131 results match your criteria charging pattern

Improved Hydrogenation Kinetics of TiMn Alloy Coated with Palladium through Electroless Deposition.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 7;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Chemistry, School of Physical and Mineral Sciences, University of Limpopo (Turfloop), Polokwane, Sovenga 0727, South Africa.

The deterioration of hydrogen charging performances resulting from the surface chemical action of electrophilic gases such as CO is one of the prevailing drawbacks of TiMn materials. In this study, we report the effect of autocatalytic Pd deposition on the morphology, structure, and hydrogenation kinetics of TiMn alloy. Both the uncoated and Pd-coated materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Read More

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Ultrafast Microwave Synthesis of Carbon-Coated Lithium Vanadium Phosphate Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Mar;21(3):1500-1506

School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450001, PR China.

Carbon-coated lithium vanadium phosphate cathode materials were successfully prepared via an ultra-fast microwave irradiation route in 5 min with using activated carbon as the microwave adsorbent. We aimed to utilize this ultra-fast and facile route to shorten the synthesis procedure for obtaining Li₃V₂(PO₄)₃/C cathode material with superior rate capability. To characterize the intrinsic crystal structure and exterior architecture morphology of targeted material, X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied in experiment. Read More

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Hourly Power Grid Variations, Electric Vehicle Charging Patterns, and Operating Emissions.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 12 26;54(24):16071-16085. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

MIT Energy Initiative, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

Light-duty vehicles emit ∼20% of net US greenhouse gases. Deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce these emissions. The magnitude of the reduction depends significantly on EV charging patterns and hourly power grid variations. Read More

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December 2020

Real-time dose control for electron-beam lithography.

Nanotechnology 2021 Feb;32(9):095302

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston, MA 02115, United States of America. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, United States of America.

Shot-to-shot, or pixel-to-pixel, dose variation during electron-beam lithography is a significant practical and fundamental problem. Dose variations associated with charging, electron source instability, optical system drift, and ultimately shot noise in the e-beam itself conspire to critical dimension variability, line width/edge roughness, and limited throughput. It would be an important improvement to e-beam based patterning technology if real-time feedback control of electron-dose were provided so that pattern quality and throughput would be improved beyond the shot noise limit. Read More

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February 2021

Tuning single-electron charging and interactions between compressible Landau level islands in graphene.

Phys Rev B 2020 ;101(3)

Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, USA.

Interacting and tunable quantum dots (QDs) have been extensively exploited in condensed matter physics and quantum information science. Using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM), we both create and directly image a new type of coupled QD system in graphene, a highly interacting quantum relativistic system with tunable density. Using detailed scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements, we show that Landau quantization inside a potential well enables novel electron confinement via the incompressible strips between partially filled Landau levels (LLs), forming isolated and concentric LL QDs. Read More

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January 2020

Laser Pyrolysis of Imprinted Furan Pattern for the Precise Fabrication of Microsupercapacitor Electrodes.

Micromachines (Basel) 2020 Jul 30;11(8). Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06974, Korea.

The design or dimension of micro-supercapacitor electrodes is an important factor that determines their performance. In this study, a microsupercapacitor was precisely fabricated on a silicon substrate by irradiating an imprinted furan micropattern with a CO laser beam under ambient conditions. Since furan is a carbon-abundant polymer, electrically conductive and porous carbon structures were produced by laser-induced pyrolysis. Read More

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Indirect Carbon Emissions and Energy Consumption Model for Electric Vehicles: Indian Scenario.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2020 Nov 31;16(6):998-1007. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute for Applied Sciences (INSA), Toulouse, France.

The environment-friendly nature of E-vehicles (electric vehicles) coupled with higher energy efficiency has increased their popularity in the automotive industry. A detailed study has been conducted in this article to evaluate the role of the energy mix for electricity generation at the charging locations in secondary C emissions from E-vehicles. The E-vehicle market is booming in India. Read More

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November 2020

Compressing Double [7]Helicene by Successive Charging with Electrons.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 Sep 15;59(37):15923-15927. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Chemistry, University at Albany, State University of New York, 1400 Washington Ave, Albany, NY, 12222, USA.

Chemical reduction of a benzo-fused double [7]helicene (1) with two alkali metals, K and Rb, provided access to three different reduced states of 1. The doubly-reduced helicene 1 has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction as a solvent-separated ion triplet with two potassium counterions. The triply- and tetra-reduced helicenes, 1 and 1 , have been crystallized together in an equimolar ratio and both form the contact-ion complexes with two Rb ions each, leaving three remaining Rb ions wrapped by crown ether and THF molecules. Read More

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September 2020

Enhancing flashover performance of alumina/epoxy spacers by adaptive surface charge regulation using graded conductivity coating.

Nanotechnology 2020 Sep 15;31(36):364002. Epub 2020 May 15.

State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, People's Republic of China.

Surface flashover properties of alumina/epoxy spacers, involving a surface charge accumulation process, are critical for the safe and reliable operation of a high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) gas-insulated transmission line (GIL). This study reports surface charging behavior and flashover performance of alumina/epoxy spacers with different surface conductivity graded coating (SCGC) schemes in SF/N mixtures under DC stress. Four kinds of SCGC schemes, i. Read More

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September 2020

Test Pattern Design for Plasma Induced Damage on Inter-Metal Dielectric in FinFET Cu BEOL Processes.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2020 May 1;15(1):96. Epub 2020 May 1.

Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan.

High-density interconnects, enabled by advanced CMOS Cu BEOL technologies, lead to closely placed metals layers. High-aspect ratio metal lines require extensive plasma etching processes, which may cause reliability concerns on inter metal dielectric (IMD) layers. This study presents newly proposed test patterns for evaluating the effect of plasma-induced charging effect on the integrity of IMD between closely placed metal lines. Read More

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Development of a half-cell for x-ray structural analysis of liquid electrolytes in rechargeable batteries.

Rev Sci Instrum 2020 Mar;91(3):033907

Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555, Japan.

A half-cell of the rechargeable Li-ion battery was developed to characterize an electrolyte structure using high energy x-ray total scattering measurements in combination with a two-dimensional x-ray detector. The scattering pattern consisted of strong Bragg peaks from electrodes and diffuse scatterings from sapphire windows, in addition to a weak halo pattern from the electrolyte. By selectively removing the signals of the electrodes and windows using specific numerical procedures, we could successfully extract the structural information of the electrolyte, which was in reasonable agreement with the reference data obtained from the electrolyte in a glass capillary. Read More

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Long-Term Alleviation of Parkinsonian Resting Tremor Using Wireless Optogenetic Nanonetworks.

IEEE Trans Nanobioscience 2020 07 12;19(3):403-409. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Resting tremor is one of the major symptoms of Parkinson's disease, which causes havoc in motor functions of the body, has its genesis in communication impairments in the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia. The modern sophisticated surgical treatments, including electrical deep brain stimulation do not yield satisfactory results due to their inability to provide long-term cure and minimize side effects, such as discomfort and increased infection rates. In this work, we propose a novel system based on the emerging communication technology of wireless optogenetic networks of neural dusts to provide a long-term solution for the alleviation of resting tremor. Read More

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Etch characteristics of Si and TiO nanostructures using pulse biased inductively coupled plasmas.

Nanotechnology 2020 Apr 4;31(26):265302. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 16419, Republic of Korea.

The etch characteristics of Si and TiO nanostructures for optical devices were investigated using pulse biased inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) with SF/CF/Ar and BCl/Ar, respectively, and the results were compared with those etched using continuous wave (CW) biased ICP. By using pulse biasing compared to CW biasing in the etching of the line/pillar nanostructures with various aspect ratios, there was a reduction of the aspect ratio dependent etching (ARDE) and therefore, uniform etch depths for nanostructures with different pattern widths, as well as the improvement of the etch profiles without any notching, were obtained not only for silicon nanostructures but also for TiO nanostructures. The investigation has determined that the improvement of etch profiles and reduced ARDE effect when using pulse biasing are related to the decreased surface charging caused by neutralization of the surface and the improved radical adsorption (or etch byproduct removal) on the etched surfaces during the pulse-off period for pulse biasing compared to CW biasing. Read More

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Tip-Enhanced Raman Nanospectroscopy of Smooth Spherical Gold Nanoparticles.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Mar 20;11(5):1795-1801. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States.

We record nanoscale-resolved chemical images of thiobenzonitrile (TBN)-functionalized smooth gold nanospheres on silicon via tip-enhanced Raman (TER) nanospectroscopy. The recorded images trace the nascence of the familiar doughnut-shaped scattering profile of nanoparticles on silicon at its origin (the particle surface), which appears as a horseshoe-shaped scattering pattern under our experimental conditions. The local optical field maps are in agreement with their simulated finite-difference time-domain analogues. Read More

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Key Role of Very Low Energy Electrons in Tin-Based Molecular Resists for Extreme Ultraviolet Nanolithography.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Feb 17;12(8):9881-9889. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Advanced Research Center for Nanolithography , Science Park 104 , 1098XG Amsterdam , The Netherlands.

Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography (13.5 nm) is the newest technology that allows high-throughput fabrication of electronic circuitry in the sub-20 nm scale. It is commonly assumed that low-energy electrons (LEEs) generated in the resist materials by EUV photons are mostly responsible for the solubility switch that leads to nanopattern formation. Read More

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February 2020

pH-Dependent Structure-Activity Relationship of Polyaniline-Intercalated FeOCl for Heterogeneous Fenton Reactions.

ACS Omega 2019 Dec 9;4(26):21945-21953. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

National Engineering Laboratory for Industrial Wastewater Treatment and State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology (ECUST), Shanghai 200237, China.

In this study, we prepared polyaniline-intercalated iron oxychloride (FeOCl-PANI) by aqueous intercalation method to use it as a Fenton-like catalyst that was then assessed in terms of behavior of intercalation, structural evolution, Fenton-like activity, and catalytic mechanism. Gel-permeation chromatography demonstrated that the molecular weight (polymerization extent) of polyaniline fragment gradually increased with the increase of intercalation time. Interestingly, the polyaniline-intercalated materials with varying intercalation times exhibited distinctly different Fenton-like activity trends under acidic (pH 4) and neutral (pH 7) conditions. Read More

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December 2019

Embroidering a Filmsy Photorechargeable Energy Fabric with Wide Weather Adaptability.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jan 9;12(3):3654-3660. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering , Xian Jiaotong University , Xi'an 710049 , China.

To provide a light and breathable self-charging wearable power source adaptable for various weather conditions and body movements, couching embroidery has been proposed as an industrially scalable electrode-to-device assembling strategy, rather than a decorative textile pattern making process. Various types of cable electrodes and device units with a large size and shape difference were directly and reliably assembled on a light and soft tulle to form either photovoltaic or battery devices, which can be further integrated following any irregular pattern and any electrical connection design. Under sunlight, a transparent tulle as a glove or scarf can be charged up at a power of 10 W/m, and then maintain stable power output in the dark for various weather and body moving conditions, including bending, twisting, hand-stretching, wind blowing, and water washing. Read More

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January 2020

Improving Stockline Detection of Radar Sensor Array Systems in Blast Furnaces Using a Novel Encoder-Decoder Architecture.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Aug 8;19(16). Epub 2019 Aug 8.

School of Automation & Electrical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

The stockline, which describes the measured depth of the blast furnace (BF) burden surface with time, is significant to the operator executing an optimized charging operation. For the harsh BF environment, noise interferences and aberrant measurements are the main challenges of stockline detection. In this paper, a novel encoder-decoder architecture that consists of a convolution neural network (CNN) and a long short-term memory (LSTM) network is proposed, which suppresses the noise interferences, classifies the distorted signals, and regresses the stockline in a learning way. Read More

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MnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles as an Efficient Electrode for Energy Storage Applications.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2020 Jan;20(1):96-105

Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamil Nadu, India.

In this study, solvothermal method was used for the synthesis of MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles at different processing period of 7, 14, and 21 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern study confirms that MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles correspond to the face-centered cubic spinel structure and belong to the [227] space group. From Raman spectra analysis, two major peaks were observed at 476 and 616 cm, which correspond to the vibration modes of MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles; especially, the broad peak at 620 cm (A1g) corresponds to the symmetric stretching vibration of oxygen atoms at tetrahedral site. Read More

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January 2020

[Analysis of PHEV CO Emission Based on China's Grid Structure and Travelling Patterns in Mega Cities].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2019 Apr;40(4):1705-1714

State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Spatial-domain changes in the proportion of thermal power in the power grids of China and the duality of PHEV-driven energy have increased the complexity of research on the CO emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). 130000 km of driving data from 50 PHEV vehicles operating in Shanghai is studied to derive methods to evaluate the carbon dioxide emission of PHEV vehicles. The electric drive distance ratio of the PHEV and its influencing factors are analyzed. Read More

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Interwoven Carbon Nanotube Wires for High-Performing, Mechanically Robust, Washable, and Wearable Supercapacitors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 May 13;11(20):18285-18294. Epub 2019 May 13.

Department of Chemistry , Indian Institute of Technology Bombay , Powai, Mumbai 400076 , India.

An energy storage system with large storage capacity, rapid power release, and simultaneous tolerance to harsh mechanical stresses is a major bottleneck for realizing self-sustaining, wearable electronics. Addressing this, we demonstrate carbon nanotube wire (CNT-wire) interwoven solid-state supercapacitive energy storage devices (sewcaps) exhibiting superior storage capacity (30 Wh/kg, compared to electrochemical capacitors at ∼10 Wh/kg) and 14-fold higher power density (3511 W/kg) compared to Li-ion batteries (∼250 W/kg). While the high specific surface area and electrical conductivity of CNT-wires and high ionic conductivity of the electrolyte enable high energy density, the device design enables the combination of planar and radial diffusive pathways for ultralow interface resistance (∼0. Read More

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Development of Ion Mobility Spectrometry with Novel Atmospheric Electron Emission Ionization for Field Detection of Gaseous and Blister Chemical Warfare Agents.

Anal Chem 2019 04 28;91(8):5403-5414. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

RIKEN KEIKI Co., Ltd. , 2-7-6 Azusawa , Itabashi, Tokyo 174-8744 , Japan.

Drift tube ion mobility spectrometry with a novel atmospheric electron emission (AEE) source was developed for determination of gaseous and blister chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in negative mode. The AEE source was fabricated from an aluminum substrate electrode covered with 1 μm silver nanoparticle-dispersed silicone resin and a thin gold layer. This structure enabled stable tunneling electron emission upon the application of more than 11 V potential under atmospheric pressure. Read More

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Molecular Insights Into the Relationship Between Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases and Breast Cancer: A Critical Perspective on Autoimmunity and ER Stress.

Front Immunol 2019 1;10:344. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Microbiology, Swami Shraddhanand College, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India.

The etiopathologies behind autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) unravel misbehavior of immune components leading to the corruption of immune homeostasis where thyroid autoantigens turn foe to the self. In AITDs lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid shows up a deranged immune system charging the follicular cells of the thyroid gland (thyrocytes) leading to the condition of either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The inflammation in AITDs consistently associate with ER function due to which disturbances in the ER protein homeostasis leads to unfolded protein response (UPR) that promotes pathogenesis of autoimmunity. Read More

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September 2020

Fabrication of 9.6 V High-performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors Stack Based on Nickel Hexacyanoferrate-derived Ni(OH) Nanosheets and Bio-derived Activated Carbon.

Sci Rep 2019 Jan 31;9(1):1104. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Functional Materials Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, 630 003, Tamil Nadu, India.

Hydrated Ni(OH) and activated carbon based electrodes are widely used in electrochemical applications. Here we report the fabrication of symmetric supercapacitors using Ni(OH) nanosheets and activated carbon as positive and negative electrodes in aqueous electrolyte, respectively. The asymmetric supercapacitors stack connected in series exhibited a stable device voltage of 9. Read More

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January 2019

Differential capacitance of ionic liquids according to lattice-gas mean-field model with nearest-neighbor interactions.

J Chem Phys 2018 Nov;149(20):204703

Department of Physics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58108, USA.

The Bragg-Williams free energy is used to incorporate nearest-neighbor interactions into the lattice gas model of a solvent-free ionic liquid near a planar electrode. We calculate the differential capacitance from solutions of the mean-field consistency relation, arriving at an explicit expression in the limit of a weakly charged electrode. The two additional material parameters that appear in the theory-the degree of nonideality and the resistance to concentration changes of each ion type-give rise to different regimes that we identify and discuss. Read More

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November 2018

Design of a Compact Wireless Multi-Channel High Area-Efficient Stimulator with Arbitrary Channel Configuration.

Micromachines (Basel) 2017 Dec 27;9(1). Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084, China.

This paper presents the design of a wireless, implantable, multi-channel, programmable stimulator with arbitrary channel combination. A novel channel management module using a switch array is presented, enabling arbitrary channel configuration with a silicon area reduction of 81%. The chip was fabricated in a 0. Read More

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December 2017

Synthesis and Property of Copper-Impregnated α-MnO Semiconductor Quantum Dots.

Langmuir 2018 10 17;34(43):12702-12712. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Physics , Jadavpur University , Kolkata 700 032 , India.

Because of the superior optical and electrical properties, copper-impregnated size tuneable high-temperature stable manganese dioxide semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) have been successfully synthesized by a modified chemical synthesis technique. Their size-dependent dielectric properties, semiconducting properties, and current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics have been investigated. X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman spectra confirmed that the required phase is present. Read More

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October 2018

Fabrication of a Mo-Doped Strontium Cobaltite Perovskite Hybrid Supercapacitor Cell with High Energy Density and Excellent Cycling Life.

ChemSusChem 2018 Dec 7;11(23):4123-4130. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, India.

Enriched with oxygen vacancies, Mo-doped strontium cobaltite (SrCo Mo O , SCM) is synthesized as an oxygen anion-intercalated charge-storage material through the sol-gel method. The supplemented oxygen vacancies, good electrical conductivity, and high ion diffusion coefficient bestow the SCM electrode with excellent specific capacitance (1223.34 F g ) and specific capacity (168. Read More

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December 2018

X-ray Linear Dichroism in Apatite.

J Am Chem Soc 2018 09 5;140(37):11698-11704. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Physics , University of Wisconsin , Madison , Wisconsin 53706 , United States.

The recent observation in parrotfish teeth of X-ray linear dichroism motivated an in-depth investigation into this spectroscopic effect in various apatite crystals, including geologic hydroxyapatite (Ca(PO)OH), fluorapatite (Ca(PO)F), and their biogenic counterparts in human bone, mouse enamel, and in parrotfish bone, dentin, and enameloid, the equivalent of dental enamel in certain fish. These data are important because they now enable visualization of the nano- to microscale structure of apatite crystals in teeth and bone. Polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC) maps of lamellar bone, obtained with a new method that minimizes space-charge and charging effects, show the expected rotating apatite crystal orientations. Read More

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September 2018

Investigation of the Influence of Pre-Charged Hydrogen on Fracture Toughness of As-Received 2.25Cr1Mo0.25V Steel and Weld.

Materials (Basel) 2018 Jun 24;11(7). Epub 2018 Jun 24.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Fracture failure caused by hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a major concern for the system reliability and safety of hydrogen storage vessels, which are generally made of 2.25Cr1Mo0.25V steel. Read More

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