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Effect of osteopathic manipulative therapy on pulmonary function testing in children with asthma.

J Osteopath Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Context: Asthma is a leading cause of pediatric chronic illness, and poor disease control can lead to decreased quality of life and impaired academic performance. Although osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) has been shown to have positive effects on pulmonary function in adult patient populations, less is known about its impact in children.

Objectives: To evaluate changes in pulmonary function testing (PFT) in pediatric patients on the same day they received OMT compared with PFT in those who received usual care. Read More

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A systematic review on the metabolic effects of chlorpyrifos.

Rev Environ Health 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran.

Organophosphate (OP) pesticides, including chlorpyrifos (CPF), can alter metabolic hemostasis. The current systematic study investigated blood glucose, lipid profiles, and body weight alterations in rodents and fish exposed to CPF. The systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) Guidelines, querying online databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus and also search engine including Google Scholar, through January 2021. Read More

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Ethanolic extract of C. Koch improves pulmonary function and inflammation in LPS-induced acute lung injury mice.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Objectives: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening pulmonary dysfunction associated with severe inflammation. There are still no effective pharmacological therapies for the treatment of ALI. In this concern, several anti-inflammatory agents could be used as add-on therapy to inhibit inflammation. Read More

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Effect of Arogya Raksha Panchatantra (five lifestyle principles) on hematological parameters and anthropometric measures among healthy volunteers: a pilot study.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Physiology, JSS Institute of Naturopathy and Yogic Sciences, Palakkad Highway Navakkarai, Coimbatore, India.

Objectives: A healthy lifestyle is one, where the individual adapts it aiming at prevention from ailments. Unhealthy lifestyle is a behavioral risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Arogya Raksha Panchatantra (five principles of healthy living), is a Naturopathy and Yoga lifestyle practice proposed by an eminent Indian Naturopath Dr. Read More

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Developmental effects of early-life stress on dopamine D2 receptor and proteins involved in noncanonical D2 dopamine receptor signaling pathway in the prefrontal cortex of male rats.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Neurophysiology Research Center, Cellular and Molecular Medicine Institute, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Objectives: Dopamine neurotransmission is implicated in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, most strikingly in Parkinson's disease, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. In addition to canonical pathway, D2-receptor (D2R) exerts some of its biological actions through regulating the activity of Akt and GSK3, which in turn were found to be altered in several psychiatric illnesses. The present study examined the impacts of maternal separation, an early-life stress model which has been associated with disturbed neurodevelopment and appearance of many psychiatric disorders, on developmental changes in dopamine concentration and the expression of D2Rs, Akt and GSK-3β in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC; a key target of stress) in adolescent and young adult male rats. Read More

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Overloading stress-induced progressive degeneration and self-repair in condylar cartilage.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Orthodontics, Stomatological Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Overloading stress-induced condylar cartilage degeneration acts as the main pathologic change in temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA). However, the progression of degeneration and the ability for self-repair remain poorly understood. Here, we explored the progression of cartilage degeneration by dividing pathological stages using a steady mouth-opening mouse model. Read More

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Microvesicles and Exosomes Released by Amnion Epithelial Cells Under Oxidative Stress Cause Inflammatory Changes in Uterine Cells.

Biol Reprod 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine and Perinatal Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a crucial role in feto-maternal communication and provide an important paracrine signaling mechanism in pregnancy. We hypothesize that fetal cells-derived exosomes and microvesicles (MVs) under oxidative stress carry unique cargo and traffic through feto-maternal interface, which cause inflammation in uterine cells associated with parturition. Exosomes and MVs, from primary amnion epithelial cell (AEC) culture media under normal or oxidative stress (OS)-induced conditions, were isolated by optimized differential centrifugation method followed by characterization for size (nanoparticle tracking analyzer), shape (transmission electron microscopy), and protein markers (western blot and immunofluorescence). Read More

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Anesthesia in Thoracic Surgery: Changes of Paradigms.

Authors:
Colin Royse

Anesth Analg 2020 Dec;131(6):e244

Department of Surgery, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, Outcomes Research Consortium, Department of Outcomes Research, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio,

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December 2020

Ketogenic diet-mediated steroid metabolism reprogramming improves the immune microenvironment and myelin growth in spinal cord injury rats according to gene and co-expression network analyses.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 May 6;13. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.

The ketogenic diet has been widely used in the treatment of various nervous system and metabolic-related diseases. Our previous research found that a ketogenic diet exerts a protective effect and promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury. However, the mechanism of action is still unclear. Read More

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The utility of supine radiographs in the assessment of thoracic flexibility and risk of proximal junctional kyphosis.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 May 7:1-7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Objective: Supine radiographs have successfully been used for preoperative planning of lumbar deformity corrections. However, they have not been used to assess thoracic flexibility, which has recently garnered attention as a potential contributor to proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK). The purpose of this study was to compare supine to standing radiographs to assess thoracic flexibility and to determine whether thoracic flexibility is associated with PJK. Read More

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The safety profile and angioarchitectural changes after acute targeted embolization of ruptured arteriovenous malformations.

J Neurosurg 2021 May 7:1-10. Epub 2021 May 7.

2Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, and.

Objective: The aim of this study was to 1) compare the safety and efficacy of acute targeted embolization of angiographic weak points in ruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) versus delayed treatment, and 2) explore the angioarchitectural changes that follow this intervention.

Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospectively acquired database of ruptured bAVMs. Three hundred sixteen patients with ruptured bAVMs who presented to the hospital within 48 hours of ictus were included in the analysis. Read More

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The predictive value of intraoperative visual evoked potential for visual outcome after extended endoscopic endonasal surgery for adult craniopharyngioma.

J Neurosurg 2021 May 7:1-11. Epub 2021 May 7.

1Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, and.

Objective: Due to the proximity of craniopharyngioma to the optic apparatus, one of the most common complications after surgery is visual deterioration. Intraoperative visual evoked potential (VEP), as a means of real-time visual function monitoring, has been integrated into transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma to predict postoperative visual outcome. Compared with pituitary tumor, craniopharyngioma often adheres to optic nerves, with increased risk of postoperative visual impairment. Read More

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Trends in depression & anxiety symptom severity among mental health service attendees during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Affect Disord 2021 Apr 24;289:105-109. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Centre for Outcomes and Research Effectiveness, Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London, UK; Camden & Islington NHS Foundation Trust, St Pancras Hospital, 4 St Pancras Way, London, UK.

Background: General population surveys have shown that some groups, particularly young women, experienced increased distress during nationally mandated restrictions to control the spread of COVID-19. However, there has been limited research on such trends among people with pre-existing mental health conditions, leaving mental health services ill equipped to plan for current and future lockdowns.

Methods: Mean weekly scores on the GAD-7 and PHQ-9 between 01/01/2020-22/06/2020 (n=9,538 individuals) for all patients of two psychological treatment services (Improving Access to Psychological Therapies) in London, were compared to mean weekly scores from the same time periods in 2017-2019 (n=37,849). Read More

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Gestational folic acid deficiency alters embryonic eye development: Possible role of basement membrane proteins in eye malformations.

Nutrition 2021 Mar 26;90:111250. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Anatomy and Embryology Department, Madrid, Spain; Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Faculty of Medicine, Anatomy and Embryology Department, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: Folic acid (FA) is crucial before and during early pregnancy. FA deficiency can occur because dietary FA intake is low in mothers at the time of conception. Likewise, various ocular pathologies are related to the alteration of extracellular matrices. Read More

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Effects of skin-to-skin care on electrical activity of the diaphragm in preterm infants during neurally adjusted ventilatory assist.

Early Hum Dev 2021 Apr 29;157:105379. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neonatal Medicine, Osaka Women's and Children's Hospital, 840 Murodo-cho, Izumi, Osaka 594-1101, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Skin-to-skin care (SSC) reduces neonatal mortality and morbidity and is widely implemented in the neonatal intensive care unit. However, changes in respiratory effort during SSC in ventilated preterm infants remain unclear.

Aims: To evaluate the effect of SSC on electrical activity of the diaphragm (Edi) and vital signs in premature infants who are intubated and under neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation. Read More

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Identifying factors associated with criminal responsibility by analyzing court trial verdicts.

Int J Law Psychiatry 2021 May 4;77:101702. Epub 2021 May 4.

Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba, Japan. Electronic address:

The criminal responsibility of offenders with mental disorders is a key issue in forensic psychiatry. Japan's implementation of the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act and Lay Judge Act in the early 2000s raised public awareness of this issue. To determine how criminal court judges in Japan assess the criminal responsibility of offenders, we examined 453 district court verdicts that mention psychiatric evidence. Read More

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Post-transfusion changes in red cell distribution width predicts survival in critically ill patients.

J Clin Anesth 2021 May 4;73:110335. Epub 2021 May 4.

University at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, United States. Electronic address:

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Effect of trunk muscles fatigue on plantar pressure distribution in novice runners.

J Biomech 2021 Apr 28;122:110487. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Sports Biomechanics, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

During running, trunk muscles act to sufficiently contribute to the energy generation and transmission of the body parts. Improper function of trunk muscles affects running mechanics adversely and could result in altered lower limb energetics. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of trunk muscles fatigue on plantar pressure distribution in novice runners. Read More

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Mathematical model of modified hybrid pump mechanism for cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Apr 18;206:106106. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea; Institute of BioEngineering, Bio-MAX Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: The "Cardiac pump theory" and "Thoracic pump theory" are representative theories of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) mechanisms. Based on these theories, many studies on mathematical modeling have been performed to help understand hemodynamics during CPR. However, there are parts that do not yet properly reflect the physiology of CPR. Read More

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Somatosensory versus cerebellar contributions to proprioceptive changes associated with motor skill learning: A theta burst stimulation study.

Cortex 2021 Apr 15;140:98-109. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Program in Neuroscience, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA; Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: It is well established that proprioception (position sense) is important for motor control, yet its role in motor learning and associated plasticity is not well understood. We previously demonstrated that motor skill learning is associated with enhanced proprioception and changes in sensorimotor neurophysiology. However, the neural substrates mediating these effects are unclear. Read More

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Litter decomposition can be reduced by pesticide effects on detritivores and decomposers: Implications for tropical stream functioning.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 28;285:117243. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Leioa, Spain; IKERBASQUE, Bilbao, Spain.

Understanding which factors affect the process of leaf litter decomposition is crucial if we are to predict changes in the functioning of stream ecosystems as a result of human activities. One major activity with known consequences on streams is agriculture, which is of particular concern in tropical regions, where forests are being rapidly replaced by crops. While pesticides are potential drivers of reduced decomposition rates observed in agricultural tropical streams, their specific effects on the performance of decomposers and detritivores are mostly unknown. Read More

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Environmentally relevant fungicide levels modify fungal community composition and interactions but not functioning.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 24;285:117234. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

iES Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, D-76829, Landau, Germany; Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lennart Hjelms Väg 9, SWE-75007, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Aquatic hyphomycetes (AHs), a group of saprotrophic fungi adapted to submerged leaf litter, play key functional roles in stream ecosystems as decomposers and food source for higher trophic levels. Fungicides, controlling fungal pathogens, target evolutionary conserved molecular processes in fungi and contaminate streams via their use in agricultural and urban landscapes. Thus fungicides pose a risk to AHs and the functions they provide. Read More

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Immobilisation of phosphonium-based ionic liquid in polysulfone capsules for the removal of phenolic compounds, with an emphasis on 2,4-dichlorophenol, in aqueous solution.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 4;291:112670. Epub 2021 May 4.

Federal University of Santa Catarina, Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Campus Universitário Trindade, 87504-200, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Phosphonium-based ionic liquid immobilised in polysulfone capsules were prepared by the phase inversion technique for the adsorption of different phenolic compounds from aqueous solution. Some techniques, including Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), surface analysis by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), were used to characterize the capsule and indicated that trihexyltetradecylphosphonium decanoate (ionic liquid) was successfully immobilised in polysulfone, the immobilisation was determined to be 63.29%. Read More

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Innovative high digestibility protein feed materials reducing environmental impact through improved nitrogen-use efficiency in sustainable agriculture.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 4;291:112693. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Environmental Hygiene and Animal Welfare, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Science, ul. Chełmońskiego 38C, 55-630, Wrocław, Poland.

Sustainable development in agriculture brings both environmental and economic benefits. Contemporary agriculture is also about increasing nutrient use efficiency, especially nitrogen, as the critical nutrient causing the most significant environmental pressure. This creates the need to produce highly digestible protein feed with high bioavailability, reducing losses of biogenic elements to feces. Read More

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Effects of thorium on bacterial, microalgal and micromeiofaunal community structures in a periphytic biofilm.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 4;218:112276. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institut national de la recherche scientifique, 490 rue de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec City, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Few ecotoxicity studies are available on thorium (Th) which hinders the ability to evaluate its ecotoxicological risk. Its release in the environment is often associated with the extraction of rare earth elements and uranium, as well as the field applications of phosphate fertilizers. This study investigates the effects of Th on microbial communities of periphytic biofilms. Read More

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Mechanisms of postural control in older adults based on surface electromyography data.

Hum Mov Sci 2021 May 4;78:102803. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Physical Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tokyo Kasei University, Inariyama2-15-1, Sayama 350-1398, Japan. Electronic address:

Objectives: The present study aimed to clarify the mechanisms of postural control during standing in older adults and document the mechanisms of age-related motor control based on changes in muscle activities.

Methods: A total of 26 healthy male adults (older adult group, ≥65-78 years: n = 16; younger adult group, 20-23 years: n = 10) participated in this study. Ground reaction force and kinematic data of the lower limbs (hip, knee, and ankle), and electromyographic data from 6 postural muscles on the right side were recorded and quantified for each motor phase during rapid voluntary center of pressure (COP) shift. Read More

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Sex influences the effects of APOE genotype and Alzheimer's diagnosis on neuropathology and memory.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Apr 29;129:105248. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health and Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Women's Health Research Institute of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health and Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by severe cognitive decline and pathological changes in the brain (brain atrophy, hyperphosphorylation of tau, and deposition of amyloid-beta protein). Females have greater neuropathology (AD biomarkers and brain atrophy rates) and cognitive decline than males, however these effects can depend on diagnosis (amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or AD) and APOE genotype (presence of ε4 alleles). Using the ADNI database (N = 630 females, N = 830 males), we analyzed the effect of sex, APOE genotype (non-carriers or carriers of APOEε4 alleles), and diagnosis (cognitively normal (CN), early aMCI (EMCI), late aMCI (LMCI), probable AD) on cognition (memory and executive function), hippocampal volume, and AD biomarkers (CSF levels of amyloid beta, tau, and ptau). Read More

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Roles of selenium in mineral plant nutrition: ROS scavenging responses against abiotic stresses.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 29;164:27-43. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (UNESP), Rua Domingos da Costa Lopes 780, Postal Code 17602-496, Tupã, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Agronomic biofortification of crops with selenium (Se) is an important strategy to minimize hidden hunger and increase nutrient intake in poor populations. Selenium is an element that has several physiological and biochemical characteristics, such as the mitigation of different types of abiotic stress. Selenoproteins act as powerful antioxidants in plant metabolism through the glutathione peroxidase (GSH) pathway, and provide an increased activity for enzymatic (SOD, CAT, and APX) and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, flavonoids, and tocopherols) compounds that act in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system and cell detoxification. Read More

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LncRNA NEAT1 inhibition upregulates miR-16-5p to restrain the progression of sepsis-induced lung injury via suppressing BRD4 in a mouse model.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 4;97:107691. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Emergency, the First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming, 650032 Yunnan, China; The Affiliated Hospital of Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650032 Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to sponge microRNAs (miRNAs) to regulate biological processes. However, the role of nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) binding miR-16-5p in sepsis-induced lung injury remains largely unknown. We aim to explore the effect of NEAT1 sponging miR-16-5p on sepsis-induced lung injury via regulating bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4). Read More

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A NIR laser induced self-healing PDMS/Gold nanoparticles conductive elastomer for wearable sensor.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 27;599:360-369. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

State Key Laboratory Base for Eco-Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, China.

Self-healing conductive elastomers have been widely used in smart electronic devices, such as wearable sensors. However, nano fillers hinder the flow of polymer segments, which make the development of conductive elastomer with rapid repair and high ductility a challenge. In this work, thioctic acid (TA) was grafted onto amino-modified polysiloxane (PDMS-NH) by dehydration condensation of amino group and carboxyl group. Read More

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