836 results match your criteria changes holocene

Population history of Brazilian south and southeast shellmound builders inferred through dental morphology.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: The Southeast and South Coast of Brazil was inhabited during most of the Holocene by shellmound builders. Although there are cultural differences in the archaeological record between regions, it is still debatable how these differences may relate to different population histories. Here, we contribute to this discussion by exploring dental morphological affinities between several regional series. Read More

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Short-term microbialite resurgence as indicador of ecological resilience against crises (Catamarca, Argentine Puna).

Environ Microbiol Rep 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Laboratorio de Investigaciones Microbiológicas en Lagunas Andinas (LIMLA), Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiológicos (PROIMI), CONICET, Av. Belgrano y Psje. Caseros S/N, San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina.

Microbialite-producing microorganisms that inhabit the Puna lakes are traditionally considered constituents of fragile microsystems, unable to resist important environmental variations. Nevertheless, this region has experienced significant climatic fluctuations during the Holocene, raising the unsolved issue on how microbialite-forming systems have been able to resist these changes. Turquesa lake, located within Quaternary Peinado lake-basin (Puna), faces a hydric crisis in the last decades, which modified their physicochemical conditions. Read More

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Abrupt climatic shift at ~4000 cal. yr B.P. and late Holocene climatic instability in arid Central Asia: Evidence from Lop Nur saline lake in Xinjiang, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 19;784:147202. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China.

Although the trends and driving mechanisms of Holocene climate change in arid Central Asia (ACA) on various timescales have attracted much research interest over the past few decades, a major question remains regarding whether the changes were gradual or abrupt. We reconstructed the pattern of Holocene climate change at Lop Nur saline lake in northwestern China, ACA, using multiple climatic proxies (grain size, TOC, sediment color, and magnetic properties). The results demonstrate that the Holocene climatic pattern in the Lop Nur region during the past 8400 years can be divided into two distinct stages, with the boundary dated to ~4000 cal. Read More

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The first quantitative assessment of radiocarbon chronologies for initial pottery in Island Southeast Asia supports multi-directional Neolithic dispersal.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(6):e0251407. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

International Archaeological Research Institute Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America.

Neolithization, or the Holocene demographic expansion of farming populations, accounts for significant changes in human and animal biology, artifacts, languages, and cultures across the earth. For Island Southeast Asia, the orthodox Out of Taiwan hypothesis proposes that Neolithic expansion originated from Taiwan with populations moving south into Island Southeast Asia, while the Western Route Migration hypothesis suggests the earliest farming populations entered from Mainland Southeast Asia in the west. These hypotheses are also linked to competing explanations of the Austronesian expansion, one of the most significant population dispersals in the ancient world that influenced human and environmental diversity from Madagascar to Easter Island and Hawai'i to New Zealand. Read More

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Climate change risks pushing one-third of global food production outside the safe climatic space.

One Earth 2021 May;4(5):720-729

Department of Geography, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Food production on our planet is dominantly based on agricultural practices developed during stable Holocene climatic conditions. Although it is widely accepted that climate change perturbs these conditions, no systematic understanding exists on where and how the major risks for entering unprecedented conditions may occur. Here, we address this gap by introducing the concept of safe climatic space (SCS), which incorporates the decisive climatic factors of agricultural production: precipitation, temperature, and aridity. Read More

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A standardised classification scheme for the Mid-Holocene Toalean artefacts of South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(5):e0251138. Epub 2021 May 26.

Australian Research Centre for Human Evolution, School of Environment and Science, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

The archaeology of Sulawesi is important for developing an understanding of human dispersal and occupation of central Island Southeast Asia. Through over a century of archaeological work, multiple human populations in the southwestern region of Sulawesi have been identified, the most well-documented being that of the Mid- to Late Holocene 'Toalean' technological period. Archaeological models for this period describe a population with a strong cultural identity, subdivided into groups living on the coastal plains around Maros as well as dispersed upland forest dwellers, hunting endemic wildlife with bow-and-arrow technology. Read More

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Past, present, and future geographic range of the relict Mediterranean and Macaronesian complex.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 25;11(10):5075-5095. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute of Dendrology Polish Academy of Sciences Kórnik Poland.

Aim: The aim of this study is to model the past, current, and future distribution of ., , and , based on bioclimatic variables using a maximum entropy model (Maxent) in the Mediterranean and Macaronesian regions.

Location: Mediterranean and Macaronesian. Read More

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Global acceleration in rates of vegetation change over the past 18,000 years.

Science 2021 05;372(6544):860-864

Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Global vegetation over the past 18,000 years has been transformed first by the climate changes that accompanied the last deglaciation and again by increasing human pressures; however, the magnitude and patterns of rates of vegetation change are poorly understood globally. Using a compilation of 1181 fossil pollen sequences and newly developed statistical methods, we detect a worldwide acceleration in the rates of vegetation compositional change beginning between 4.6 and 2. Read More

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No evidence for widespread island extinctions after Pleistocene hominin arrival.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

Archaeology and Natural History, College of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

The arrival of modern humans into previously unoccupied island ecosystems is closely linked to widespread extinction, and a key reason cited for Pleistocene megafauna extinction is anthropogenic overhunting. A common assumption based on late Holocene records is that humans always negatively impact insular biotas, which requires an extrapolation of recent human behavior and technology into the archaeological past. Hominins have been on islands since at least the early Pleistocene and for at least 50 thousand y (ka). Read More

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Late Pleistocene Expansion of Small Murid Rodents across the Palearctic in Relation to the Past Environmental Changes.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

BIOCEV Group, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, 128 44 Prague, Czech Republic.

We investigated the evolutionary history of the striped field mouse to identify factors that initiated its past demographic changes and to shed light on the causes of its current genetic structure and trans-Eurasian distribution. We sequenced mitochondrial cyt b from 184 individuals, obtained from 35 sites in central Europe and eastern Mongolia. We compared genetic analyses with previously published historical distribution models and data on environmental and climatic changes. Read More

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Isotopic Indications of Late Pleistocene and Holocene Paleoenvironmental Changes at Boodie Cave Archaeological Site, Barrow Island, Western Australia.

Molecules 2021 Apr 28;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Archaeology, School of Social Science, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia.

This paper presents the first application of mammal tooth enamel carbonate stable isotope analysis for the purpose of investigating late Pleistocene-early Holocene environmental change in an Australian archaeological context. Stable carbon (δC) and oxygen (δO) isotope ratios were analyzed from archaeological and modern spectacled hare wallaby () and hill kangaroo () tooth enamel carbonates from Boodie Cave on Barrow Island in Western Australia. δO results track the dynamic paleoecological history at Boodie Cave including a clear shift towards increasing aridity preceding the onset of the Last Glacial Maximum and a period of increased humidity in the early to mid-Holocene. Read More

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Skeletal variation in extant species enables systematic identification of New Zealand's large, subfossil diplodactylids.

BMC Ecol Evol 2021 04 27;21(1):67. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Otago Paleogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

New Zealand's diplodactylid geckos exhibit high species-level diversity, largely independent of discernible osteological changes. Consequently, systematic affinities of isolated skeletal elements (fossils) are primarily determined by comparisons of size, particularly in the identification of Hoplodactylus duvaucelii, New Zealand's largest extant gecko species. Here, three-dimensional geometric morphometrics of maxillae (a common fossilized element) was used to determine whether consistent shape and size differences exist between genera, and if cryptic extinctions have occurred in subfossil 'Hoplodactylus cf. Read More

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Key periods of peatland development and environmental changes in the middle taiga zone of Western Siberia during the Holocene.

Ambio 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Research Education Center of Environmental Dynamics and Climate Change (UNESCO Chair), Yugra State University, Chekhova str. 16, Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia, 628007.

The response of peatlands to climate change can be highly variable. Through understanding past changes we can better predict the response of peatlands to future climate change. We use a multi-proxy approach to reconstruct the surface wetness and carbon accumulation of the Mukhrino mire (Western Siberia), describing the development of the mire since peat formation in the early Holocene, around 9360 cal. Read More

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Sedimentary Ancient DNA (sedaDNA) Reveals Fungal Diversity and Environmental Drivers of Community Changes throughout the Holocene in the Present Boreal Lake Lielais Svētiņu (Eastern Latvia).

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 31;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Nooruse 1, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.

Fungi are ecologically important in several ecosystem processes, yet their community composition, ecophysiological roles, and responses to changing environmental factors in historical sediments are rarely studied. Here we explored ancient fungal DNA from lake Lielais Svētiņu sediment throughout the Holocene (10.5 kyr) using the ITS metabarcoding approach. Read More

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Integrating buccal and occlusal dental microwear with isotope analyses for a complete paleodietary reconstruction of Holocene populations from Hungary.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 29;11(1):7034. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Vienna, AltrantraBe 14, Vienna, Austria.

Dietary reconstruction is used to make inferences about the subsistence strategies of ancient human populations, but it may also serve as a proxy to characterise their diverse cultural and technological manifestations. Dental microwear and stable isotope analyses have been shown to be successful techniques for paleodietary reconstruction of ancient populations but, despite yielding complementary dietary information, these techniques have rarely been combined within the same study. Here we present for the first time a comprehensive approach to interpreting ancient lifeways through the results of buccal and occlusal microwear, and δC and δN isotope analyses applied to the same individuals of prehistoric populations of Hungary from the Middle Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age periods. Read More

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Early ontogeny of humeral trabecular bone in Neandertals and recent modern humans.

J Hum Evol 2021 May 26;154:102968. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany; Chaire Internationale de Paléoanthropologie du Collège de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris, France.

Trabecular bone ontogeny is well known in modern humans and unknown in Neandertals. Yet the bone developmental pattern is useful for interpreting fossils from evolutionary and functional perspectives. Interestingly, microstructure in early ontogeny is supposedly not influenced by high and specific mechanical loading related to the lifestyle of a human group and consequently does not directly depend on the activities of hunter-gatherers. Read More

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A tale of shifting relations: East Asian summer and winter monsoon variability during the Holocene.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6938. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei City, Taiwan ROC.

Understanding the dynamics between the East Asian summer (EASM) and winter monsoon (EAWM) is needed to predict their variability under future global warming scenarios. Here, we investigate the relationship between EASM and EAWM as well as the mechanisms driving their variability during the last 10,000 years by stacking marine and terrestrial (non-speleothem) proxy records from the East Asian realm. This provides a regional and proxy independent signal for both monsoonal systems. Read More

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Genomic Variation and Recent Population Histories of Spotted (Strix occidentalis) and Barred (Strix varia) Owls.

Genome Biol Evol 2021 May;13(5)

Institute for Human Genetics, University of California San Francisco, CA, USA.

Spotted owls (SOs, Strix occidentalis) are a flagship species inhabiting old-growth forests in western North America. In recent decades, their populations have declined due to ongoing reductions in suitable habitat caused by logging, wildfires, and competition with the congeneric barred owl (BO, Strix varia). The northern spotted owl (S. Read More

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Vegetation feedback causes delayed ecosystem response to East Asian Summer Monsoon Rainfall during the Holocene.

Nat Commun 2021 03 23;12(1):1843. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education (KLME)/Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change (ILCEC)/Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters (CIC-FEMD), Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.

One long-standing issue in the paleoclimate records is whether East Asian Summer Monsoon peaked in the early Holocene or mid-Holocene. Here, combining a set of transient earth system model simulations with proxy records, we propose that, over northern China, monsoon rainfall peaked in the early Holocene, while soil moisture and tree cover peaked in the mid-Holocene. The delayed ecosystem (soil moisture and tree cover) response to rainfall is caused by the vegetation response to winter warming and the subsequent feedback with soil moisture. Read More

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On some modern Ostracoda (Crustacea) from the Tibetan Plateau in SW China, with descriptions of three new species.

Zootaxa 2021 Mar 16;4942(4):zootaxa.4942.4.2. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes (TEL), Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Studies of Holocene ostracods of the Tibetan Plateau have mostly centred around valves and carapaces collected from lake sediments, some at or near the substrate surface and others from short cores. Reports from habitats other than lakes are scarce, and few living species found in this region have appendages described, hindering further taxonomic and phylogenetic work. For this study collections of living ostracods were made in mostly ponds, as well as two rivers and one lake. Read More

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Multiproxy paleoclimate dataset from the Bednikund alpine lake in the Central Himalaya.

Data Brief 2021 Apr 3;35:106930. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Geology, Kumaun University, Nainital 263 001, India.

We describe here a multiproxy dataset (grain size, environmental magnetism, stable carbon isotope, total nitrogen, and total organic carbon) generated on a ~116 cm long trench profile from the high altitude alpine Badnikund lake in the Central Himalaya. The dataset also includes environmental magnetic and organic geochemistry data on catchment soils of the Bednikund lake. The presented data is related to the research article "Middle Holocene Indian summer monsoon variability and its impact on cultural changes in the Indian subcontinent" [1]. Read More

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Climate variation during the Holocene influenced the skeletal properties of Chamelea gallina shells in the North Adriatic Sea (Italy).

PLoS One 2021 4;16(3):e0247590. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Fano Marine Center, The Inter-Institute Center for Research on Marine Biodiversity, Resources and Biotechnologies, Fano, Italy.

Understanding how marine taxa will respond to near-future climate changes is one of the main challenges for management of coastal ecosystem services. Ecological studies that investigate relationships between the environment and shell properties of commercially important marine species are commonly restricted to latitudinal gradients or small-scale laboratory experiments. This paper aimed to explore the variations in shell features and growth of the edible bivalve Chamelea gallina from the Holocene sedimentary succession to present-day thanatocoenosis of the Po Plain-Adriatic Sea system (Italy). Read More

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Climate-driven flyway changes and memory-based long-distance migration.

Nature 2021 Mar 3;591(7849):259-264. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Millions of migratory birds occupy seasonally favourable breeding grounds in the Arctic, but we know little about the formation, maintenance and future of the migration routes of Arctic birds and the genetic determinants of migratory distance. Here we established a continental-scale migration system that used satellite tracking to follow 56 peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from 6 populations that breed in the Eurasian Arctic, and resequenced 35 genomes from 4 of these populations. The breeding populations used five migration routes across Eurasia, which were probably formed by longitudinal and latitudinal shifts in their breeding grounds during the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene epoch. Read More

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Quaternary stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental evolution of the Ningbo Coastal Plain revealed by core Z02.

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Feb;32(2):453-466

Zhejiang Institute of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology, Ningbo 315012, Zhejiang, China.

The Quaternary sediment in the Ningbo Coastal Plain was the deposit due to sea-land interaction, which recorded information of past climate changes. The region is therefore an ideal area to study paleoclimate changes and sedimentary characteristics. We determined the stratigraphic division and paleoenvironmental evolution based on C and paleomagnetic dating, along with detailed analyses of lithology, pollen assemblage, foraminifera and ostracodes assemblage, and grain size of sediment in core Z02 located in the southeastern Ningbo Coastal Plain. Read More

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February 2021

The late Holocene demise of a sublittoral oyster bed in the North Sea.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(2):e0242208. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Wadden Sea Research Station, List/Sylt, Germany.

A fossil oyster bed (Ostrea edulis) was recently encountered offshore Helgoland (German Bight). Oysters are important filter feeders in marine environments and their habitat structure supports a large associated biodiversity. The European flat oyster Ostrea edulis has historically occurred in vast populations in the North Sea, but declined massively in the early 20th century. Read More

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February 2021

Influence of Quaternary environmental changes on mole populations inferred from mitochondrial sequences and evolutionary rate estimation.

Zoological Lett 2021 Feb 15;7(1). Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, North 10, West 5, Sapporo, 060-0810, Japan.

Quaternary environmental changes fundamentally influenced the genetic diversity of temperate-zone terrestrial animals, including those in the Japanese Archipelago. The genetic diversity of present-day populations is taxon- and region-specific, but its determinants are poorly understood. Here, we analyzed cytochrome b gene (Cytb) sequences (1140 bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to elucidate the factors determining the genetic variation in three species of large moles: Mogera imaizumii and Mogera wogura, which occur in central and southern mainland Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu), and Mogera robusta, which occurs on the nearby Asian continent. Read More

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February 2021

Changes in the large carnivore community structure of the Judean Desert in connection to Holocene human settlement dynamics.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 11;11(1):3548. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Maritime Civilizations, Charney School of Marine Science & Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Investigating historical anthropogenic impacts on faunal communities is key to understanding present patterns of biodiversity and holds important implications for conservation biology. While several studies have demonstrated the human role in the extinction of large herbivores, effective methods to study human interference on large carnivores in the past are limited by the small number of carnivoran remains in the paleozoological record. Here, we integrate a systematic paleozoological survey of biogenic cave assemblages with the archaeological and paleoenvironmental records of the Judean Desert, to reveal historical changes in the large carnivore community. Read More

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February 2021

Rapid warming has resulted in more wildfires in northeastern Australia.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 29;771:144888. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Archaeology and Natural History, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Wildfires, or bushfires, are one of the most destructive natural disasters in Australia, which can cause many deaths of stock, native animals, sometimes humans, and huge impacts on infrastructure. Reconstructing past wildfires and exploring the links between wildfires and climate are essential for understanding the dynamics of wildfires and for predicting future risks. In this study, the frequency of wildfires in northeastern Australia over the past 25,000 years was reconstructed from the charcoal records preserved in peat and lake sediments. Read More

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Primary hybrid zone formation in Tephroseris helenitis (Asteraceae), following postglacial range expansion along the central Northern Alps.

Mol Ecol 2021 04 16;30(7):1704-1720. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Biosciences, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

Distinguishing between secondary versus primary hybrid zone formation remains a challenging task as, for instance, the time window in which these historical (vicariant) versus contemporary (environmental-selective) processes are distinguishable may be relatively narrow. Here, we examine the origin and structure of a transition zone between two subspecies of Tephroseris helenitis along the central Northern Alps, using molecular (AFLP) and morphological (achene type) data in combination with ecological niche models (ENMs) to hindcast ranges at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and mid-Holocene. Samples were collected over a c. Read More

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Holocene monsoon dynamics at Kunlun Pass on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 23;771:145369. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soils Engineering, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Various proxy records have been used for the understanding of environmental and climate variations during the Holocene. Here, for the first time, we use meteoric Be isotope measurements performed on sediments from a drill core collected at the Kunlun Pass (KP) on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (NETP) to investigate hydroclimate changes during the Holocene. The Be flux suggests relative low levels in the Early Holocene, followed by a sharp increase to high values at around 4 ka BP (4 ka BP = 4000 years before present). Read More

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