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ARTS: A novel In-vivo classifier of arteriolosclerosis for the older adult brain.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Jul 24;31:102768. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology & Nuc Med, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Brain arteriolosclerosis, one of the main pathologies of cerebral small vessel disease, is common in older adults and has been linked to lower cognitive and motor function and higher odds of dementia. In spite of its frequency and associated morbidity, arteriolosclerosis can only be diagnosed at autopsy. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop an in-vivo classifier of arteriolosclerosis based on brain MRI. Read More

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Genetic errors of immunity distinguish pediatric non-malignant lymphoproliferative disorders.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Department of Pediatrics, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX; Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Texas Children's Hospital Cancer Center, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Background: Pediatric non-malignant lymphoproliferative disorders (PLPD) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Long-standing immune dysregulation and lymphoproliferation in children may be life-threatening, and a paucity of data exists to guide evaluation and treatment of children with PLPD.

Objective: The primary objective of this study was to ascertain the spectrum of genomic immunologic defects in PLPD. Read More

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Disease Burden Affects Aging Brain Function.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, NIH.

Background: Most older adults live with multiple chronic disease conditions, yet the effect of multiple diseases on brain function remains unclear.

Methods: We examine the relationship between disease multimorbidity and brain activity using regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) 15O-water PET scans from 97 cognitively normal participants (mean baseline age 76.5) in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Read More

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LINPE-BL: A Local Descriptor and Broad Learning for Identification of Abnormal Breast Thermograms.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 Jul 30;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

This paper proposes a novel local feature descriptor coined as a local instant-and-center-symmetric neighbor-based pattern of the extrema-images (LINPE) to detect breast abnormalities in thermal breast images. It is a hybrid descriptor that combines two different feature descriptors: one is the inverse-probability difference extrema (IpDE), and another is the local instant and center-symmetric neighbor-based pattern (LICsNP). IpDE is developed to compute the intensity-inhomogeneity-invariant feature-based image of the breast thermogram. Read More

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The skeleton of Balanophyllia coral species suggests adaptive traits linked to the onset of mixotrophy.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 1;795:148778. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Marine Science Group, Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Selmi 3, 40126 Bologna, Italy; Fano Marine Center, The Inter-Institute Center for Research on Marine Biodiversity, Resources and Biotechnologies, Viale Adriatico 1/N, 61032 Fano, Italy. Electronic address:

The diversity in the skeletal features of coral species is an outcome of their evolution, distribution and habitat. Here, we explored, from macro- to nano-scale, the skeletal structural and compositional characteristics of three coral species belonging to the genus Balanophyllia having different trophic strategies. The goal is to address whether the onset of mixotrophy influenced the skeletal features of B. Read More

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Effects of bioturbation by tubificid worms on biogeochemical processes, bacterial community structure and diversity in heterotrophic wetland sediments.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 5;795:148842. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, ENTPE, UMR 5023 LEHNA, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France. Electronic address:

Bioturbation activity of tubificid worms has been recognized as a key process influencing organic matter processing and nutrient cycling in benthic aquatic ecosystems. This activity is expected to modify benthic microbial communities by affecting the physical and chemical environment in sediments. Nevertheless, quantifications of bacterial community changes associated with bioturbation in freshwater ecosystems are still lacking. Read More

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A Longitudinal Study on the Changes in Mental Health of Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Psychiatry 2021 Jul 30:1-16. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

: This study examines Argentinean health care workers in order to 1) test self-perceived job performance levels and the presence of psychological symptoms compatible with common mental disorders, and 2) examine within-person changes in general discomfort and psychological distress, adjusting for demographic factors, region, and health-related factors during two time points of the COVID-19 pandemic.: This longitudinal study comprised 305 healthcare workers who completed a survey at two time points approximately 4 months apart. We used the General Health Questionnaire and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale to measure mental health outcomes. Read More

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Aortic Fistulas: Pathophysiologic Features, Imaging Findings, and Diagnostic Pitfalls.

Radiographics 2021 Jul 30:210004. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

From the Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 132 S 10th St, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (A.G., A.D., M.P.); Department of Radiology, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Ky (H.K.); and Division of Interventional Radiology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Homi Bhabha University, Mumbai, India (K.G.).

Fistulas between the aorta and surrounding organs are extremely rare but can be fatal if they are not identified and treated promptly. Most of these fistulas are associated with a history of trauma or vascular intervention. However, spontaneous aortic fistulas (AoFs) can develop in patients with weakened vasculature, which can be due to advanced atherosclerotic disease, collagen-vascular disease, vasculitides, and/or hematogenous infections. Read More

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Periodontitis exacerbates the renal degenerative effects of obesity in rats.

J Periodontal Res 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey.

Background/objectives: Obesity and periodontitis are systemic subclinical inflammatory diseases with established negative renal effects. The aim of this animal study was to thoroughly investigate the possible effects of these two diseases on renal structure and function.

Methods: Thirty-two male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control (C), obesity (Ob), experimental periodontitis (Ep), and Ob + Ep. Read More

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Phylogeography and resistome of pneumococcal meningitis in West Africa before and after vaccine introduction.

Microb Genom 2021 Jul;7(7)

WHO Collaborating Centre for New Vaccines Surveillance, Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, P.O. Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia.

Despite contributing to the large disease burden in West Africa, little is known about the genomic epidemiology of which cause meningitis among children under 5 years old in the region. We analysed whole-genome sequencing data from 185 . isolates recovered from suspected paediatric meningitis cases as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) invasive bacterial diseases surveillance from 2010 to 2016. Read More

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The Relationship between Malnutrition and Subjective Taste Change Experienced by Patients with Cancer Receiving Outpatient Chemotherapy Treatment.

Nutr Cancer 2021 Jul 30:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Nursing Faculty, Marmara University, İstanbul.

Taste changes and malnutrition are two important problems in patients with different types of cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between malnutrition and subjective taste changes experienced by cancer patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy. The study used a cross-sectional design and was carried out with 1382 patients with cancer receiving outpatient chemotherapy. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 induces fibrin(ogen) resistant to fibrinolysis: Implications for microclot formation in COVID-19.

Biosci Rep 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) -induced infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by unprecedented clinical pathologies. One of the most important pathologies, is hypercoagulation and microclots in the lungs of patients. Here we study the effect of isolated SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit as potential inflammagen sui generis. Read More

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Association between thiamine decrease and neuropsychiatric symptoms in gastrointestinal and hematological cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 15;141:111929. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Departmentof Pharmacy, The IMSUT Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

Background: Clinical evidence of thiamine-related neuropsychiatric symptoms, including the initial stage, is limited because serum thiamine levels tend to be evaluated only for patients who develop severe neuropsychiatric symptoms suspected to be related to severe thiamine deficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between thiamine decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms, including initial symptoms, and the effect of chemotherapy on serum thiamine levels in gastrointestinal and hematological cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

Method: We retrospectively identified 87 patients who were diagnosed with gastrointestinal and hematological cancers at our hospital. Read More

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Sulfamethoxazole biodegradation and impacts on soil microbial communities in a Bolivian arid high altitude catchment.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 1;284:131335. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRD, Grenoble-INP, IGE, 38000, Grenoble, France.

The processes controlling antibiotics fate in ecosystems are poorly understood, yet their presence can inhibit bacterial growth and induce the development of bacterial resistance. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is one of the most frequently detected sulfonamides in natural environments due to its low metabolism and molecular properties. This work presents pioneering results on SMX biodegradation and impact in high altitude soils (Bolivian Altiplano), allowing a better understanding of the persistence, spread and impact of this antibiotic at the global watershed scale. Read More

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Ultra-High Field 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Electroencephalography Findings in Epilepsy.

Can Assoc Radiol J 2021 Jul 30:8465371211031802. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Medical Imaging, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, 6221Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: Assessment of patients for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery requires multimodality input, including EEG recordings to ensure optimal surgical planning. Often EEG demonstrates abnormal foci not detected on 1.5T MRI. Read More

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Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging predicts exercise-based rehabilitation response in individuals with low back pain.

NMR Biomed 2021 Jul 29:e4595. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

Exercises to strengthen and stabilize the trunk musculature are a common conservative treatment strategy for low back pain (LBP), despite the possible presence of impairments in muscle activation in this population. Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MRI permits evaluation of activation-induced blood flow through diffusion-weighted images that are sensitized to microvascular blood flow. In the current study we aimed to evaluate IVIM signal changes after exercise in patients with LBP compared with pain-free healthy controls and determine if these changes were related to reductions in disability with a 12-week rehabilitation program. Read More

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Examining changes in parent-reported child and adolescent mental health throughout the UK's first COVID-19 national lockdown.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly changed the lives of children and adolescents, forcing them into periods of prolonged social isolation and time away from school. Understanding the psychological consequences of the UK's lockdown for children and adolescents, the associated risk factors, and how trajectories may vary for children and adolescents in different circumstances is essential so that the most vulnerable children and adolescents can be identified, and appropriate support can be implemented.

Methods: Participants were a convenience sample of parents and carers (n = 2,988) in the UK with children and adolescents aged between 4 and 16 years who completed an online survey about their child's mental health. Read More

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Expression and characterization of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss recombinant myoglobin.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Graduate School of Agriculture, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai, 980-8572, Japan.

Recombinant expression system was established for rainbow trout myoglobin (Mb) considering its unique primary structure of having one unusual deletion and two cysteine residues in contrast to the other fish Mbs. The obtained recombinant Mb without His-tag showed non-cooperative thermal denaturation profile. The presence of free cysteine residue(s) in rainbow trout Mb was demonstrated by reacting with a sulfhydryl agent, 4, 4´-dithiodipyridine, which ultimately resulted in the oxidation of Mb with characteristic changes in visible absorption spectra. Read More

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"Switch-on" fluorescence sensing platform based on porphyrin metal-organic frameworks for rapid and specific detection of zinc ion.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110819, Liaoning, China.

Zinc ion (Zn) is a necessary transition metal ion in the human body and plays a vital role in biological systems. Therefore, it is meaningful for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of Zn. Herein, a "switch-on" fluorescence sensing platform for the detection of Zn was successfully established. Read More

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C-reactive protein levels and plaque regression with evolocumab: Insights from GLAGOV.

Am J Prev Cardiol 2020 Sep 6;3:100091. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Victorian Heart Institute, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: On-treatment levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in statin-treated patients predict plaque progression and the prospective risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors produce additional LDL-C lowering, reduce plaque burden and improve cardiovascular outcomes in statin-treated patients. It is unknown whether residual systemic inflammation attenuates their favorable effects on plaque burden. Read More

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September 2020

Visualization of Host Cell Kinase Activation by Viral Proteins Using GFP Fluorescence Complementation and Immunofluorescence Microscopy.

Bio Protoc 2021 Jul 5;11(13):e4068. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA.

Non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases regulate cellular responses to many external signals and are important drug discovery targets for cancer and infectious diseases. While many assays exist for the assessment of kinase activity , methods that report changes in tyrosine kinase activity in single cells have the potential to provide information about kinase responses at the cell population level. In this protocol, we combined bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), an established method for the assessment of protein-protein interactions, and immunofluorescence staining with phosphospecific antibodies to characterize changes in host cell tyrosine kinase activity in the presence of an HIV-1 virulence factor, Nef. Read More

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Primary Total Hip Replacement in a Case of Unilateral Hypo Plastic Proximal Femur - A Case Report.

J Orthop Case Rep 2021 Apr;11(4):48-51

Department of Orthopaedics, Kamala Nehru Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Introduction: Primary total hip replacement in hypo plastic proximal femur is difficult due to the presence of a small canal, soft- tissue contracture, fragility of bone, and poor femoral cement mantle when used. Intraoperatively, there could be occurrence of fracture of the femur, inadequate fit, and fill with cement less femoral component.It is found unilaterally in cases of osteonecrosis of femoral head, post- traumatic, and in sequelae of childhood septic arthritis. Read More

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Comparative anatomy of the middle ear in some lizard species with comments on the evolutionary changes within Squamata.

PeerJ 2021 22;9:e11722. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Laboratorio de Sistemática Morfológica y Biogeografía de Vertebrados, Departamento de Biología Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia.

The skeleton of the middle ear of lizards is composed of three anatomical elements: columella, extracolumella, and tympanic membrane, with some exceptions that show modifications of this anatomy. The main function of the middle ear is transforming sound waves into vibrations and transmitting these to the inner ear. Most middle ear studies mainly focus on its functional aspects, while few describe the anatomy in detail. Read More

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Modeling the Effects of Future Hydroclimatic Conditions on Microbial Water Quality and Management Practices in Two Agricultural Watersheds.

Trans ASABE 2020 Jan;63(3):753-770

Physical Scientist, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., USA.

Anticipated future hydroclimatic changes are expected to alter the transport and survival of fecally-sourced waterborne pathogens, presenting an increased risk of recreational water quality impairments. Managing future risk requires an understanding of interactions between fecal sources, hydroclimatic conditions and best management practices (BMPs) at spatial scales relevant to decision makers. In this study we used the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN to quantify potential fecal coliform (FC - an indicator of the potential presence of pathogens) responses to a range of mid-century climate scenarios and assess different BMP scenarios (based on reduction factors) for reducing the risk of water quality impairment in two, small agricultural watersheds - the Chippewa watershed in Minnesota, and the Tye watershed in Virginia. Read More

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January 2020

Hypertension as an Unusual Cause of Proliferative Retinopathy: Case Report and Literature Review.

Case Rep Ophthalmol 2021 May-Aug;12(2):594-602. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Malignant hypertensive retinopathy is associated with characteristic fundus findings that typically do not include proliferative retinal vascular changes. We present the case of a 34-year-old patient who had bilateral decreased vision and was found to have malignant hypertension with hypertensive retinopathy changes along with unforeseen bilateral neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage. Detailed history and extensive systemic and ophthalmic workup failed to reveal an alternative explanation for her proliferative retinopathy. Read More

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Neurotranscriptomic changes associated with chick-directed parental care in adult non-reproductive Japanese quail.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 29;11(1):15481. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Schmid College of Science and Technology, Chapman University, Orange, CA, USA.

For many species, parental care critically affects offspring survival. But what drives animals to display parental behaviours towards young? In mammals, pregnancy-induced physiological transformations seem key in preparing the neural circuits that lead towards attraction (and reduced-aggression) to young. Beyond mammalian maternal behaviour, knowledge of the neural mechanisms that underlie young-directed parental care is severely lacking. Read More

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Ontology of the apelinergic system in mouse pancreas during pregnancy and relationship with β-cell mass.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 29;11(1):15475. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Lawson Health Research Institute, St Joseph Health Care, 268 Grosvenor St, London, ON, N6A 4V2, Canada.

The apelin receptor (Aplnr) and its ligands, Apelin and Apela, contribute to metabolic control. The insulin resistance associated with pregnancy is accommodated by an expansion of pancreatic β-cell mass (BCM) and increased insulin secretion, involving the proliferation of insulin-expressing, glucose transporter 2-low (InsGlut2) progenitor cells. We examined changes in the apelinergic system during normal mouse pregnancy and in pregnancies complicated by glucose intolerance with reduced BCM. Read More

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Epigenetic regulation of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) by TGF-β signaling.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 29;11(1):15410. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Translational Cancer and Immunity Center (TCIC), Cancer Research Center, Qatar Biomedical Research Institute (QBRI), Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU), Qatar Foundation (QF), P.O. Box 34110, Doha, 00000, Qatar.

TGFβ signaling plays crucial role during development and cancer, however the role for TGFβ signaling in regulating the noncoding part of the human genome in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is still being unraveled. Herein, we provide the transcriptional landscape of TNBC in response to TGFβ activation and subsequent inhibition employing SB431542, selective TGFβ1 Receptor ALK5 Inhibitor. Our data revealed 72 commonly upregulated [fold change (FC) ≥ 2. Read More

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Statewide vaping product excise tax policy and use of electronic nicotine delivery systems among US young adults, 2014-2019.

Tob Control 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA

Objectives: An increasing number of US states have required a tax on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) in the past few years. This study evaluated the effect of statewide vaping product excise tax policy on ENDS use among young adults.

Methods: We used the two recent waves (2014-2019) of the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Read More

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Evaluation of bladder and bowel functions in children with microcephaly and congenital zika syndrome.

J Pediatr Urol 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Edmond and Lily Safra International Neuroscience Institute (IIN-ELS) - Alberto Santos Dumont Education and Research Institute (ISD), Macaíba, RN Brazil; Anita Garibaldi Center for Education and Research in Health (CEPS) - Alberto Santos Dumont Education and Research Institute (ISD), Macaíba, RN Brazil.

Introduction: Children with Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) present structural cortical changes that may compromise the integrity of their connections with urinary and digestive systems, causing bowel and bladder dysfunctions.

Objective: To evaluate bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) in children with CZS.

Study Design: This is an observational cross-sectional study of a series of CZS cases. Read More

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