2,428 results match your criteria char populations

Application of frequentist and Bayesian models with extensive but low-resolution data to assess status of endangered Athabasca River rainbow trout.

Conserv Biol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Zoology, Biodiversity Research Centre and Beaty Biodiversity Museum, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Use of extensive but low-resolution abundance data is common in the assessment of species at-risk status using quantitative decline criteria under IUCN and national endangered species legislation. Such data can be problematic for three reasons. First, statistical power to reject the null hypothesis of no change is often low because of small sample size and high sampling uncertainty leading to a high frequency of type II errors. Read More

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Bacteriophage Resistance Affects Virulence Partly via Mutations in Genes Related to Gliding Motility and Type IX Secretion System.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Jun 9:AEM0081221. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Increasing problems with antibiotic resistance has directed interest towards phage therapy in the aquaculture industry. However, phage resistance evolving in target bacteria is considered a challenge. To investigate how phage resistance influences the fish pathogen , two wild-type bacterial isolates, FCO-F2 and FCO-F9, were exposed to phages (FCO-F2 to FCOV-F2, FCOV-F5 and FCOV-F25, and FCO-F9 to FCL-2, FCOV-F13 and FCOV-F45), and resulting phenotypic and genetic changes in bacteria were analyzed. Read More

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Impoverishment impact of out-of-pocket payments for healthcare in rural Bangladesh: Do the regions facing different climate change risks matter?

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0252706. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute of Health Economics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Introduction: Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for healthcare severely affect the current consumption, future health and earnings capacity of poor/underprivileged households and hence it is crucial for priority setting. This study assesses the variation in overall as well as disease-specific impoverishment impact of OOP payments between the regions experiencing different climate change risks, defined as high disaster-prone (HDP) areas and low-disaster-prone (LDP) areas, in Bangladesh.

Materials And Methods: This paper estimated three poverty measures, such as poverty headcount, poverty intensity and normalized poverty gap for all ailments, catastrophic events, diseases types (communicable, non-communicable (NCDs), and accident and injury), illness conditions (acute and chronic) and hospitalization using 3,791 randomly selected rural households (1,203 from HDP and 2,588 from LDP areas) across the regions. Read More

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Temperature effects on the contractile performance and efficiency of oxidative muscle from a eury- vs. stenothermal salmonid.

J Exp Biol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada.

We compared the thermal sensitivity of oxidative muscle function between the eurythermal Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and the more stenothermal Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus; which prefers cooler waters). Power output was measured in red skeletal muscle strips and myocardial trabeculae, and efficiency (net work/energy consumed) was measured for trabeculae, from cold (6oC) and warm (15oC) acclimated fish at temperatures from 2-26oC. The mass-specific net power produced by char red muscle was greater than in salmon, by 2-5 fold depending on test temperature. Read More

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Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation for Chronic Groin Pain: A Review.

Neuromodulation 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Division of Pain Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Introduction: Chronic neuropathic groin pain develops in a significant number of postsurgical patients; however, multiple etiologies have been identified, and this makes it a challenging condition to treat. While treatment often involves a multimodal approach, advancements in neuromodulation technology, particularly dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation, have benefited patients plagued by chronic pain refractory to standard treatment modalities. Our goal was to provide a definitive source of information for interventional pain physicians regarding groin pain and the use of DRG stimulation for its treatment. Read More

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Genome editing for crop improvement: A perspective from India.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 2021 May 26:1-9. Epub 2021 May 26.

Mahyco Research Centre, Mahyco Private Limited, Jalna-Aurangabad Road, Dawalwadi, Jalna, Maharashtra 431203 India.

Human population is expected to reach to about 10 billion by 2050. Climate change affects crop production, thus posing food security challenges. Conventional breeding alone will not bridge the gap between current level of crop production and expected levels in the decades to come in the food production systems. Read More

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Subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM) patterns in children with temporal lobe epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 29;121(Pt A):108074. Epub 2021 May 29.

Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Objective: We evaluated SISCOM patterns and their relationship with surgical outcome in children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who had undergone a temporal lobe surgery.

Methods: This was an observational study evaluating SISCOM patterns in 40 children with TLE. We classified SISCOM patterns into 4 categories; (i) unilateral anteromesial and/or anterolateral temporal pattern; (ii) unilateral anteromesial and/or anterolateral temporal plus posterior extension pattern; (iii) bilateral anteromesial and/or anterolateral temporal pattern; and (iv) atypical pattern. Read More

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Life-history strategies in salmonids: the role of physiology and its consequences.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Section for Freshwater Fisheries and Ecology, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Vejlsøvej 39, Silkeborg, 8600, Denmark.

Salmonids are some of the most widely studied species of fish worldwide. They span freshwater rivers and lakes to fjords and oceans; they include short- and long-distance anadromous migrants, as well as partially migratory and non-migratory populations; and exhibit both semelparous and iteroparous reproduction. Salmonid life-history strategies represent some of the most diverse on the planet. Read More

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Muscular microsporidian infection in Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus from two lakes in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada.

Dis Aquat Organ 2021 May 27;144:209-220. Epub 2021 May 27.

Centre québécois sur la santé des animaux sauvages / Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, St. Hyacinthe, Quebec J2S 2M2, Canada.

Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus is an important cultural and subsistence resource for Inuit communities. Muscular infections by microsporidia were diagnosed for the first time in Arctic char originating from 2 different lakes in Nunavik (Quebec, Canada). The consumption of these infected fish was associated with digestive tract disorders in people. Read More

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Differential DNA methylation in somatic and sperm cells of hatchery vs wild (natural-origin) steelhead trout populations.

Environ Epigenet 2021 19;7(1):dvab002. Epub 2021 May 19.

Center for Reproductive Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4236, USA.

Environmental factors such as nutrition, stress, and toxicants can influence epigenetic programming and phenotypes of a wide variety of species from plants to humans. The current study was designed to investigate the impacts of hatchery spawning and rearing on steelhead trout () vs the wild fish on a molecular level. Additionally, epigenetic differences between feeding practices that allow slow growth (2 years) and fast growth (1 year) hatchery trout were investigated. Read More

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Spatial and temporal genetic variation in an exploited reef fish: The effects of exploitation on cohort genetic structure.

Evol Appl 2021 May 10;14(5):1286-1300. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER) University of Windsor Windsor Ontario Canada.

Many coral reef fishes are fished, often resulting in detrimental genetic effects; however, reef fishes often show unpredictable patterns of genetic variation, which potentially mask the effects of fishing. Our goals were to characterize spatial and temporal genetic variation and determine the effects of fishing on an exploited reef fish, , Lacepède (the common coral trout). To determine population structure, we genotyped 417 Great Barrier Reef coral trout from four populations sampled in 2 years (1996 and 2004) at nine microsatellite loci. Read More

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Pandemics of COVID-19 and racism: how HBCUs are coping.

AIMS Public Health 2021 31;8(2):333-351. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Associate Professor of Rehabilitation Counseling and Director of the Center for Teaching and Learning, Fort Valley State University, Fort Valley, GA, USA.

Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are currently facing unique challenges to deal with parallel pandemics of COVID-19 and Racism, given the population they serve (mostly African American) are at high risk of these unprecedented crises. HBCU leaders are adopting various strategies to respond to both the pandemics in order to protect their stakeholders. This paper addresses various models that HBCUs have adopted or planned to adopt to cope with these pandemics, gleaning the data from various secondary sources and selected first-hand interviews with HBCU administrators. Read More

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Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) summer thermal habitat use in streams with sympatric populations.

J Therm Biol 2021 May 5;98:102931. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Stroud Water Resource Center, 970 Spencer Rd, Avondale, PA, USA, 19311.

This study addresses the need to examine the thermally mediated interactions of fish with their natural environment by investigating the shift in thermal habitat occupation for sympatric Brook and Brown Trout populations. We observed upstream Brook Trout and Brown Trout population shifts during the summer, with thermal habitats showing an increased number of Brown Trout, while some sites also displayed a decrease in the number of Brook Trout. Overall, there was an increased incidence of overlapping habitat occupation at the end of the summer. Read More

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A Genomic Perspective on an Old Question: Salmo trouts or Salmo trutta (Teleostei: Salmonidae)?

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 May 17:107204. Epub 2021 May 17.

Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada.

There are particular challenges in defining the taxonomic status of recently radiated groups due to the low level of phylogenetic signal. Members of the Salmo trutta species-complex, which mostly evolved during and following the Pleistocene, show high morphological and ecological diversity that, along with their very wide geographic distribution, have led to morphological description of 47 extant nominal species. However, many of these species have not been supported by previous phylogenetic studies, which could be partly due to lack of significant genetic differences among them, the limited resolution offered by molecular methods previously used, as well as the often local scale of these studies. Read More

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The environmental context of inducible HSP70 expression in Eastern Brook Trout.

Conserv Physiol 2021 10;9(1):coab022. Epub 2021 May 10.

Environmental Science & Policy, Plymouth State University, NH, USA.

Much research has focused on the population-level effects of climate change on Eastern Brook Trout (). While some studies have considered here sub-lethal stress caused by warming waters, the role of multiple, interacting stressors remains largely unexplored. We used inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) as a molecular biomarker to assess response of Eastern Brook Trout in headwater streams to multiple potential stressors, including temperature. Read More

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Has stocking contributed to an increase in the rod catch of anadromous trout (Salmo trutta L.) in the Shetland Islands, UK?

J Fish Biol 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hatherly Building, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

The stocking of hatchery-origin fish into rivers and lakes has long been used in fisheries management to try to enhance catches, especially for trout and salmon species. Frequently, however, the long-term impacts of stocking programmes have not been evaluated. In this study, the authors investigate the contribution of a stocking programme undertaken to support the rod catch of sea trout in the Shetland Islands, UK. Read More

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Upper Thermal Tolerance Indicated by CT Fails to Predict Migration Strategy and Timing, Growth, and Predation Vulnerability in Juvenile Brown Trout ().

Physiol Biochem Zool 2021 Jul-Aug;94(4):215-227

AbstractPartial migration is common in a variety of taxa and has important ecological and evolutionary implications, yet the underlying factors that lead to different migratory strategies are not clearly understood. Given the importance of temperature in serving as a cue for migration, along with its role in regulating metabolism, growth, reproduction, and survival, we examined how intraspecific variation in critical thermal maximum (CT) values influenced migratory strategy (residency vs. migration), timing of migration, growth, and predation vulnerability in a wild population of partially anadromous juvenile brown trout (). Read More

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Virus shedding kinetics and unconventional virulence tradeoffs.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 10;17(5):e1009528. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Tradeoff theory, which postulates that virulence provides both transmission costs and benefits for pathogens, has become widely adopted by the scientific community. Although theoretical literature exploring virulence-tradeoffs is vast, empirical studies validating various assumptions still remain sparse. In particular, truncation of transmission duration as a cost of virulence has been difficult to quantify with robust controlled in vivo studies. Read More

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Behavioural variation between piscivore and insectivore rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

J Fish Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Zoology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

A proactive-reactive continuum integrating multiple (i.e., 3+) dimensions of animal behaviour has been reported as a major axis of behavioural differentiation, but its stability along a biological hierarchy from individuals to populations remains speculative. Read More

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Innovative mark-recapture experiment shows patterns of selection on transcript abundance in the wild.

Mol Ecol 2021 Jun 24;30(12):2707-2709. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

A fundamental aspect of evolutionary biology is natural selection on trait variation. Classically, selection has been estimated primarily on external morphological traits such as beak size and coloration, or on easily assayable physiological traits such as heat-tolerance. As technologies and methods improved, evolutionary biologists began examining selection on molecular traits such as protein sequences and cellular processes. Read More

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Infected juvenile salmon can experience increased predation during freshwater migration.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 24;8(3):201522. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Pacific Salmon Ecology and Conservation Laboratory, Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Predation risk for animal migrants can be impacted by physical condition. Although size- or condition-based selection is often observed, observing infection-based predation is rare due to the difficulties in assessing infectious agents in predated samples. We examined predation of outmigrating sockeye salmon () smolts by bull trout () in south-central British Columbia, Canada. Read More

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Limited transgenerational effects of environmental temperatures on thermal performance of a cold-adapted salmonid.

Conserv Physiol 2021 24;9(1):coab021. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario K9L 0G2, Canada.

The capacity of ectotherms to cope with rising temperatures associated with climate change is a significant conservation concern as the rate of warming is likely too rapid to allow for adaptative responses in many populations. Transgenerational plasticity (TGP), if present, could potentially buffer some of the negative impacts of warming on future generations. We examined TGP in lake trout to assess their inter-generational potential to cope with anticipated warming. Read More

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Interactions between Rainbow Trout Eyed Eggs and spp. Using a Bath Challenge Model: Preliminary Evaluation of Bacteriophages as Pathogen Control Agents.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 30;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Unit for Fish and Shellfish Diseases, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.

The microbial community surrounding fish eyed eggs can harbor pathogenic bacteria. In this study we focused on rainbow trout () eyed eggs and the potential of bacteriophages against the pathogenic bacteria and . An infection bath method was first established, and the effects of singular phages on fish eggs was assessed (survival of eyed eggs, interaction of phages with eyed eggs). Read More

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Factors influencing return rate and marine residence duration in sea trout populations in Central Norway.

J Fish Biol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

The Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.

Brown trout (Salmo trutta) display extensive plasticity in marine migratory behaviours, with marine migrations considered to be an adaptive strategy which enables sea trout to maximize growth and reproductive potential. However, marine migrations are not without associated costs, including threats posed by ever-increasing salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestations. In the present study, we used passive integrated transponder technology to characterize variability in sea trout migration behaviour amongst three catchments situated in a region of intensive salmon farming in central Norway. Read More

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Automated Segmentation of Abdominal Skeletal Muscle on Pediatric CT Scans Using Deep Learning.

Radiol Artif Intell 2021 Mar 6;3(2):e200130. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3026 (J.C., E.S., L.A.G., A.T.T., S.B.); and Departments of Radiology (E.S., A.T.T., S.B.) and Pediatrics (A.T.T.), University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Purpose: To automate skeletal muscle segmentation in a pediatric population using convolutional neural networks that identify and segment the L3 level at CT.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective study, two sets of U-Net-based models were developed to identify the L3 level in the sagittal plane and segment the skeletal muscle from the corresponding axial image. For model development, 370 patients (sampled uniformly across age group from 0 to 18 years and including both sexes) were selected between January 2009 and January 2019, and ground truth L3 location and skeletal muscle segmentation were manually defined. Read More

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Polystyrene microplastics reduce abundance of developing B cells in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary cultures.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Jul 27;114:102-111. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biology, William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23185, USA.

Environmental microplastic pollution (including polystyrene, PS) may have detrimental effects on the health of aquatic organisms. Accumulation of PS microplastics has been reported to affect innate immune cells and inflammatory responses in fish. To date, knowledge on effects of microplastics on the antibody response is still very limited. Read More

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Evidence for the Use of Mucus Swabs to Detect in Brook Trout.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 12;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

U.S. Geological Survey, Colorado Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, 1484 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

Efforts to advance fish health diagnostics have been highlighted in many studies to improve the detection of pathogens in aquaculture facilities and wild fish populations. Typically, the detection of a pathogen has required sacrificing fish; however, many hatcheries have valuable and sometimes irreplaceable broodstocks, and lethal sampling is undesirable. Therefore, the development of non-lethal detection methods is a high priority. Read More

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Mechanism of copper nanoparticle toxicity in rainbow trout olfactory mucosa.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 16;284:117141. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

Chemosensory perception is crucial for fish reproduction and survival. Direct contact of olfactory neuroepithelium to the surrounding environment makes it vulnerable to contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Copper nanoparticles (CuNPs), which are increasingly used in commercial and domestic applications due their exceptional properties, can impair fish olfactory function. Read More

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Assessing contributions of cold-water refuges to reproductive migration corridor conditions for adult Chinook Salmon and steelhead trout in the Columbia River, USA.

J Ecohydraul 2020 Dec;1:1-13

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Center for Public Health and Environmental Assessment, Pacific Ecological Systems Division, Corvallis, OR.

Diadromous fish populations face multiple challenges along their migratory routes. These challenges include suboptimal water quality, harvest, and barriers to longitudinal and lateral connectivity. Interactions among factors influencing migration success make it challenging to assess management options for improving migratory fish conditions along riverine migration corridors. Read More

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December 2020

Frequency, Progression, and Current Management: Report of 16 New Cases of Nonfunctional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and Comparison With Previous Reports.

Front Neurol 2021 9;12:627672. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States.

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic condition that causes benign tumors to grow in multiple organ systems. Nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are a rare clinical feature of TSC with no specific guidelines outlined for clinical management at this time. Our purpose is to calculate the frequency of nonfunctional PNETs as well as characterize the presentation, current clinical management, and assess the impact of systemic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) on nonfunctional PNETs in TSC. Read More

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