4,647 results match your criteria channel material


Semiconducting α'-boron sheet with high mobility and low all-boron contact resistance: a first-principles study.

Nanoscale 2021 May;13(18):8474-8480

Chemistry Department, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia. and Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, USA.

Two-dimensional field effect transistors (2D FETs) with high mobility semiconducting channels and low contact resistance between the semiconducting channel and the metallic electrodes are highly sought components of future electronics. Recently, 2D boron sheets (borophene) offer a great platform for realizing ideal 2D FETs but stable semiconducting phases still remain much unexplored. Herein, based on first-principles calculations and tight-binding model, we first clarify that α'-boron is the most stable semiconductor phase of boron sheets, while reveal the mechanism of metal-to-semiconductor transition from α- to α'-boron. Read More

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Geology and taphonomy of a unique tyrannosaurid bonebed from the upper Campanian Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah: implications for tyrannosaurid gregariousness.

PeerJ 2021 19;9:e11013. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University of North Queensland, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

Tyrannosaurids are hypothesized to be gregarious, possibly parasocial carnivores engaging in cooperative hunting and extended parental care. A tyrannosaurid (cf. ) bonebed in the late Campanian age Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah, nicknamed the Rainbows and Unicorns Quarry (RUQ), provides the first opportunity to investigate possible tyrannosaurid gregariousness in a taxon unique to southern Laramidia. Read More

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Dual-channel fluorescent signal readout strategy for cysteine sensing.

Talanta 2021 Aug 9;231:122331. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Colleges of Chemistry & Pharmacy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, PR China. Electronic address:

Cysteine (Cys) is a biological thiol. Aberrant changes in thiol levels are associated with the development and pathogenesis of various diseases, including liver damage, Alzheimer's disease, weakness, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, thiol detection in biological samples has great importance in health monitoring and disease prediction. Read More

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Comments on the evolution of TRPV6.

Ann Anat 2021 May 6;238:151753. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institut für Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Universität des Saarlandes, 66421 Homburg, Saar, Germany. Electronic address:

It is well known that not all biological findings derived from animals can be directly applied to humans. The TRPV6 protein may serve as an example which highlights these inter-species differences as an example of parallel evolutionary pathways. TRPV6 (and TRPV5) belong to a family of ion channels from the transient receptor potential group but are selectively permeable for Ca, in contrast to other members of the family. Read More

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A Prototype Spatial-Spectral CT System for Material Decomposition with Energy-Integrating Detector.

Med Phys 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Johns Hopkins University, 720 Rutland Ave., Traylor Building 605, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Purpose: Spectral CT has great potential for a variety of clinical applications due to improved tissue and material discrimination over conventional single-energy CT. Many clinical and preclinical spectral CT systems have two spectral channels enabling dual-energy CT. Strategies include split-filtration, dual-layer detectors, photon counting detectors, and kVp-switching. Read More

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SynCells: A 60 × 60 μm Electronic Platform with Remote Actuation for Sensing Applications in Constrained Environments.

ACS Nano 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

Autonomous electronic microsystems smaller than the diameter of a human hair (<100 μm) are promising for sensing in confined spaces such as microfluidic channels or the human body. However, they are difficult to implement due to fabrication challenges and limited power budget. Here we present a 60 × 60 μm electronic microsystem platform, or SynCell, that overcomes these issues by leveraging the integration capabilities of two-dimensional material circuits and the low power consumption of passive germanium timers, memory-like chemical sensors, and magnetic pads. Read More

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Leaky barriers: leaky enough for fish to pass?

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 3;8(3):201843. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK.

Perceived as environmental-friendly hydraulic structures, leaky barriers used for natural flood management are introduced into rivers, potentially creating migration barriers for fish. Using sustainable, local materials to construct wooden barriers across river channels in upper catchments, these barriers aim to slow down the flow, reduce flood peaks and attenuate the flow reaching downstream communities. Yet little is known about their impact on hydrodynamics and fish passage. Read More

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Age and growth of from Penghu Channel, Taiwan: significance of their age distribution based on fossils.

PeerJ 2021 14;9:e11236. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Life Science, Tunghai University, Taichung City, Taiwan.

Dental material attributed to from the Middle to Late Pleistocene were recovered over decades from the Penghu Channel during commercial fisheries activities. The National Museum of Nature Science (NMNS) has a collection of such dental material, which differs in size and morphology and likely represents ontogenetic variation and growth trajectory of various age groups of . However, little is known regarding age determination. Read More

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Tunneling current modulation in atomically precise graphene nanoribbon heterojunctions.

Nat Commun 2021 May 5;12(1):2542. Epub 2021 May 5.

II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Köln, Germany.

Lateral heterojunctions of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) hold promise for applications in nanotechnology, yet their charge transport and most of the spectroscopic properties have not been investigated. Here, we synthesize a monolayer of multiple aligned heterojunctions consisting of quasi-metallic and wide-bandgap GNRs, and report characterization by scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoemission, Raman spectroscopy, and charge transport. Comprehensive transport measurements as a function of bias and gate voltages, channel length, and temperature reveal that charge transport is dictated by tunneling through the potential barriers formed by wide-bandgap GNR segments. Read More

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Improving the Efficiency of Non-Stationary Climate Control in Buildings with a Non-Constant Stay of People by Using Porous Materials.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Metal and Timber Constructions, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 190005 St. Petersburg, Russia.

This article presents the results of experimental research on the non-stationary management of the internal climate of buildings with a non-constant stay of people. During the absence of people, a significant drop in air temperature and corresponding energy conservation in heating is possible. The effectiveness of porous building materials is shown, provided that the appropriate characteristics are selected. Read More

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Collective dynamics in lipid membranes containing transmembrane peptides.

Soft Matter 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA.

Biological membranes are composed of complex mixtures of lipids and proteins that influence each other's structure and function. The biological activities of many channel-forming peptides and proteins are known to depend on the material properties of the surrounding lipid bilayer. However, less is known about how membrane-spanning channels affect the lipid bilayer properties, and in particular, their collective fluctuation dynamics. Read More

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An extended view for acoustofluidic particle manipulation: Scenarios for actuation modes and device resonance phenomenon for bulk-acoustic-wave devices.

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 Apr;149(4):2802

Microfluidics and Lab-on-a-chip Research Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800, Turkey.

For the manipulation of microparticles, ultrasonic devices, which employ acoustophoretic forces, have become an essential tool. There exists a widely used analytical expression in the literature which does not account for the effect of the geometry and acoustic properties of the chip material to calculate the acoustophoretic force and resonance frequencies. In this study, we propose an analytical relationship that includes the effect of the chip material on the resonance frequencies of an acoustophoretic chip. Read More

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Confinement effects on the solvation structure of solvated alkaline metal cations in a single-digit 1T-MoS nanochannel: A first-principles study.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(16):164706

Material Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA.

Confinement plays an important role in determining ion transport in porous materials, which, in turn, may influence the performance of many energy storage and desalination devices. In this work, we combined density functional theory (DFT) with an implicit solvation model and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) to investigate the effects of nanoconfinement on several solvated alkaline metal cations in a single-digit 1T-MoS nanochannel. Our DFT calculations with a solvation model indicated that cations with stronger hydration energy introduce a higher number of co-intercalated water molecules into the channel, consistent with early experimental observation obtained for MXene (2D transition metal carbide) channels. Read More

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Developing a Multi-channel Beamformer by Enhancing Spatially Constrained ICA for Recovery of Correlated EEG Sources.

J Biomed Phys Eng 2021 Apr 1;11(2):205-214. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

MD, Iranian Centre of Neurological Research, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Brain source imaging based on electroencephalogram (EEG) data aims to recover the neuron populations' activity producing the scalp potentials. This procedure is known as the EEG inverse problem. Recently, beamformers have gained a lot of consideration in the EEG inverse problem. Read More

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Optimization of Thermal and Structural Design in Lithium-Ion Batteries to Obtain Energy Efficient Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS): A Critical Review.

Arch Comput Methods Eng 2021 Apr 26:1-66. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, PO Box 394, Abha, 61421 Saudi Arabia.

Covid-19 has given one positive perspective to look at our planet earth in terms of reducing the air and noise pollution thus improving the environmental conditions globally. This positive outcome of pandemic has given the indication that the future of energy belong to green energy and one of the emerging source of green energy is Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). LIBs are the backbone of the electric vehicles but there are some major issues faced by the them like poor thermal performance, thermal runaway, fire hazards and faster rate of discharge under low and high temperature environment,. Read More

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8-hydroxypinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside from Valeriana officinalis L. Is a Novel Kv1.5 Channel Blocker.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 28;276:114168. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

The Macrohard Institute of Health, 231 North Ave, Battle Creek, MI, 49017, USA; The American Academy of Tradition Chinese Medicine Inc., 1925 W County Rd B2, Roseville, MN, 55113, USA. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacology Relevance: In folkloric medicine of many cultures, one of the medical uses of Valeriana officinalis Linn is to treat heart-related disease. Recently, it was shown that the ethanol extracts from V. officinalis could effectively prevent auricular fibrillation, and 8-hydroxypinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (HPG) from the extracts is one of the two active compounds showing antiarrhythmia activities. Read More

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Mimicking associative learning using an ion-trapping non-volatile synaptic organic electrochemical transistor.

Nat Commun 2021 04 30;12(1):2480. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.

Associative learning, a critical learning principle to improve an individual's adaptability, has been emulated by few organic electrochemical devices. However, complicated bias schemes, high write voltages, as well as process irreversibility hinder the further development of associative learning circuits. Here, by adopting a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate/Polytetrahydrofuran composite as the active channel, we present a non-volatile organic electrochemical transistor that shows a write bias less than 0. Read More

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Aerosol-jet-printed, conformable microfluidic force sensors.

Cell Rep Phys Sci 2021 Apr 21;2(4):100386. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS, UK.

Force sensors that are thin, low-cost, flexible, and compatible with commercial microelectronic chips are of great interest for use in biomedical sensing, precision surgery, and robotics. By leveraging a combination of microfluidics and capacitive sensing, we develop a thin, flexible force sensor that is conformable and robust. The sensor consists of a partially filled microfluidic channel made from a deformable material, with the channel overlaying a series of interdigitated electrodes coated with a thin, insulating polymer layer. Read More

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Catalytic Reduction of Graphene Oxide Membranes and Water Selective Channel Formation in Water-Alcohol Separations.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA.

Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising membrane system for chemical separation applications due to its 2-D nanofluidics properties and an ability to control interplanar spacing for selectivity. The permeance of water, methanol (MeOH) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) through 5 µm thick membranes was found to be 0.38 ± 0. Read More

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An Effective Interface Tracking Method for Simulating the Extrudate Swell Phenomenon.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 16;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute for Polymers and Composites, Department of Polymer Engineering, Campus of Azurém, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal.

The extrudate swell, i.e., the geometrical modifications that take place when the flowing material leaves the confined flow inside a channel and moves freely without the restrictions that are promoted by the walls, is a relevant phenomenon in several polymer processing techniques. Read More

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Long-Term Recording of Reticulo-Rumen Myoelectrical Activity in Sheep by a Telemetry Method.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Large Animal Diseases and Clinic, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 02-797 Warsaw, Poland.

The reticulum and rumen are considered a single functional unit (the reticulo-rumen) with regards to myoelectrical and contractile activities. The specialized contractions of the reticulo-rumen provide constant mixing of partially digested material (cycle A), its flow into the omasum during eructation (cycle B), and regurgitation-rumination (cycle C). This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of electromyography (EMG) registered by a long-term telemetry method for assessment of the basic reticulo-rumen myoelectrical activity in sheep, to develop the effective recognition of the reticulo-rumen cycles at rest with no food stimulation, and to investigate the relationship between cycles A, B, and C in such basic conditions. Read More

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Numerical Network Modeling of Heat and Moisture Transfer through Capillary-Porous Building Materials.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 7;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Building Physics and Renewable Energy, Kielce University of Technology, al. Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland.

The article presents the modeling of the dynamics of the vapor-gas mixture and heat and mass transfer (sorption-desorption) in the capillary structure of the porous medium. This approach is underpinned by the fact that the porous structure is represented by a system of linear microchannels oriented along the axes of a three-dimensional coordinate system. The equivalent diameter of these channels corresponds to the average pore diameter, and the ratio of the total pore volume to the volume of the entire porous material corresponds to its porosity. Read More

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Novel Concept of Micro Patterned Micro Titer Plates Fabricated via UV-NIL for Automated Neuronal Cell Assay Read-Out.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Micro Resist Technology GmbH, Köpenicker Str. 325, 12555 Berlin, Germany.

The UV-nanoimprint lithography(UV-NIL) fabrication of a novel network of micron-sized channels, forming an open channel microfluidic system is described. Details about the complete manufacturing process, from mastering to fabrication in small batches and in high throughput with up to 1200 micro titer plates per hour is presented. Deep insight into the evaluation of a suitable UV-curable material, mr-UVCur26SF is given, presenting cytotoxic evaluation, cell compatibility tests and finally a neuronal assay. Read More

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Confined Water's Dielectric Constant Reduction Is Due to the Surrounding Low Dielectric Media and Not to Interfacial Molecular Ordering.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 29;12(17):4319-4326. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

PASTEUR, Department of Chemistry, École normale supérieure, PSL University, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, 75005 Paris, France.

Liquid water confined within nanometer-sized channels exhibits a surprisingly low dielectric constant along the direction orthogonal to the channel walls. This is typically assumed to result from a pronounced heterogeneity across the sample: the dielectric constant would be bulk-like everywhere except at the interface, where it would be dramatically reduced by strong restrictions on interfacial molecules. Here we study the dielectric properties of water confined within graphene slit channels via classical molecular dynamics simulations. Read More

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Hereditary pancreatitis in childhood: course of disease and complications.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Internal Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Metabolic and Nutritional Medicine, Endocrinology, Ordensklinikum Linz-Hospital of the Sisters of Charity, Seilerstätte 4, 4010, Linz, Austria.

Background: Hereditary pancreatitis is rare. Pain therapy for juvenile symptom onset, child development and the risk of pancreatic carcinoma in adulthood must be considered.

Patients, Material And Methods: Data from a cohort of 11 patients with disease onset in childhood (< 16 years) were analyzed retrospectively. Read More

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Effective Easing of the Side Effects of Copper Intrauterine Devices using Ultra-fine-grained Cu-0.4Mg Alloy.

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Graduate School of Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China; School of Materials Science Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China. Electronic address:

Copper intrauterine device is one of the most adopted contraceptive methods with high effectiveness (over 99 %), low cost, spontaneous reversibility and long-lasting usage. However, the side effects induced from the initial burst release of copper ions (Cu) hinder the continuation of the Cu-IUD made of Coarse-Grained Copper (CG Cu). We proposed to tailor the bio-corrosion behaviors of better control of Cu release via the addition of bioactive Mg into the ultrafine grained bulk Cu. Read More

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Emerging stock market volatility and economic fundamentals: the importance of US uncertainty spillovers, financial and health crises.

Ann Oper Res 2021 Apr 21:1-40. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Economics and Finance, Brunel University London, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH UK.

This paper studies the US and global economic fundamentals that exacerbate emerging stock markets volatility and can be considered as systemic risk factors increasing financial stability vulnerabilities. We apply the bivariate HEAVY system of daily and intra-daily volatility equations enriched with powers, leverage, and macro-effects that improve its forecasting accuracy significantly. Our macro-augmented asymmetric power HEAVY model estimates the inflammatory effect of US uncertainty and infectious disease news impact on equities alongside global credit and commodity factors on emerging stock index realized volatility. Read More

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A green fabrication method of poly (lactic acid) perforated membrane via tuned crystallization and gas diffusion process.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 21;182:1037-1046. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Ningbo Key Lab of Polymer Materials, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) perforated membrane is typically obtained through the solvent-volatilization-induced or non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) method. However, the residual organic solvents would unavoidably limit the application of PLA perforated membrane in biomedical and high-end water purification fields. Herein, an innovative solution-free method was proposed for preparing the PLA perforated membrane via a simple and environmentally friendly way. Read More

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High Performance of Solution-Processed Amorphous p-Channel Copper-Tin-Sulfur-Gallium Oxide Thin-Film Transistors by UV/O Photocuring.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 23;13(17):20277-20287. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Advanced Display Research Center (ADRC), Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, 26, Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea.

The development of p-type metal-oxide semiconductors (MOSs) is of increasing interest for applications in next-generation optoelectronic devices, display backplane, and low-power-consumption complementary MOS circuits. Here, we report the high performance of solution-processed, p-channel copper-tin-sulfide-gallium oxide (CTSGO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) using UV/O exposure. Hall effect measurement confirmed the p-type conduction of CTSGO with Hall mobility of 6. Read More

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Comprehensive Non-volatile Photo-programming Transistor Memory via a Dual-Functional Perovskite-Based Floating Gate.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 22;13(17):20417-20426. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.

Photonic transistor memory has received increasing attention as next-generation optoelectronic devices for light fidelity (Li-Fi) application due to the attractive advantages of ultra-speed, high security, and low power consumption. However, most transistor-type photonic memories developed to date still rely on electrical bias for operation, imposing certain limits on data transmission efficiency and energy consumption. In this study, the dual manipulation of "photo-writing" and "photo-erasing" of a novel photonic transistor memory is successfully realized by cleverly utilizing the complementary light absorption between the photoactive material, n-type BPE-PTCDI, in the active channel and the hybrid floating gate, CHNHPbBr/poly(2-vinylpyridine). Read More

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