Nanotechnology 2021 Feb;32(9):095302
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston, MA 02115, United States of America. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, United States of America.
Shot-to-shot, or pixel-to-pixel, dose variation during electron-beam lithography is a significant practical and fundamental problem. Dose variations associated with charging, electron source instability, optical system drift, and ultimately shot noise in the e-beam itself conspire to critical dimension variability, line width/edge roughness, and limited throughput. It would be an important improvement to e-beam based patterning technology if real-time feedback control of electron-dose were provided so that pattern quality and throughput would be improved beyond the shot noise limit. Read More