301,335 results match your criteria changes cerebral

Responses to Navon tasks differ across development and between tasks with differing attentional demands.

Vision Res 2021 Apr 17;185:17-28. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

School of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7HX, UK.

Navon hierarchical stimuli are designed to measure responses to the global level (grouped local elements, e.g. a forest) and the local level (individuated local elements, e. Read More

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A pilot randomized controlled trial of robotic exoskeleton-assisted exercise rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Apr 13;51:102936. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Kessler Foundation, West Orange, New Jersey, USA; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rutgers, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

Background: Co-occurring mobility and cognitive impairments are common, debilitating, and poorly-managed with pharmacological therapies in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise rehabilitation (ER), particularly walking ER, has been suggested as one of the best approaches for managing these manifestations of MS. However, there is a focal lack of efficacy of ER on mobility and cognitive outcomes in persons with MS who present with substantial neurological disability. Read More

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The bullies are the leaders of the next generation: inherited aminergic neurotransmitter system changes in socially dominant zebrafish, Danio rerio.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 17:113309. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Anatomy, POB 63, 00014, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

We studied the social hierarchy in zebrafish and assessed differences in neurotransmitters and behavior in the F1 generation offspring of dominant and subordinate zebrafish (Danio rerio). We used behavioral assays to study locomotion, ability to complete cognitive tasks, social interaction and aggression. To study the neurochemical changes, we applied quantitative polymerase chain reaction, high pressure liquid chromatography and immunohistochemistry. Read More

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Stimulus-independent neural coding of event semantics: Evidence from cross-sentence fMRI decoding.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 17:118073. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

School of Philosophy, Psychology & Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address:

Multivariate neuroimaging studies indicate that the brain represents word and object concepts in a format that readily generalises across stimuli. Here we investigated whether this was true for neural representations of simple events described using sentences. Participants viewed sentences describing four events in different ways. Read More

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Stability of hippocampal subfield volumes after trauma and relationship to development of PTSD symptoms.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 17:118076. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Background: The hippocampus plays a central role in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) pathogenesis, and the majority of neuroimaging research on PTSD has studied the hippocampus in its entirety. Although extensive literature demonstrates changes in hippocampal volume are associated with PTSD, fewer studies have probed the relationship between symptoms and the hippocampus' functionally and structurally distinct subfields. We utilized data from a longitudinal study examining post-trauma outcomes to determine whether hippocampal subfield volumes change post-trauma and whether specific subfields are significantly associated with, or prospectively related to, PTSD symptom severity. Read More

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Cortically constrained shape recognition: Automated white matter tract segmentation validated in the pediatric brain.

J Neuroimaging 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurology, University of California, UCSF Memory and Aging Center, Sandler Neurosciences Center, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background And Purpose: Manual segmentation of white matter (WM) bundles requires extensive training and is prohibitively labor-intensive for large-scale studies. Automated segmentation methods are necessary in order to eliminate operator dependency and to enable reproducible studies. Significant changes in the WM landscape throughout childhood require flexible methods to capture the variance across the span of brain development. Read More

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Interaction between miRNA-155 targeting neuronal pacemaker ion channels and release of amino acid transmitters during cerebral ischemia.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Apr;25(7):3007-3014

Department of Neurology, Qingdao Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Qingdao Hiser Hospital), Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Objective: Cerebral hemorrhage can cause hemorrhagic stroke, leading to severe brain damage. MiRNA-155 is closely related to the development of stroke. However, the regulatory mechanism of miRNA-155 during cerebral ischemia has not yet been elucidated. Read More

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Long-term follow-up of a patient with JAG1-associated retinopathy.

Doc Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Newcastle Eye Centre, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Queen Victoria Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 4LP, UK.

Purpose: To report the long-term structural and functional changes in the posterior segments of an adult with an unusual retinal dystrophy caused by a novel mutation in JAG1.

Methods: A 33-year-old female underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, dilated fundus imaging (wide-angle fundus colour and short wavelength autofluorescence imaging), macular and peripheral spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and electroretinography (ERG) at baseline and 10 years later at the age of 43. The patient also underwent systemic review with detailed cardiac, brain and renal investigations. Read More

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Differences in empathy toward patients between medical and nonmedical students: an fMRI study.

Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 02841, South Korea.

There is growing concern about a potential decline in empathy among medical students over time. Despite the importance of empathy toward patients in medicine, it remains unclear the nature of the changes in empathy among medical students. Thus, we systematically investigated affective and cognitive empathy for patients among medical students using neuroscientific approach. Read More

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Restored microRNA-326-5p Inhibits Neuronal Apoptosis and Attenuates Mitochondrial Damage via Suppressing STAT3 in Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Apr 20;16(1):63. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University; Yangzhou University, 45 Taizhou Road, Yangzhou, 225001, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Studies have greatly explored the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CI/RI). But the specific mechanism of miR-326-5p in CI/RI is still elusive. Hence, this study was to unmask the mechanism of miR-326-5p/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) axis in CI/RI. Read More

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Hyperreflexia and enhanced ripple oscillations in the taurine-deficient mice.

Amino Acids 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Developmental Neuroscience, College of Staten Island, 2800 Victory Blvd., Staten Island, NY, 10314, USA.

In this study, we examined neuronal excitability and skeletal muscle physiology and histology in homozygous knockout mice lacking cysteine sulfonic acid decarboxylase (CSAD-KO). Neuronal excitability was measured by intracerebral recording from the prefrontal cortex. Skeletal muscle response was measured through stretch reflex in the ankle muscles. Read More

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The neural bases of resilient semantic system: evidence of variable neuro-displacement in cognitive systems.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

MRC Cognition and Brain Science Unit (CBU), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 7EF, UK.

The purpose of this study was to explore an important research goal in cognitive and clinical neuroscience: What are the neurocomputational mechanisms that make cognitive systems "well engineered" and thus resilient across a range of performance demands and to mild levels of perturbation or even damage? A new hypothesis called 'variable neuro-displacement' suggests that cognitive systems are formed with dynamic, spare processing capacity, which balances energy consumption against performance requirements and can be resilient to changes in performance demands. Here, we tested this hypothesis by investigating the neural dynamics of the semantic system by manipulating performance demand. The performance demand was manipulated with two levels of task difficulty (easy vs. Read More

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Posture-Dependent Collapse of the Optic Nerve Subarachnoid Space: A Combined MRI and Modeling Study.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Apr;62(4):26

Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Purpose: We hypothesize that a collapse of the optic nerve subarachnoid space (ONSAS) in the upright posture may protect the eyes from large translamina cribrosa pressure differences (TLCPD) believed to play a role in various optic nerve diseases (e.g., glaucoma). Read More

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Defining focal brain stimulation targets for PTSD using neuroimaging.

Depress Anxiety 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, National Center for PTSD, White River Junction, Vermont, USA.

Introduction: Focal brain stimulation has potential as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this review, we aim to inform selection of focal brain stimulation targets for treating PTSD by examining studies of the functional neuroanatomy of PTSD and treatment response. We first briefly review data on brain stimulation interventions for PTSD. Read More

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A Closer Examination of Relational Outcomes from a Pilot Study of Abbreviated, Intensive, Multi-Couple Group Cognitive-Behavioral Conjoint Therapy for PTSD with Military Dyads.

Fam Process 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (CBCT for PTSD) is associated with improvements in patients' PTSD symptoms, partners' psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction. However, little is known about whether CBCT for PTSD is associated with changes in other relationship domains that have theoretical and clinical relevance to the relational context of PTSD. The current study is a secondary analysis of relational outcomes from an uncontrolled, within-group trial designed to examine whether an abbreviated, intensive, multi-couple group version of CBCT for PTSD (AIM-CBCT for PTSD) delivered in a retreat during a single weekend was associated with improvements in PTSD symptoms and relationship satisfaction. Read More

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Dissection of the potential pharmacological function of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone - a food additive - by substances profiling and network pharmacology.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

Food additives are widely used in our daily life, and the side-effects caused by them have gained extensive attention around the world. Notably, constituent-oriented metabolites, in some sense, always contribute to pharmacological changes, inducing toxicity, therapeutic effects, etc. Characterization of the metabolites and their potential functions is of great importance to the practical applications. Read More

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Integrins protect sensory neurons in models of paclitaxel-induced peripheral sensory neuropathy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Jerome L. Greene Science Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027.

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major side effect from cancer treatment with no known method for prevention or cure in clinics. CIPN often affects unmyelinated nociceptive sensory terminals. Despite the high prevalence, molecular and cellular mechanisms that lead to CIPN are still poorly understood. Read More

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A cross-sectional study of functional and metabolic changes during aging through the lifespan in male mice.

Elife 2021 Apr 20;10. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, United States.

Aging is associated with distinct phenotypical, physiological, and functional changes, leading to disease and death. The progression of aging-related traits varies widely among individuals, influenced by their environment, lifestyle, and genetics. In this study, we conducted physiologic and functional tests cross-sectionally throughout the entire lifespan of male C57BL/6N mice. Read More

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Paternal Exposure to Exercise and/or Caffeine and Alcohol Modify Offspring Behavioural and Pathophysiological Recovery from Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (RmTBI) in Adolescence.

Genes Brain Behav 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Only recently has the scope of parental research expanded to include the paternal sphere with epidemiological studies implicating stress, nutrition, and alcohol consumption in the neurobiological and behavioural characteristics of offspring. This study was designed to determine if paternal exposure to caffeine, alcohol, and exercise prior to conception would improve or exacerbate offspring recovery from adolescent repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI). Sires received seven weeks of standard drinking water, or caffeine and ethanol, and were housed in regular cages or cages with running wheels, prior to being mated to control females. Read More

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Order, please! Explicit sequence learning in hybrid search in younger and older age.

Mem Cognit 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Visual Attention Lab, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Sequence learning effects in simple perceptual and motor tasks are largely unaffected by normal aging. However, less is known about sequence learning in more complex cognitive tasks that involve attention and memory processes and how this changes with age. In this study, we examined whether incidental and intentional sequence learning would facilitate hybrid visual and memory search in younger and older adults. Read More

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Assessment of the Safety of Lactobacillus casei IMV B-7280 Probiotic Strain on a Mouse Model.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Zabolotny Institute of microbiology and virology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 154, Akad. Zabolotny str, Kyiv, 03143, Ukraine.

Probiotics, in particular Lactobacillus (lactic acid bacteria, LAB) strains, are widely used in clinical practice. Despite that these probiotics have GRAS (generally regarded as safe) and qualified presumption of safety (QPS) statuses, the safety of particular strains still needs to be thoroughly studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety of Lact. Read More

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Altered metabolic pathways in a transgenic mouse model suggest mechanistic role of amyloid precursor protein overexpression in Alzheimer's disease.

Metabolomics 2021 Apr 19;17(5):42. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neuroscience, Central Clinical School, Monash University, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia.

Introduction: The mechanistic role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear.

Objectives: Here, we aimed to identify alterations in cerebral metabolites and metabolic pathways in cortex, hippocampus and serum samples from Tg2576 mice, a widely used mouse model of AD.

Methods: Metabolomic profilings using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were performed and analysed with MetaboAnalyst and weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA). Read More

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Interocular Grouping in Perceptual Rivalry Localized with fMRI.

Brain Topogr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H9G 1A4, Canada.

Bistable perception refers to a broad class of dynamically alternating visual illusions that result from ambiguous images. These illusions provide a powerful method to study the mechanisms that determine how visual input is integrated over space and time. Binocular rivalry occurs when subjects view different images in each eye, and a similar experience called stimulus rivalry occurs even when the left and right images are exchanged at a fast rate. Read More

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Geometric deep learning enables 3D kinematic profiling across species and environments.

Nat Methods 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Comprehensive descriptions of animal behavior require precise three-dimensional (3D) measurements of whole-body movements. Although two-dimensional approaches can track visible landmarks in restrictive environments, performance drops in freely moving animals, due to occlusions and appearance changes. Therefore, we designed DANNCE to robustly track anatomical landmarks in 3D across species and behaviors. Read More

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Decreased DNA methylation at promoters and gene-specific neuronal hypermethylation in the prefrontal cortex of patients with bipolar disorder.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Molecular Brain Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental disorder characterized by repeated mood swings. Although genetic factors are collectively associated with the etiology of BD, the underlying molecular mechanisms, particularly how environmental factors affect the brain, remain largely unknown. We performed promoter-wide DNA methylation analysis of neuronal and nonneuronal nuclei in the prefrontal cortex of patients with BD (N = 34) and controls (N = 35). Read More

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The combination of fluoxetine and environmental enrichment reduces postpartum stress-related behaviors through the oxytocinergic system and HPA axis in mice.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 19;11(1):8518. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Salari Institute of Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders (SICBD), Karaj, Alborz, Iran.

Gestational stress can increase postpartum depression in women. To treat maternal depression, fluoxetine (FLX) is most commonly prescribed. While FLX may be effective for the mother, at high doses it may have adverse effects on the fetus. Read More

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Task-related brain functional network reconfigurations relate to motor recovery in chronic subcortical stroke.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 19;11(1):8442. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Center for Sleep and Cognition, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Stroke leads to both regional brain functional disruptions and network reorganization. However, how brain functional networks reconfigure as task demand increases in stroke patients and whether such reorganization at baseline would facilitate post-stroke motor recovery are largely unknown. To address this gap, brain functional connectivity (FC) were examined at rest and motor tasks in eighteen chronic subcortical stroke patients and eleven age-matched healthy controls. Read More

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Transcriptomic analysis to identify genes associated with selective hippocampal vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 19;12(1):2311. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Selective vulnerability of different brain regions is seen in many neurodegenerative disorders. The hippocampus and cortex are selectively vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease (AD), however the degree of involvement of the different brain regions differs among patients. We classified corticolimbic patterns of neurofibrillary tangles in postmortem tissue to capture extreme and representative phenotypes. Read More

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Advanced EEG-based learning approaches to predict schizophrenia: Promises and pitfalls.

Artif Intell Med 2021 Apr 19;114:102039. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Center for Research in Psychology (CIPsi), School of Psychology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; CICPSI, Faculdade de Psicologia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:

The complexity and heterogeneity of schizophrenia symptoms challenge an objective diagnosis, which is typically based on behavioral and clinical manifestations. Moreover, the boundaries of schizophrenia are not precisely demarcated from other nosologic categories, such as bipolar disorder. The early detection of schizophrenia can lead to a more effective treatment, improving patients' quality of life. Read More

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Strategies to reduce sample sizes in Alzheimer's disease primary and secondary prevention trials using longitudinal amyloid PET imaging.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 Apr 19;13(1):82. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Barcelonaβeta Brain Research Center, Pasqual Maragall Foundation, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Detecting subtle-to-moderate biomarker changes such as those in amyloid PET imaging becomes increasingly relevant in the context of primary and secondary prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This work aimed to determine if and when distribution volume ratio (DVR; derived from dynamic imaging) and regional quantitative values could improve statistical power in AD prevention trials.

Methods: Baseline and annualized % change in [C]PIB SUVR and DVR were computed for a global (cortical) and regional (early) composite from scans of 237 cognitively unimpaired subjects from the OASIS-3 database ( www. Read More

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