIV Med 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Objectives: Rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important for individuals with high baseline viral loads, such as in primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). Four-drug regimens are sometimes considered; however, data are lacking on tolerability. We aimed to evaluate the tolerability of four-drug regimens used in the Research in Viral Eradication of HIV-1 Reservoirs (RIVER) study. Read More

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A randomized controlled trial of manual versus powered tooth brushing during haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Oral Dis 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Dentistry, Radboudumc, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Aim: To compare manual and powered tooth brushing (MT and PT) with respect to patient compliance to brushing frequency advice, plaque removal and severity of oral mucositis (OM) in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) after high dose chemotherapy.

Materials & Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. Forty six patients scheduled to receive myelo-ablative conditioning regimen before autologous HSCT were included and randomly assigned to control (MT, n=23) or test (PT, n=23) groups. Read More

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A Pharmacological and Clinical Overview of Oral Semaglutide for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

Drugs 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, 2900, Gentofte, Denmark.

Oral semaglutide (Rybelsus) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) with 94% homology to human GLP-1. It is the first GLP-1RA developed for oral administration, and it comprises a co-formulation of the peptide semaglutide with the absorption enhancer sodium N-(8-[2-hydroxybenzoyl] amino) caprylate, which overcomes the challenges of peptide absorption in the acidic conditions of the stomach. Oral semaglutide is indicated for use as an add-on combination therapy (with other glucose-lowering agents, including insulin) or as a monotherapy (in patients who are intolerant to metformin) for type 2 diabetes when diet and exercise do not provide adequate glycemic control. Read More

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Expression of CD44 variant 9 induces chemoresistance of gastric cancer by controlling intracellular reactive oxygen spices accumulation.

Gastric Cancer 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

Background: CD44 variant 9 (CD44v9) has been reported to suppress reactive oxygen spices (ROS) in association with antioxidant factors such as glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPx2), resulting in promoted tumor growth.

Methods: CD44v9 and GPx2 expression were investigated by immunohistochemistry in resected specimens from 193 gastric cancer (GC) patients without preoperative chemotherapy and in pretreatment biopsy specimens from 29 GC patients with preoperative chemotherapy. We analyzed the relationship between CD44v9 expression and clinicopathological factors, prognosis, and pathological response to chemotherapy. Read More

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Prediction of treatment response from the microenvironment of tumor immunity in cervical cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy.

Med Mol Morphol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, S1 W16, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8543, Japan.

To supplement clinical decision-making in the management of cervical cancer, various prognostic factors, including tumor immune microenvironments, were examined in patients with cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the expression of CD8, FoxP3, HLA-1, PD-L1, and XRCC4 in 100 cases of cervical cancer. The observed tumor immune microenvironments were also classified into three types: inflamed, excluded, and cold type. Read More

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Gastrointestinal and oncologic outcomes of pediatric gastrointestinal lymphoma following upfront resection or biopsy of bowel masses.

Pediatr Surg Int 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Paediatric Surgery, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore, 229899, Singapore.

Purpose: Complete upfront resection of pediatric gastrointestinal lymphomas is recommended over biopsy whenever feasible, but either approach may have adverse sequelae. We sought to compare gastrointestinal and oncological outcomes of pediatric gastrointestinal lymphomas who underwent attempted upfront resection or biopsy of the presenting bowel mass.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts of children with gastrointestinal lymphomas treated on LMB89 and LMB96 protocols from 2000 to 2019 who underwent upfront gastrointestinal surgery, and compared resection and biopsy groups. Read More

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Does preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy impact short-term surgical outcomes in patients with locally advanced colon cancer?

Int J Colorectal Dis 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Surgery, University of Arizona Medical Center, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Background: Preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for colon cancer in advanced stages is associated with improved outcomes and tumor regression. The aim of our study was to identify outcomes in patients with colon cancer who received preoperative NAC.

Methods: A 4-year analysis of the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) was performed. Read More

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Impact of assessment frequency of patient-reported outcomes: an observational study using an eHealth platform in cancer patients.

Support Care Cancer 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Warwick Medical School & Cancer Research Centre, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Background And Aim: The evaluation of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in cancer has proven relevant positive clinical impact on patients' communication with healthcare professionals, decision-making for management, well-being, and overall survival. However, the optimal frequency of PRO assessment has yet to be defined. Based on the assumption that more frequent sampling would enhance accuracy, we aimed at identifying the optimal sampling frequency that does not miss clinically relevant insight. Read More

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Multi-institutional survey of thymic carcinoma patients in Hokushin region.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Medical Oncology, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

Background: Thymic carcinoma is a rare neoplasm, and its prognosis is very poor. The purpose of this study was to validate the clinical and epidemiological factors, diagnosis and initial treatment of thymic carcinoma among all patients diagnosed in the registered hospital group.

Methods: We surveyed retrospective data from 152,921 cancer patients in 22 principal hospitals. Read More

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A Programmed Cell-Mimicking Nanoparticle Driven by Potato Alkaloid for Targeted Cancer Chemoimmunotherapy.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 May 8:e2100311. Epub 2021 May 8.

Medical Research Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Membrane camouflaged-nanoparticles (CM-NPs) have been exploited to inherit desired functionalities from source cells. Despite those advantages, membrane cloak may play a "double-edged sword" role in tumor-targeting therapy, as the intact membrane coating may hinder function-exertion of loaded drugs after reaching predetermined site. Therefore, further optimization of CM-NPs is still needed to enhance their delivery efficiency. Read More

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Pediatric Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma: A National Database Inquiry on Current Treatment Approaches in the United States.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 May 8:e1415. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Background: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs) account for <1% of primary brain tumors, occurring predominantly in children and young adults. Surgical resection serves as the primary treatment for PXAs, while radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy protocols remain poorly defined.

Aim: This study aims to determine current care patterns utilized for pediatric patients (≤ 18 years) diagnosed with PXAs and their effect on overall survival. Read More

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[Establishment of naive Bayes classifier-based risk prediction model for chemotherapyinduced nausea and vomiting].

Authors:
Z Cao X Xiong Q Yang

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Apr;41(4):607-612

Clinical Nursing Teaching and Research Section of the Second XiangYa Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410011, China.

Objective: To establish a risk prediction model of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting based on naive Bayes classifier.

Objective: We collected the basic information, treatment protocols and follow-up data from 300 patients receiving chemotherapy in the Oncology Department of Second Xiangya Hospital from July to September, 2020. Correlation analysis was carried out between the potential factors related to nausea and vomiting in the treatment plan and the individual characteristics of the patients. Read More

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