143,689 results match your criteria characterization methods


NMR illuminates intrinsic disorder.

Curr Opin Struct Biol 2021 May 2;70:44-52. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology and Skaggs Institute of Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, 92037, California, USA. Electronic address:

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has long been instrumental in the characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). This method continues to offer rich insights into the nature of IDPs in solution, especially in combination with other biophysical methods such as small-angle scattering, single-molecule fluorescence, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and mass spectrometry. Substantial advances have been made in recent years in studies of proteins containing both ordered and disordered domains and in the characterization of problematic sequences containing repeated tracts of a single or a few amino acids. Read More

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Encapsulation of Hydrophilic Compounds in Small Extracellular Vesicles: Loading Capacity and Impact on Vesicle Functions.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 May 5:e2100047. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Zurich, 8093, Switzerland.

Their natural functions in intercellular communication render extracellular vesicles (EV) highly attractive for drug delivery applications. However, the loading efficiency of present methods to incorporate particularly hydrophilic low molecular weight drugs of biomedical interest is largely unexplored, as is the impact these methods may have on the intrinsic structural and biological vesicle properties. Here, different methods are exploited to incorporate hydrophilic non-membrane permeable compounds into stem cell-derived small EV, and to assess the vesicle characteristics after the different loading processes. Read More

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The Remodeling in Advanced Breast Cancer Radiotherapy.

Chirurgia (Bucur) 2021 Mar-Apr;116(2):238-247

New concepts had to be developed since the progress in diagnostic methods, tumor characterization and progress in treatment delivery (more aggressive surgery and radiotherapy) made possible new approaches for locally advanced breast cancer. The process of remodeling is now a reality and the local cure of locally advanced tumor by only high dose radiotherapy is now possible. Based on modern irradiation techniques as IMRT, VMAT or Tomotherapy, target volume conformal dose distributions delivered to complex targets made possible the "remodeling" process at the soft and/or bone tissue. Read More

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Analytical approach for lubricant characterization of excipients using the surface replication method.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2021 May 5:1-20. Epub 2021 May 5.

Laboratory of Biopharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku 422-8526, Japan.

Lubricants are indispensable pharmaceutical ingredients for preventing tableting failure due to powder adhesion to the die wall. The impact of lubricants was evaluated with use of the Binding Identification for Net Detriment (BIND) surface replication method. Raloxifene hydrochloride (RH) was selected as a model chemical with high adhesion, and four commercially available tablet lubricants - stearic acid, sodium stearyl fumarate, calcium stearate and magnesium stearate - were used for RH formulation. Read More

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Extensive microbiological respiratory tract specimen characterization in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

APMIS 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

The Regional Department of Clinical Microbiology, Zealand University Hospital, Denmark.

Background: Microbial co-infections may contribute to the pulmonary deterioration in COVID-19 patients needing intensive care treatment. The present study portray the extent of co-infections in COVID-19 ICU patients.

Methods: Conventional culture, molecular detections for atypical aetiologies, QiaStat-Dx® respiratory panel V2 detecting 21 respiratory pathogens and ribosomal DNA genes 16S/18S amplicon-based microbiome analyses were performed on respiratory samples from 34 COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Read More

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Generation and Biochemical Characterization of Phase-Separated Droplets Formed by Nucleic Acid Binding Proteins: Using HP1 as a Model System.

Curr Protoc 2021 May;1(5):e109

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, UCSF, San Francisco, California.

Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has been invoked as an underlying mechanism involved in the formation and function of several cellular membrane-less compartments. Given the explosion of studies in this field in recent years, it has become essential to converge on clear guidelines and methods to rigorously investigate LLPS and advance our understanding of this phenomenon. Here, we describe basic methods to (1) visualize droplets formed by nucleic acid binding proteins and (2) characterize the liquid-like nature of these droplets under controlled in vitro experimental conditions. Read More

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Strain generation and right ventricular systolic function: The sum of all its parts.

Echocardiography 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

The Cardiology Department, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Background: Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) has provided a reliable means to enhance characterization and quantification of global right ventricular (RV) systolic function. The use of Automated Functional Imaging (AFI) software has been previously used to quantify RV longitudinal peak global strain (PGS) values during two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiographic examinations. However, there is a paucity of data regarding relative strain contribution of each individual regional segments when compared with global strain assessment. Read More

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Novel symmetrical and unsymmetrical fluorine-containing metallophthalocyanines: synthesis, characterization and investigation of their biological properties.

Dalton Trans 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Chemistry, Istanbul Technical University, TR-34469, Istanbul, Turkey.

In this study, a new fluorinated phthalonitrile compound namely 5-bis[4-(trifluoromethoxy)-thiophenyl] phthalonitrile was synthesized. In addition, peripherally substituted symmetric metallated phthalocyanine derivatives [M = Co (2) and M = Zn (3)] and unsymmetrically substituted zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) complex (4) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of this phthalonitrile compound. Characterization of all new compounds was carried out using FT-IR, NMR, UV-Vis, and mass spectroscopy. Read More

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Modulator effect of mangiferin on biochemical characterization in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced oral cancer in experimental hamsters.

Vet Med Sci 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, China.

Background: Newly, chemo-preventive technique might be a hopeful advancement in developing countries for treating cancers with the aid of toxic less natural based constituents. Malignancy urges to augment effectual chemo-preventive agents that are look forward to suppress the tumours which may be stimulated by chewing and smoking of tobacco and over alcohol consumption related with the high prevalence of human oral cancer (OC) patients.

Methods: In the present research, we examined to assess antioxidants, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and detoxification enzymes levels of anticancer activity of mangiferin on 0. Read More

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Scoliosis in Friedreich's ataxia: longitudinal characterization in a large heterogeneous cohort.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the incidence and progression of scoliosis in the natural history of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) and document the factors leading to the requirement for corrective surgery.

Methods: Data on the prevalence of scoliosis and scoliosis surgery from up to 17 years of follow-up collected during a large natural history study in FRDA (1116 patients at 4928 visits) were summarized descriptively and subjected to time to event analyses.

Results: Well over 90% of early or typical FRDA patients (as determined by age of onset) developed intermediate to severe scoliosis, while patients with a later onset (>14 years) had no or much lower prevalence of scoliosis. Read More

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Characterization of tumor-associated macrophages in prostate cancer transgenic mouse models.

Prostate 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Urology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are critical components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in prostate cancer. Commonly used orthotopic models do not accurately reflect the complete TME of a human patient or the natural initiation and progression of a tumor. Therefore, genetically engineered mouse models are essential for studying the TME as well as advancing TAM-targeted therapies. Read More

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Broadening the scope of high structural dimensionality nanomaterials using pyridine-based curcuminoids.

Dalton Trans 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus Universitari, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain. and ICREA - Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Passeig Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain.

We present a new heteroditopic ligand (3pyCCMoid) that contains the typical skeleton of a curcuminoid (CCMoid) decorated with two 3-pyridyl groups. The coordination of 3pyCCMoid with ZnII centres results in a set of novel coordination polymers (CPs) that display different architectures and dimensionalities (from 1D to 3D). Our work analyses how synthetic methods and slight changes in the reaction conditions affect the formation of the final materials. Read More

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Characterization of Patients With Obstructed Defecation and Slow Transit Constipation With a Simulated Stool.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 May 5;12(5):e00354. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Surgery, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.

Introduction: Defecatory disorders including obstructed defecation (OD) are currently diagnosed using specialized investigations including anorectal manometry and the balloon expulsion test. Recently, we developed a simulated stool named Fecobionics that provides a novel type of pressure measurements and analysis. The aim was to study OD phenotypes compared with slow transit constipation (STC) patients and normal subjects (NS). Read More

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ARDS Metabolic Fingerprints: Characterization, Benchmarking and Potential Mechanistic Interpretation.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Canadian Critical Care Translational Biology Group (CCCTBG), Canadian Critical Care Translational Biology Group (CCCTBG), Canada.

Aims: In this study we aimed to identify ARDS metabolic fingerprints in selected patient cohorts, compare the metabolic profiles of direct vs indirect ARDS and hypoinflammatory vs hyperinflammatory ARDS.

Hypothesis: We hypothesize that the biological and inflammatory processes in ARDS would manifest as unique metabolomic fingerprints which set ARDS apart from other ICU conditions, help examine ARDS subphenotypes and clinical subgroups.

Subjects: 108 ARDS patients and 27 ICU ventilated controls were analyzed. Read More

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Comparative study of antimicrobial action of aloe vera and antibiotics against different bacterial isolates from skin infection.

Vet Med Sci 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Key Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou, China.

Background: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of Aloe Vera gel extract and antibiotic resistance against in Escherichia coli, Shigella, Salmonella spp and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from animal's skin infection.

Objective: The purpose of this study was has been designed to check the antibacterial effect of Aloe Vera against some common skin pathogens, and its comparison to commonly used antibiotics, with the aim to provide the cheap source of medication.

Material And Methods: We performed a prospective study to determine 150 Skin infections were isolates obtained from septic wounds with sterile cotton swab at different Animal and applied to freshly prepared slants of nutrient agar, Mannitol Salt agar (Oxoid), and further conformation Catalase and a coagulase test were performed for biochemical characterization. Read More

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Platelet-enhanced plasma: Characterization of a novel candidate resuscitation fluid's extracellular vesicle content, clotting parameters, and thrombin generation capacity.

Transfusion 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Background: Platelet transfusion is challenging in emergency medicine because of short platelet shelf life and stringent storage conditions. Platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (PEV) exhibit platelet-like properties. A plasma generated from expired platelet units rich in procoagulant PEV may be able to combine the benefits of plasma and platelets for resuscitation while increasing shelf life and utilizing an otherwise wasted resource. Read More

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ImmunoPET of the differential expression of CD146 in breast cancer.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(4):1586-1599. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA.

With advancement in antibody engineering, the development and characterization of new cancer-specific molecular targets are in the forefront of this PET-antibody combination "revolution". Overexpression of CD146 in different types of tumors, including breast tumor, has been associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. Non-invasive detection of CD146 with a monoclonal antibody may provide a noninvasive diagnostic tool with high specificity and accountability. Read More

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Characterization of Alzheimer's tau biomarker discordance using plasma, CSF, and PET.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 May 4;13(1):93. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: We aimed to investigate the tau biomarker discrepancies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using plasma tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-tau181), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) p-tau181, and AV1451 positron emission tomography (PET).

Methods: In the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, 724 non-demented participants were categorized into plasma/CSF and plasma/PET groups. Demographic and clinical variables, amyloid-β (Aβ) burden, flortaucipir-PET binding in Braak regions of interest (ROIs), longitudinal changes in clinical outcomes, and conversion risk were compared. Read More

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Optimizing the timing of diagnostic testing after positive findings in lung cancer screening: a proof of concept radiomics study.

J Transl Med 2021 May 4;19(1):191. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences/School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: The timeliness of diagnostic testing after positive screening remains suboptimal because of limited evidence and methodology, leading to delayed diagnosis of lung cancer and over-examination. We propose a radiomics approach to assist with planning of the diagnostic testing interval in lung cancer screening.

Methods: From an institute-based lung cancer screening cohort, we retrospectively selected 92 patients with pulmonary nodules with diameters ≥ 3 mm at baseline (61 confirmed as lung cancer by histopathology; 31 confirmed cancer-free). Read More

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A filter approach for feature selection in classification: application to automatic atrial fibrillation detection in electrocardiogram recordings.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2021 May 4;21(Suppl 4):130. Epub 2021 May 4.

APHM, INSERM, IRD, Sciences Economiques & Sociales de la Sante & Traitement de l'Information Médicale (SESSTIM), Hop Timone, Biostatistique et Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication (BioSTIC), Aix Marseille Univ, Marseille, France.

Background: In high-dimensional data analysis, the complexity of predictive models can be reduced by selecting the most relevant features, which is crucial to reduce data noise and increase model accuracy and interpretability. Thus, in the field of clinical decision making, only the most relevant features from a set of medical descriptors should be considered when determining whether a patient is healthy or not. This statistical approach known as feature selection can be performed through regression or classification, in a supervised or unsupervised manner. Read More

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Chemical Imaging of Single Anisotropic Polystyrene/Poly (Methacrylate) Microspheres with Complex Hierarchical Architecture.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Process Analysis and Technology (PA&T), Reutlingen Research Institute, Reutlingen University, Alteburgstrasse 150, 72762 Reutlingen, Germany.

Monodisperse polystyrene spheres are functional materials with interesting properties, such as high cohesion strength, strong adsorptivity, and surface reactivity. They have shown a high application value in biomedicine, information engineering, chromatographic fillers, supercapacitor electrode materials, and other fields. To fully understand and tailor particle synthesis, the methods for characterization of their complex 3D morphological features need to be further explored. Read More

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Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy for Sensing and Characterization of Exosomes in Cancer Diagnosis.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer de Marcel·li Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona, Spain.

Exosomes are emerging as one of the most intriguing cancer biomarkers in modern oncology for early cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment monitoring. Concurrently, several nanoplasmonic methods have been applied and developed to tackle the challenging task of enabling the rapid, sensitive, affordable analysis of exosomes. In this review, we specifically focus our attention on the application of plasmonic devices exploiting surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as the optosensing technique for the structural interrogation and characterization of the heterogeneous nature of exosomes. Read More

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A Review on the Methods Used for the Detection and Diagnosis of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV).

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 30;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

CIBIO/InBio-UP, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto, 4485-661 Vairão, Portugal.

Since the early 1980s, the European rabbit () has been threatened by the rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD). The disease is caused by a lagovirus of the family , the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). The need for detection, identification and further characterization of RHDV led to the development of several diagnostic tests. Read More

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Polymer-coated microparticle scaffolds engineered for potential use in musculoskeletal tissue regeneration.

Biomed Mater 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Oral and Craniofacial Sciences, University of Missouri Kansas City School of Dentistry, 650 E 25th St, Kansas City, Missouri, 64108-2716, UNITED STATES.

Biomaterials constructed exclusively of sintered microspheres have great potential in tissue engineering scaffold applications, offering the ability to create shape-specific scaffolds with precise controlled release yet to be matched by traditional additive manufacturing methods. The problem is that these microsphere-based scaffolds are limited in their stiffness for applications such as bone regeneration. Our vision to solve this problem was borne from a hierarchical structure perspective, focusing on the individual unit of the structure: the microsphere itself. Read More

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Techniques for studying membrane pores.

Curr Opin Struct Biol 2021 May 1;69:108-116. Epub 2021 May 1.

Institute for Genetics and Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), University of Cologne, Joseph-Stelzmann-Strasse 26, Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:

Pore-forming proteins (PFPs) are of special interest because of the association of their activity with the disruption of the membrane impermeability barrier and cell death. They generally convert from a monomeric, soluble form into transmembrane oligomers that induce the opening of membrane pores. The study of pore formation in membranes with molecular detail remains a challenging endeavor because of its highly dynamic and complex nature, usually involving diverse oligomeric structures with different functionalities. Read More

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Delta Discover transmission detector: A comprehensive characterization for in-vivo VMAT monitoring.

Phys Med 2021 May 1;85:15-23. Epub 2021 May 1.

Medical Physics Department, A.S.L. TO4, 10015 Ivrea, TO, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the dosimetric behaviour, influence on photon beam fluence and error detection capability of Delta Discover transmission detector.

Methods: The transmission detector (TRD) was characterized on a TrueBeam linear accelerator with 6 MV beams. Linearity, reproducibility and dose rate dependence were investigated. Read More

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Genesis and development processes of fractures in granite: Petrographic indicators of hydrothermal alteration.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0251198. Epub 2021 May 4.

Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu, Japan.

Biotites occur with varying degrees of alteration within a granite. This study analyzes the relationships among alteration indicators, areal microvoid fractions in chloritized biotite, and macroscopic fracture frequencies in the Toki granite, central Japan, to establish the genesis and development processes of fractures in granite. Appropriate characterizations for the frequency distribution of macroscopic fractures in granite can assist in understanding potential hydrogeological applications, which contributes to safety evaluations for geological disposal and storage. Read More

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C2orf69 mutations disrupt mitochondrial function and cause a multisystem human disorder with recurring autoinflammation.

J Clin Invest 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pediatrics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Background: Deciphering the function of the many genes previously classified as uncharacterized "open reading frame" (orf) completes our understanding of cell function and its pathophysiology.

Methods: Whole-exome sequencing, yeast 2-hybrid and transcriptome analyses together with molecular characterization are used here to uncover the function of the C2orf69 gene.

Results: We identified loss-of-function mutations in the uncharacterized C2orf69 gene in eight individuals with brain abnormalities involving hypomyelination and microcephaly, liver dysfunction and recurrent autoinflammation. Read More

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Direct identification and molecular characterization of zoonotic hazards in raw milk by metagenomics using as a model pathogen.

Microb Genom 2021 May;7(5)

Department of Biological Safety, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Berlin, Germany.

Metagenomics is a valuable diagnostic tool for enhancing microbial food safety because (i) it enables the untargeted detection of pathogens, (ii) it is fast since primary isolation of micro-organisms is not required, and (iii) it has high discriminatory power allowing for a detailed molecular characterization of pathogens. For shotgun metagenomics, total nucleic acids (NAs) are isolated from complex samples such as foodstuff. Along with microbial NAs, high amounts of matrix NAs are extracted that might outcompete microbial NAs during next-generation sequencing and compromise sensitivity for the detection of low abundance micro-organisms. Read More

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Transient Induction and Characterization of Mouse Epiblast-Like Cells from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Laboratory of Cell Biology, Department of Bioinformatics, Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Tokyo, Japan.

Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and mouse epiblast-like cells (mEpiLCs) recapitulate in vitro the epiblast first cell lineage decision, providing a powerful tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying the pluripotent state transition. Here, we describe a defined and robust protocol to transiently induce mEpiLCs from mESCs, together with a concise overview for their unbiased characterization for subsequent downstream applications. Read More

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