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Risk Factors, Clinical Features, and Polygenic Risk Scores in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder Depressive-Type.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

There is controversy about the status of schizoaffective disorder depressive-type (SA-D), particularly whether it should be considered a form of schizophrenia or a distinct disorder. We aimed to determine whether individuals with SA-D differ from individuals with schizophrenia in terms of demographic, premorbid, and lifetime clinical characteristics, and genetic liability to schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder. Participants were from the CardiffCOGS sample and met ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia (n = 713) or SA-D (n = 151). Read More

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Novel functions of cytoplasmic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases shaping the hallmarks of cancer.

Enzymes 2020 26;48:397-423. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, United States. Electronic address:

With the intense protein synthesis demands of cancer, the classical enzymatic role of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) is required to sustain tumor growth. However, many if not all aaRSs also possess regulatory functions outside of the domain of catalytic tRNA aminoacylation, which can further contribute to or even antagonize cancers in non-translational ways. These regulatory functions of aaRS are likely to be manipulated in cancer to ensure uncontrolled growth and survival. Read More

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September 2020

Performance matching between the surface structure of cucumber powdery mildew in different growth stages and the properties of surfactant solution.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong, 271018, People's Republic of China.

Background: Understanding the performance matching of pesticide droplets on surface of cucumber leaves modified by powdery mildew is of practical importance for the agricultural sector. Herein, the surface texture and wettability of cucumber leaves covered by powdery mildew were systematically examined using parameters such as micromorphology, physicochemical properties and liquid droplet contact angle measurements.

Results: Our results show that powdery mildew growth can be divided into four distinct stages according to the surface texture characteristics of the diseased cucumber leaves. Read More

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Unsupervised phenotyping of sepsis using nonnegative matrix factorization of temporal trends from a multivariate panel of physiological measurements.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2021 Apr 9;21(Suppl 5):95. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Background: Sepsis is a highly lethal and heterogeneous disease. Utilization of an unsupervised method may identify novel clinical phenotypes that lead to targeted therapies and improved care.

Methods: Our objective was to derive clinically relevant sepsis phenotypes from a multivariate panel of physiological data using subgraph-augmented nonnegative matrix factorization. Read More

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Effects of concurrent action and object naming treatment on naming skills and functional brain activation patterns in primary progressive aphasia: An fMRI study with a case-series design.

Brain Lang 2021 Apr 6;218:104950. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401, United States; Department of Psychology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, United States. Electronic address:

Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) exhibit differential impairment patterns in noun and verb naming, but it remains unclear whether anomia treatment results in similar improvements in noun and verb naming. Therefore, we examined the immediate and long-term (3-months post-treatment) behavioral and neural effects of an anomia treatment on object and action naming skills in PPA. A case-series design was utilized involving two individuals with PPA. Read More

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Neural activity temporal pattern dictates long-range propagation targets.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 7:118032. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China; Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China; School of Biomedical Sciences, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China; State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

Brain possesses a complex spatiotemporal architecture for efficient information processing and computing. However, it remains unknown how neural signal propagates to its intended targets brain-wide. Using optogenetics and functional MRI, we arbitrarily initiated various discrete neural activity pulse trains with different temporal patterns and revealed their distinct long-range propagation targets within the well-defined, topographically organized somatosensory thalamo-cortical circuit. Read More

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MRI features of different types of sinonasan rhabdomyosarcomas: a series of eleven cases.

Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2021 Apr 9:20210030. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Radiology, Hunan Children's Hospital, Changsha, China.

Objective: To retrospectively analyze magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of various pathological subtypes of sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and explore correlations between imaging features and pathological subtypes.

Methods: In total, 11 cases with embryonal, alveolar or pleomorphic sinonasal RMSs, confirmed by surgical pathology, were selected. Their characteristics and distinctive imaging features were analysed, and the correlation between pathology and imaging features was explored. Read More

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Synthesis, X-ray Structure Determination, and Comprehensive Photochemical Characterization of (Trifluoromethyl)diazirine-Containing TRPML1 Ligands.

J Org Chem 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz, Germany.

Potential (trifluoromethyl)diazirine-based TRPML1 ion channel ligands were designed and synthesized, and their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Photoactivation studies via F NMR spectroscopy and HPLC-MS analysis revealed distinct kinetical characteristics in selected solvents and favorable photochemical properties in an aqueous buffer. These photoactivatable TRPML activators represent useful and valuable tools for TRPML photoaffinity labeling combined with mass spectrometry. Read More

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Transcriptomic investigation of embryonic pectoral muscle reveals increased myogenic processes in Shitou geese compared to Wuzong geese.

Br Poult Sci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

College of Animal Science & Technology, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, China.

Embryonic stages before birth are crucial for poultry muscle development, as this determines muscle mass in adulthood. This study characterised the distinction in embryonic pectoral muscle development between Wuzong (WZE, small) and Shitou (STE, large) geese (two indigenous goose breeds in Guangdong Province, China) at embryonic days 15 (E15), 23 (E23) and the day of hatching (P1) to gain insights into the regulatory mechanisms of muscle development.The results showed that STE had significantly higher myofibre density during E15-P1 and had significantly larger myofibre diameter at E15 than WZE. Read More

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Inhella proteolytica sp. nov. and Inhella gelatinilytica sp. nov., two novel species of the genus Inhella isolated from aquaculture water.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Open Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Guangdong Microbial Culture Collection Center (GDMCC), Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510070, People's Republic of China.

The two novel bacterial strains designated 1Y17 and 4Y10 from aquaculture water were characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains 1Y17 and 4Y10 belonged to the genus Inhella and were close to Inhella crocodyli CCP-18, Inhella inkyongensis IMCC1713 and Inhella fonticola TNR-25. Strains 1Y17 and 4Y10 shared 98. Read More

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Transdermal Buprenorphine for Acute Pain in the Clinical Setting: A Narrative Review.

J Pain Res 2021 31;14:871-879. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Paolo Procacci Foundation, Rome, Italy.

Transdermal buprenorphine is indicated for chronic pain management, but as its role in the clinical management of acute pain is less clear, this narrative review examines studies of the patch for acute pain, mainly in the postoperative setting. Although perhaps better known for its role in opioid rehabilitation programs, buprenorphine is also an effective analgesic that is a Schedule III controlled substance. Although buprenorphine is a partial agonist at the μ-opioid receptor, it is erroneous to think of the agent as a partial analgesic; it has full analgesic efficacy and unique attributes among opioids, such as a ceiling for respiratory depression and low "drug likeability" among those who take opioids for recreational purposes. Read More

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Robot Surgery Shows Similar Long-Term Oncological Outcomes as Laparoscopic Surgery for Mid/Lower Rectal Cancer but Is Beneficial To ypT3-4 After Preoperative Chemoradiation.

Dis Colon Rectum 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Colorectal Cancer Center, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.

Background: The long-term oncologic efficacy of robotic surgery for patients with rectal cancer is unknown.

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate survival outcomes of robotic total mesorectal excision for mid/low rectal cancer compared with those of laparoscopic surgery.

Design: We performed a single-center retrospective analysis. Read More

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Paediatric knee anterolateral capsule does not contain a distinct ligament: analysis of histology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression.

J ISAKOS 2021 Mar 3;6(2):82-87. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

Objectives: The presence of a discrete ligament within the knee anterolateral capsule (ALC) is controversial. Tendons and ligaments have typical collagens, ultrastructure, transcription factors and proteins. However, these characteristics have not been investigated in paediatric ALC. Read More

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Tics, tremors and other movement disorders in childhood.

Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2021 Apr 5:100983. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Pediatric Movement Disorders Clinic, Section of Pediatric Neurology and Developmental Neuroscience, Texas Children's Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Movement disorders presenting in childhood include tics, dystonia, chorea, tremor, stereotypy, myoclonus, and parkinsonism, each of which can be part of various clinical syndromes with distinct etiologies.  Some of these conditions are benign and require only reassurance; others are bothersome and require treatment, or may be clues that herald underlying pathology.  Answers lie in the inherent characteristics of the movements themselves, together with the clinical context provided in the history obtained by the examiner. Read More

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Examining Interprofessional Collaboration across case managers, peer educators, and counselors in New York City.

Soc Work Public Health 2021 Apr 9:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Many individuals who are vulnerable to HIV infection and People Living with HIV (PLWH) experience fragmented prevention and care. Prevention and care service integration, pivotal for the HIV care continuum, depends on relationships among service providers and agencies offering HIV services. Case managers, counselors, and peer educators often work together to provide integrated services through interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in HIV prevention and care. Read More

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Differences in disability and nutritional status among older Brazilian and English adults: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil) and English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) cohorts.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Background: Brazil and England are 2 countries at different stages in their demographic, epidemiological, and nutritional transitions and with distinct socioeconomic and politic contexts, but with similar universal health systems. We aimed to examine disability and its association with objective anthropometric indicators of nutritional status, including BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio, comparing older Brazilian and English adults.

Methods: We used cross-sectional data from 2 nationally representative aging studies. Read More

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Metaproteomic sample preparation methods bias the recovery of host and microbial proteins according to taxa and cellular compartment.

J Proteomics 2021 Apr 5:104219. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, QLD, Australia; Correspondence should be addressed to A/Prof Emma Hamilton-Williams, The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, 37 Kent St, Woolloongabba, QLD 4102, Australia. Electronic address:

Faecal proteomics studies have focussed on identification of microbial proteins, however; stool represents a valuable resource to interrogate the host interactions with the microbiota without the need for invasive intestinal biopsies. As the widely used enrichment method (differential centrifugation, DC) enriches for microbial proteins, we compared two other methods for enrichment of host proteins, termed 'host enriched' (HE) and ALL (all proteins). The HE and ALL protocols identified 1. Read More

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Capturing human trophoblast development with naive pluripotent stem cells in vitro.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Life Science Frontiers, CiRA, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. Electronic address:

Trophoblasts are extraembryonic cells that are essential for maintaining pregnancy. Human trophoblasts arise from the morula as trophectoderm (TE), which, after implantation, differentiates into cytotrophoblasts (CTs), syncytiotrophoblasts (STs), and extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs), composing the placenta. Here we show that naïve, but not primed, human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) recapitulate trophoblast development. Read More

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Separating Golgi Proteins from Cis to Trans Reveals Underlying Properties of Cisternal Localization.

Plant Cell 2019 Sep;31(9):2010-2034

Department of Biochemistry, Cambridge University, Cambridge, CB2 1QW, United Kingdom.

The order of enzymatic activity across Golgi cisternae is essential for complex molecule biosynthesis. However, an inability to separate Golgi cisternae has meant that the cisternal distribution of most resident proteins, and their underlying localization mechanisms, are unknown. Here, we exploit differences in surface charge of intact cisternae to perform separation of early to late Golgi subcompartments. Read More

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September 2019

Management and outcomes of men diagnosed with primary breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Background: Fewer than 1% of all breast cancers occur in men. As a result, a distinct lack of data exists regarding the management and outcomes in this cohort.

Methods: Any male patient with pathologically confirmed breast cancer diagnosed between August 2000 and October 2017 at either Massachusetts General Hospital or Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and their affiliate satellite locations were included. Read More

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A constrained factor mixture analysis model for consistent and inconsistent respondents to mixed-worded scales.

Psychol Methods 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Centre for Educational Measurement.

Mixed-worded scales require a more careful reading and answering process than scales with only one type of wording. The present study is about the unintended consequences of using such scales, because typically, not all respondents answer positively and negatively worded items consistently. This population heterogeneity-meaning that there are distinct groups of consistently and inconsistently answering respondents-may arguably underlie wording-related effects in mixed-worded scales. Read More

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Group-2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression via CXCL2-Neutrophil Induced Immunosuppression.

Hepatology 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background & Aims: Due to their inherent characteristics, the function of group-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) varies in a context-dependent manner. ILC2s are involved in certain liver diseases; however, their involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown. In the present study, we assessed the role of an HCC-derived ILC2 population in tumor progression. Read More

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Defining Trajectories of Response in Psoriasis Patients Treated with Biologic Therapies.

Br J Dermatol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Centre for Health Informatics, Division of Informatics, Imaging & Data Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, United Kingdom.

Background: The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of biologic therapies for psoriasis are significantly compromised by variable treatment responses. Thus, more precise management of psoriasis is needed.

Objectives: We aim to identify subgroups of psoriasis patients treated with biologic therapies, based on changes in their disease activity over time, that may better inform patient management. Read More

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Obesity, inflammation, and heart failure: links and misconceptions.

Heart Fail Rev 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Second Department of Cardiology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Attikon University Hospital, Haidari, Athens, Greece.

Obesity has been linked with heart failure (HF) with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (HFpEF). This link has been attributed to obesity-induced metabolic and inflammatory disturbances leading to HFpEF. However, HF is a syndrome in which disease evolvement is associated with a dynamic unraveling of functional and structural changes leading to unique disease trajectories, creating a spectrum of phenotypes with overlapping distinct characteristics extending beyond the LV ejection fraction (LVEF). Read More

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Non-traumatic pediatric intracranial hypertension: key points for different etiologies, diagnosis, and treatment.

Acta Neurol Belg 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Institute for Brain Protection Sciences, Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital, St. Petersburg, FL, USA.

Intracranial hypertension can be an acute life-threatening event or slowly deteriorating condition, leading to a gradual loss of neurological function. The diagnosis should be taken in a timely fashioned process, which mandates expedite measures to save brain function and sometimes life. An optimal management strategy is selected according to the causative etiology with a core treatment paradigm that can be utilized in various etiologies. Read More

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P14/ARF-Positive Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Phenotype With Distinct Immune Microenvironment.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:653497. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Cardiac, Thoracic, Vascular Sciences and Public Health, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Introduction: The CDKN2A gene plays a central role in the pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The gene encodes for two tumor suppressor proteins, p16/INK4A and p14/ARF, frequently lost in MPM tumors. The exact role of p14/ARF in MPM and overall its correlation with the immune microenvironment is unknown. Read More

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Visual Multi-Metric Grouping of Eye- Tracking Data.

J Eye Mov Res 2018 Feb 14;10(5). Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Stony Brook University, USA.

We present an algorithmic and visual grouping of participants and eye-tracking metrics derived from recorded eye-tracking data. Our method utilizes two well-established visualization concepts. First, parallel coordinates are used to provide an overview of the used metrics, their interactions, and similarities, which helps select suitable metrics that describe characteristics of the eye-tracking data. Read More

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February 2018

Hybrid neural network based on novel audio feature for vehicle type identification.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 7;11(1):7648. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Instrument and Electronics, North University of China, Taiyuan, 030051, China.

Due to the audio information of different types of vehicle models are distinct, the vehicle information can be identified by the audio signal of vehicle accurately. In real life, in order to determine the type of vehicle, we do not need to obtain the visual information of vehicles and just need to obtain the audio information. In this paper, we extract and stitching different features from different aspects: Mel frequency cepstrum coefficients in perceptual characteristics, pitch class profile in psychoacoustic characteristics and short-term energy in acoustic characteristics. Read More

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Distinct functional and structural connectivity of the human hand-knob supported by intraoperative findings.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratory of Motor Control, Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano 20122, Milan, Italy. Humanitas Reasearch Hospital, IRCCS, 20,089 Milan, Italy.

Fine motor skills rely on the control of hand muscles exerted by a region of primary motor cortex (M1) that has been extensively investigated in monkeys. Although neuroimaging enables the exploration of this system also in humans, indirect measurements of brain activity prevent causal definitions of hand motor representations, which can be achieved using data obtained during brain mapping in tumor patients. High frequency direct electrical stimulation delivered at rest (HF DES-Rest) on the hand-knob region of the precentral gyrus has identified two sectors showing differences in cortical excitability. Read More

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Quantifying the association between ethnicity and COVID-19 mortality: a national cohort study protocol.

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 7;11(4):e045286. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that ethnic minority groups are disproportionately at increased risk of hospitalisation and death from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Population-based evidence on potential explanatory factors across minority groups and within subgroups is lacking. This study aims to quantify the association between ethnicity and the risk of hospitalisation and mortality due to COVID-19. Read More

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