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Methodological challenges for living systematic reviews conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic: a concept paper.

J Clin Epidemiol 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Evidence-based Oncology, Department I of Internal Medicine, Center for Integrated Oncology Aachen Bonn Cologne Duesseldorf, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50937 Cologne, Germany.

Background: A living systematic review (LSR) is an emerging review type that makes use of continual updating. In the COVID-19 pandemic, we were confronted with a shifting epidemiological landscape, clinical uncertainties and evolving evidence. These unexpected challenges compelled us to amend standard LSR methodology. Read More

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September 2021

A sex-related mediating effect of uric acid in the association between body composition and blood pressure in children and adolescents.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, 28126, Vitoria, ES, Brazil;

The increase in blood pressure (BP) during somatic growth might have direct determinants but also mediating factors. We investigated whether uric acid (UA) and other metabolic factors would mediate the association between body composition components and BP. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 928 children and adolescents (6-18 years), in which body composition and blood biochemistry were evaluated. Read More

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September 2021

The effects of pre-emptive intravenous ibuprofen on the thiol/disulfide homeostasis and C-reactive protein level as the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation during gynecologic laparoscopy: A randomized clinical trial.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Sep 15:e14872. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

University of Health Sciences, Kartal Dr. Lütfi Kırdar City Hospital, The Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Istanbul, Turkey.

Aims: In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of intravenous ibuprofen by using the C-reactive protein level and thiol/disulfide homeostasis as the oxidative stress marker.

Materials And Methods: This study was conducted on 70 patients aged between 30 and 65 who were scheduled for elective laparoscopic hysterectomy. The patients were divided into two groups to receive either preemptive 800mg of intravenous ibuprofen plus 1000 mg of intravenous paracetamol (Group IP) or only 1000 mg of intravenous paracetamol as a control group (Group P). Read More

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September 2021

Observation of Unique Circulating miRNA Signatures in Non-Human Primates Exposed to Total-Body vs. Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation.

Radiat Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

ChromoLogic LLC, Monrovia, California 91016.

A radiological/nuclear (RAD-NUC) incident, especially in an urban setting, results in diverse radiation-induced injuries due to heterogeneities in dose, the extent of partial-body shielding, human biodiversity and pre-existing health conditions. For example, acute radiation syndrome (ARS) can result in death within days to weeks of exposure to 0.7-10 Gy doses and is associated with destruction of the bone marrow, known as hematopoietic ARS (H-ARS). Read More

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September 2021

Obese patients with higher TSH levels had an obvious metabolic improvement after bariatric surgery.

Endocr Connect 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

G Wang, Beijing, 100020, China.

Objective: Bariatric surgery has become the most effective treatment for morbid obesity. Increasing evidence showed that bariatric surgery can alleviate insulin resistance and influence thyroid function. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between changes in thyroid function and adipose tissue insulin resistance (adipo-IR) after bariatric surgery. Read More

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September 2021

Components of metabolic syndrome associated with lower neurocognitive performance in youth with perinatally acquired HIV and youth who are HIV-exposed uninfected.

J Neurovirol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

We investigated the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components [abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides (TG), low HDL cholesterol, elevated blood pressure (BP), and impaired fasting glycemia (IFG)] with neurocognitive impairment in youth with perinatally acquired HIV (YPHIV) or who are perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (YPHEU). This was an observational study with a comparison group of 350 YPHIV and 68 YPHEU ages 10-19 years. Youth with MetS components measured between 1 year before and 3 months after a baseline neurocognitive assessment (Wechsler Intelligence Scale) were selected from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS). Read More

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September 2021

Induction of hemolysis and eryptosis by occupational pollutant nickel chloride is mediated through calcium influx and p38 MAP kinase signaling.

Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (College of Applied Medical Sciences, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences).

Objectives: Nickel (Ni) is an abundant environmental hazard and an occupational pollutant. Exposure to Ni compounds is prevalent in electroplating workers and in the printing industry, among others. The toxicity of Ni manifests as dermatological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, allergic, and cardiovascular symptoms. Read More

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Use of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring (rtCGM) Improves Glycemic Control and Other Clinical Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Treated with Less Intensive Therapy.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Endocrinology & Diabetes Specialists of Northwest Ohio, Findlay, Ohio, United States;

Objective: Use of real-time CGM (rtCGM) has been shown to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who are treated with intensive insulin therapy. However, most T2D patients are denied coverage for rtCGM due to failure to meet payer eligibility requirements: treatment with ≥3 insulin injections (or pump) and history of 4x/day blood glucose testing. We investigated the relevance of these criteria to successful rtCGM use. Read More

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September 2021

Novel continuous glucose monitoring metrics and LGA risk; an exploratory retrospective cohort study in pregnancies with type 1 diabetes.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 37807, Department of Reproduction, Poznan, Poland;

Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) improves pregnancy outcomes in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We aimed to assess the between-group differences in HbA1c and the incidence of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) neonates in CGM and glucometers users and analyze the potential association of novel CGM metrics with LGA risk in T1D pregnancies.

Material And Methods: The initial study cohort included 134 women with T1D treated with insulin pumps -75 CGM users and 59 patients who measured their glucose concentrations using glucometers. Read More

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September 2021

Ablation of USP21 in skeletal muscle promotes oxidative fibre phenotype, inhibiting obesity and type 2 diabetes.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

College of Pharmacy and Integrated Research Institute for Drug Development, Dongguk University-Seoul, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-Do, South Korea.

Background: Skeletal muscle as a metabolic consumer determines systemic energy homeostasis by regulating myofibre type conversion and muscle mass control. Perturbation of the skeletal muscle metabolism elevates the risk of a variety of diseases including metabolic disorders. However, the regulatory pathways and molecules are not completely understood. Read More

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September 2021

Peripheral granular lymphocytopenia and dysmorphic leukocytosis as simple prognostic markers in COVID-19.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Japan.

Introduction: Developing prognostic markers can be useful for clinical decision-making. Peripheral blood (PB) examination is simple and basic that can be performed in any facility. We aimed to investigate whether PB examination can predict prognosis in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Read More

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September 2021

Exploring relationships between alcohol consumption, inflammation and brain structure in a heavy drinking sample.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Institute for Cognitive Science, University of Colorado Boulder.

Background: Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with structural brain changes and increased inflammatory signaling throughout the brain and body. Increased inflammation in the brain has been associated with structural brain damage. Recent studies have also shown that neurofilament light polypeptide (NfL) is released into circulation following neuronal damage. Read More

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September 2021

Methylome-wide association study of early life stressors and adult mental health.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

The environment and events that we are exposed to in utero, during birth and in early childhood influence our future physical and mental health. The underlying mechanisms that lead to these outcomes are unclear, but long-term changes in epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, could act as a mediating factor or biomarker. DNA methylation data was assayed at 713522 CpG sites from 9537 participants of the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study, a family-based cohort with extensive genetic, medical, family history and lifestyle information. Read More

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September 2021

Toxicological assessment of low-dose bisphenol A, lead and endosulfan combination: chronic toxicity study in male rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tekirdag Namik Kemal University, Tekirdağ, Turkey.

In the present study, toxic effects, both alone and combined, of bisphenol A (BPA), lead (Pb) and endosulfan (ES) in the low doses were investigated in rat liver and kidney functions. In the study, bisphenol A (BPA), lead (Pb) and endosulfan (ES) were chosen because although they are the chemicals people are most frequently exposed to, no combined toxic effect studies were conducted with these chemicals. Sixty-four male Wistar albino rats were used in the study, and they were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 8 per group); control, BPA (5 mg/kg), Pb (100 ppm), ES (0. Read More

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September 2021

Rapid changes of miRNAs-20, -30, -410, -515, -134, and -183 and telomerase with psychological activity: A one year study on the relaxation response and epistemological considerations.

J Tradit Complement Med 2021 Sep 15;11(5):409-418. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, Padua University School of Medicine, Via Giustiniani 2, 35100, Padua, Italy.

Background And Aim: Mental stress represents a pivotal factor in cardiovascular diseases. The mechanism by which stress produces its deleterious effects is still under study, but one of the most explored pathways is inflammation-aging and cell senescence. In this scenario, circulating microRNAs appear to be regulatory elements of the telomerase activity and alternative splicing within the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer (NF-κB) network. Read More

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September 2021

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor is involved in hypertension and vascular alterations caused by environmental toxicant hexachlorobenzene.

Toxicol Rep 2021 31;8:1599-1606. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, CONICET, Instituto Alberto C. Taquini de Investigaciones en Medicina Traslacional (IATIMET), Marcelo T. de Alvear 2270, C1122AAJ, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Environmental hexachlorobenzene (HCB) increases blood pressure (BP) in female rats, causing alterations in arterial structure and function. Here we study the role of Angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) in HCB-induced hypertension through the use of AT1 antagonist losartan. HCB-treated male rats showed a 22. Read More

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Association between hypertension, obesity and dietary intake in post-menopausal women from rural Zambian communities.

Health SA 2021 13;26:1496. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, United States of America.

Background: Amongst the cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors, hypertension (HT) and obesity appear to be prominent in post-menopausal women. The underlying mechanisms of HT development in menopause are not fully understood.

Aim: To determine the association between HT, obesity and dietary intakes in post-menopausal women from rural Zambia. Read More

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Effect of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor on Kidney Function and Blood Potassium Level in Indonesian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Hypertension: A Three-Month Cohort Study.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 7;14:3841-3849. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.

Purpose: National formulary restrictions in Indonesia (2019) require estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m to be able to prescribe telmisartan and valsartan and ACE-I intolerance to be able to prescribe irbesartan and candesartan. These restrictions are based on economic considerations and differ from American Diabetes Association (ADA) (2020) guidelines which allow equal use of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) without restriction. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of Low Complement C4 on Clinical Characteristics of Patients with First-Episode Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 7;17:2859-2866. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To describe and compare the clinical features of patients with first-episode neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in a normal complement C4 group and a low complement C4 group, and explore the mechanism by which low complement C4 affects the clinical features of patients with NMOSD.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 169 aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody positive patients with NMOSD from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from December 2013 to March 2021. Prior to treatment, the blood was drawn for detection, and the patients underwent a 3. Read More

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September 2021

Characteristics of pulmonary microvascular structure in postnatal yaks.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 14;11(1):18265. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

College of Eco-Environmental Engineering, Qinghai University, 251 Ningda Road, Xining, 810016, Qinghai, China.

Yaks are typical plateau-adapted animals, however the microvascular changes and characteristics in their lungs after birth are still unclear. Pulmonary microvasculature characteristics and changes across age groups were analysed using morphological observation and molecular biology detection in yaks aged 1, 30 and 180 days old in addition to adults. Results: Our experiments demonstrated that yaks have fully developed pulmonary alveolar at birth but that interalveolar thickness increased with age. Read More

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September 2021

Gamma irradiation exposure for collapsed cell junctions and reduced angiogenesis of 3-D in vitro blood vessels.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 14;11(1):18230. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

During radiotherapy, microenvironments neighboring the tumor are also exposed to gamma irradiation; this results in unexpected side effects. Blood vessels can serve as microenvironments for tumors and they play an important role in providing nutrients to tumors. This is mostly related to tumor progression, metastasis, and relapse after therapy. Read More

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September 2021

Red-lesion extraction in retinal fundus images by directional intensity changes' analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 14;11(1):18223. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Medical Image & Signal Processing Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 8174673461, Isfahan, Iran.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an important retinal disease threatening people with the long diabetic history. Blood leakage in retina leads to the formation of red lesions in retina the analysis of which is helpful in the determination of severity of disease. In this paper, a novel red-lesion extraction method is proposed. Read More

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September 2021

Single-cell RNA sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from acute Kawasaki disease patients.

Nat Commun 2021 Sep 14;12(1):5444. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Children's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in developed countries. Although functional and phenotypic changes of immune cells have been reported, a global understanding of immune responses underlying acute KD is unclear. Here, using single-cell RNA sequencing, we profile peripheral blood mononuclear cells from seven patients with acute KD before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and from three age-matched healthy controls. Read More

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September 2021

[Association between Immunotherapy with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors(Anti-PD-1 Antibodies)and Intestinal Microbiota].

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2021 Sep;48(9):1096-1099

Dept. of Chest Surgery, Fukushima Medical University.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors(ICIs)are playing an increasingly important role in the treatment of cancer. In the field of lung cancer, ICIs are widely administered from primary therapy to maintenance therapy after chemoradiation for non-small cell lung cancer. However, excluding tumor proportion score(TPS)for PD-L1, no other biomarker has been reported to be clinically useful. Read More

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September 2021

Adenosine A2A receptor activation enhances blood-tumor barrier permeability in a rodent glioma model.

Mol Cancer Res 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

The blood-tumor barrier (BTB) limits the entry of effective chemotherapeutic agents into the brain for treatment of malignant tumors like glioblastoma (GBM). Poor drug entry across the BTB allows infiltrative glioma stem cells (GSC) to evade therapy and develop treatment resistance. Regadenoson, an FDA-approved adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonist, has been shown to increase drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in non-tumor bearing rodents without a defined mechanism of enhancing BTB permeability. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of diabetes self-management education program on lowering blood glucose level, stress, and quality of life among females with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Thailand.

Prim Health Care Res Dev 2021 Sep 15;22:e46. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of diabetes self-management education (DSME) on lowering blood glucose level, stress, and quality of life (QoL) among female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Thailand.

Background: The burden of noncommunicable diseases has increased globally, and it has negatively affected the QoL of diabetic patients.

Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted by including 77 T2DM patients selected from 2 public health centers in Thailand. Read More

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September 2021

Could consumption of yam () or its extract be beneficial in controlling glycaemia - A Systematic Review.

Br J Nutr 2021 Sep 15:1-32. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, LE12 5RD.

Yam (Dioscorea spp.) and its associated extracts have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities and identified as beneficial in the control of glycaemia in patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). The objective was to conduct a systematic search of the literature to investigate whether yam and its extract can improve glycaemia and whether consumption of yam could be beneficial for managing T2DM. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of menopausal hormone therapy on ambulatory blood pressure and arterial stiffness in postmenopausal Korean women with grade 1 hypertension: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Clin Hypertens 2021 Sep 15;27(1):18. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Estrogen therapy in early menopausal women decreases the risk of coronary heart disease and parenteral, but not oral, estrogen is reported to reduce blood pressure (BP). Progestogens are typically added to estrogens to prevent unopposed endometrial stimulation. The effects of progestogen on BP have been less well studied to date. Read More

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September 2021

Uptake of Aβ by OATPs might be a new pathophysiological mechanism of Alzheimer disease.

BMC Neurosci 2021 Sep 14;22(1):53. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Departmentof GCP/Psychosomatic Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Background: The accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the brain is a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD), at the same time, it is possible alterations of liver function could affect brain Aβ levels through changes in blood Aβ concentration. Over the last decade, a number of reports have shown that P-glycoprotein (encoded by ABC1B1) actively mediates the efflux transport of Aβ peptides. However, the mechanism by which Aβ peptides enter the cells is not clear. Read More

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September 2021

A Randomized Phase II Trial of Idiotype Vaccination and Adoptive Autologous T-Cell Transfer in Multiple Myeloma patients.

Blood 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

City of Hope, Duarte, California, United States.

We hypothesized that combining adoptively transferred autologous T cells with a cancer vaccine strategy would enhance therapeutic efficacy by adding anti-myeloma idiotype-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (Id-KLH) vaccine to vaccine-specific co-stimulated T cells. In this randomized, phase II trial, eligible patients received either the control (KLH only) or Id-KLH vaccine, an auto-transplant, vaccine-specific co-stimulated T-cells expanded ex-vivo, and two booster doses of the assigned vaccine. In 36 patients (20 in KLH, 16 in Id-KLH) enrolled, no dose-limiting toxicity was seen in either arm. Read More

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September 2021