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Trends in Diagnosis and Treatment of Metastatic Cancer in the United States.

Am J Clin Oncol 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY Departments of Family and Community Medicine Public Health Sciences Surgery, Penn State College of Medicine Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Radiation Oncology, Penn State Cancer Institute, Hershey, PA Section of Surgical Oncology, Baptist MD Anderson Cancer Center Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic., Australia Odette Cancer Centre-Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objectives: Metastatic cancer has historically been considered fatal; however, there is a paucity of evidence characterizing the epidemiology of incidence, treatment, and outcomes in these patients.

Materials And Methods: Incidence rates, annual percent change (APC), descriptive epidemiological statistics, and odds ratios for survival were calculated using registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and the National Cancer Database (NCDB), 1998 to 2015.

Results: There were a total of 1,055,860 patients with metastatic cancer. Read More

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September 2021

Differential DNA methylation and transcriptional signatures characterize impairment of muscle stem cells in pediatric human muscle contractures after brain injury.

FASEB J 2021 Oct;35(10):e21928

Shirley Ryan AbilityLab, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Limb contractures are a debilitating and progressive consequence of a wide range of upper motor neuron injuries that affect skeletal muscle function. One type of perinatal brain injury causes cerebral palsy (CP), which affects a child's ability to move and is often painful. While several rehabilitation therapies are used to treat contractures, their long-term effectiveness is marginal since such therapies do not change muscle biological properties. Read More

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October 2021

Examining the impact of a community-based exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular health, strength, flexibility and physical activity among adults living with HIV: A three-phased intervention study.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(9):e0257639. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation (IHPME), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: Our aim was to examine the impact of a community-based exercise (CBE) intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular health, strength, flexibility, and physical activity outcomes among adults living with HIV.

Methods: We conducted a longitudinal intervention study with community-dwelling adults living with HIV in Toronto, Canada. We measured cardiopulmonary fitness (V̇O2peak (primary outcome), heart rate, blood pressure), strength (grip strength, vertical jump, back extension, push-ups, curl ups), flexibility (sit and reach test), and self-reported physical activity bimonthly across three phases. Read More

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September 2021

Stress Mediates the Within-Person Longitudinal Associations Between Depression and Different Anxiety Syndromes in Youth.

Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Psychology, University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign, 603 E. Daniel Street, Champaign, IL, 61820, USA.

Depressive symptoms predict within-person change in physical symptoms of anxiety and social anxiety symptoms; however, potential mediators of these within-person associations remain understudied. The current study examined whether overall stress, interpersonal stress, and achievement stress mediate the associations between depressive symptoms and physical, social, and separation anxiety symptoms for girls and boys in a sample of 680 community youth aged 8-18 (M = 11.8, SD = 2. Read More

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September 2021

Change the original microbial community structure in the hydrolysis acidification tank to enhance the COD removal performance of oily wastewater.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Sep;84(6):1477-1486

School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083, China E-mail:

The hydrolysis acidification tank mainly relies on microorganisms to treat oily sewage, but in many cases the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent from the hydrolysis acidification tank does not decrease or even increase. In this work, about 50 L of oily wastewater is treated in a facultative anaerobic hydrolysis acidification tank with a temperature of 29 °C, pH 6, high-throughput sequencing technology analyzes found that after long-term operation of the hydrolysis and acidification tank, the dominant bacterial Pseudomonas accounted for only 2.87%, at this time, the effluent COD of the hydrolysis and acidification tank was 450 mg/L. Read More

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September 2021

Ipragliflozin Improves the Hepatic Outcomes of Patients With Diabetes with NAFLD.

Hepatol Commun 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Division of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan.

Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) are now widely used to treat diabetes, but their effects on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain to be determined. We aimed to evaluate the effects of SGLT2is on the pathogenesis of NAFLD. A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes with NAFLD. Read More

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Perceptions on the impact of a structured community-based training model in undergraduate medical training during the first phase of clinical exposure: A qualitative study from Kerala.

Indian J Public Health 2021 Jul-Sep;65(3):291-293

Professor, Head of School of Medicine and Health, Institute of Health and Management, Rosanna, Victoria, Australia.

The new competency-based undergraduate medical curriculum advocates early clinical exposure in medical training for adequate orientation to societal and patient needs. The present study aimed to explore the experiences of medical students about community-based training in rural hospitals during the first phase of clinical exposure. An exploratory qualitative study was conducted among 75 Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery students who underwent the training program as part of their undergraduate medical training using "most significant change" technique. Read More

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September 2021

Food insecurity, morbidity, and : Factors associated with depression severity in Guatemala measured with the Personal Health Questionnaire 9.

Int J Soc Psychiatry 2021 Sep 24:207640211047883. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Anthropology, Utah State University, Salt Lake City, USA.

Background: Depression is the largest contributor to non-fatal health loss globally and the majority of this burden occurs in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, estimates of prevalence rates and severity in these contexts may be uncertain due to limited screening, lack of mental health providers, and stigma around mental disorders which may prevent individuals from seeking care. In Guatemala, estimates of depression vary, due in part to the range of screening and diagnostic instruments used and diversity of sample populations. Read More

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September 2021

Psychiatric well-being among men leaving prison reporting a history of injecting drug use: A longitudinal analysis.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2021 Sep 24:48674211048143. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Behaviours and Health Risks, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Community reintegration from prison is typically stressful, with several health and social outcomes impacting psychiatric well-being during this time, often exacerbated among individuals with histories of drug use. Longitudinal data was used to assess change in psychiatric well-being over 2 years following release from prison among men who reported a recent history of injecting drug use.

Methods: Data for this study come from the Prison and Transition Health cohort study of 400 men recruited in prison prior to release and followed up over three time points. Read More

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September 2021

Correlates of anxiety and depression in a community cohort of people who smoke methamphetamine.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2021 Sep 24:48674211048152. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Behaviours and Health Risks Program, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Objective: Anxiety and depression are the most common mental health disorders experienced by Australians. These disorders are commonly found in people who use methamphetamine; however, much of this research has involved participants recruited from treatment settings who inject methamphetamine. We therefore explored (1) the prevalence of moderate to severe anxiety and depression in a community-recruited cohort who smoked methamphetamine and (2) examined potential factors associated with moderate to severe anxiety or depression in this cohort. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of Posting on Social Media on Systolic Blood Pressure and Management of Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Sep 24:e020596. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Penn Medicine Center for Digital Health University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia PA.

Background Online platforms are used to manage aspects of our lives including health outside clinical settings. Little is known about the effectiveness of using online platforms to manage hypertension. We assessed effects of tweeting/retweeting cardiovascular health content by individuals with poorly controlled hypertension on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and patient activation. Read More

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September 2021

A keystone mutualism promotes resistance to invasion.

J Anim Ecol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Grupo de Ecología de Invasiones & Laboratorio Ecotono, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente (INIBIOMA), CONICET- Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Bariloche, Argentina.

1. It is not uncommon for one or a few species, and their interactions, to have disproportionate effects on other species in ecological communities. Such keystone interactions might affect how communities respond to the invasion of non-native species by preventing or inhibiting the establishment, spread or impact of non-native species. Read More

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September 2021

Physicochemical and isotopic properties of ambient aerosols and precipitation particles during winter in Seoul, South Korea.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Groundwater Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon, 34132, Korea.

The aim of this study was to characterize the physicochemical properties and microbial communities of particulate matter (PM) in Seoul, Korea. We collected long-term (2017-2019) precipitation samples and PM and PM monitoring data to determine the impact of soluble and insoluble chemical species on the soil surface. Ambient PM concentrations were higher than PM concentrations during the monitoring period, but both decreased during rainfall due to the washing effect of precipitation. Read More

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September 2021

Bacterial community changes and their responses to nitrogen addition among different alpine grassland types at the eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, 222 Southern Tianshui Road, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Soil microbes play a fundamental role in maintaining nutrient biogeochemical cycles. To understand the distribution of soil bacterial communities on grassland plateaus, high-throughput sequencing was used to compare bacterial communities in soils from swamp meadows (SM), alpine meadows (AM), alpine steppes (AS), and desert steppes (DS) at the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) in China. We then compared response to nitrogen addition between SM and DS soils in microcosms. Read More

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September 2021

Mental and physical health problems before and after detention: A matched cohort study.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 Sep 15;8:100154. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL) & Department of Sociology, Department of Human Geography, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Individuals with poor health are largely overrepresented in prison populations. However, it remains unclear whether their poor health status already exists prior to their detention or reflects an effect of detention. We examined the health of detainees in the year before and after their detention and compared this with the health of matched non-detainees. Read More

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September 2021

The Role of Food and Beverage Companies in Transforming Food Systems: Building Resilience at Multiple Scales.

Curr Dev Nutr 2021 Sep 24;5(9):nzab110. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Division of Agriculture, Food, and Environment, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.

Food and beverage companies are increasingly aware of the risks posed by climate change and many are interested in addressing them by building resilience along their supply chains. Financial incentives for environmental, social, and governance criteria further motivate mitigation action by firms. To achieve sustainable outcomes, human and ecological systems must be managed for resilience. Read More

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September 2021

Interdisciplinary Physician-Pharmacist Medication Review for Outpatients With Heart Failure: A Subanalysis of the PHARM-CHF Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Pharmacol 2021 7;12:712490. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Medicine, ABDA-Federal Union of German Associations of Pharmacists, Berlin, Germany.

Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) require polypharmacy and are at increased risk for drug-related problems. Interdisciplinary physician-pharmacist medication review may improve drug treatment. Our goal was to analyze the changes from the physician-documented medication plan (MP) and patient-stated medication to an interdisciplinary consolidated MP (CMP). Read More

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September 2021

Heavy alcohol consumption before and after negative life events in late mid-life: longitudinal latent trajectory analyses.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Public Health, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Background: People who experience negative life events report more heavy alcohol consumption compared with people without these experiences, but little is known about patterns of change this group. This study aims to identify trajectories of heavy alcohol consumption before and after experiencing either divorce, or severe illness or death in the family. Furthermore, the aim is to examine characteristics of individuals belonging to each trajectory. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluating the efficacy of intranasal oxytocin on pain and function among individuals who experience chronic pain: a protocol for a multisite, placebo-controlled, blinded, sequential, within-subjects crossover trial.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 23;11(9):e055039. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada.

Introduction: Current treatments for chronic pain (eg, opioids) can have adverse side effects and rarely result in resolution of pain. As such, there is a need for adjuvant analgesics that are non-addictive, have few adverse side effects and are effective for pain management across several chronic pain conditions. Oxytocin is a naturally occurring hormone that has gained attention for its potential analgesic properties. Read More

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September 2021

Academic service-learning nursing partnerships in the Americas: a scoping review.

BMC Nurs 2021 Sep 23;20(1):179. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

WHO Collaborating Center for International Nursing, School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1720 2nd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL, 35294-1210, USA.

Background: Academic service-learning nursing partnerships (ASLNPs) integrate instruction, reflection, and scholarship with tailored service through enriched learning experiences that teach civic responsibility and strengthen communities, while meeting academic nursing outcomes.

Objective: This scoping review aimed to identify, appraise, and synthesize evidence of community focused ASLNPs that promote primary health care throughout the Americas region.

Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Google Scholar, and LILACS English-language databases was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Read More

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September 2021

Establishment of baseline cytology metrics in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius): Immunomodulatory effects of the flame retardant isopropylated triarylphosphate isomers.

Environ Int 2021 Sep 20;157:106779. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Ecological Science Center, Patuxent Research Refuge, 308 Center Road, Beltsville, MD 20705, United States.

Avian populations must mount effective immune responses upon exposure to environmental stressors such as avian influenza and xenobiotics. Although multiple immune assays have been tested and applied to various avian species, antibody-mediated immune responses in non-model avian species are not commonly reported due to the lack of commercially available species-specific antibodies. The objectives of the present study were to advance methods for studying wild bird immune responses and to apply these to the evaluation of cytological responses after exposure of American kestrels, Falco sparverius, to a commercial flame retardant mixture containing isopropylated triarylphosphate isomers (ITP). Read More

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September 2021

Reduction of Cu and nitrate leaching risk associated with EDDS-enhanced phytoextraction process by exogenous inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 18;287(Pt 3):132288. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Quaternary Science and Global Change, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, 710061, China. Electronic address:

Biodegradable chelant (S,S)-N,N'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) has the more advantages of enhanced metal mobility, rapid degradation, environmental friendliness, and ammonium release. However, the risk of metal and/or nitrate residues and leaching within EDDS biodegradation remains as the bottleneck for the widespread application of EDDS-induced phytoremediation. This study aims to explore if the inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) can eliminate the risk associated with the short-term application of EDDS by investigating Cu phytoextraction and soil nitrate content. Read More

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September 2021

Using metatranscriptomics to estimate the diversity and composition of zooplankton communities.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Nankang District, Taipei, 11529, Taiwan.

DNA metabarcoding is a rapid, high-resolution tool used for biomonitoring complex zooplankton communities. However, diversity estimates derived with this approach can be biased by the co-detection of sequences from environmental DNA (eDNA), nuclear-encoded mitochondrial (NUMT) pseudogene contamination, and taxon-specific PCR primer affinity differences. To avoid these methodological uncertainties, we tested the use of metatranscriptomics as an alternative approach for characterizing zooplankton communities. Read More

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September 2021

Functional traits reveal the dominant drivers of long-term community change across a North American Great Lake.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Aquatic Ecology Laboratory, Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Ecosystems worldwide have been impacted by multiple anthropogenic stressors, yet efforts to understand and manage these impacts have been hindered by difficulties in disentangling relative stressor effects. Theoretically, the actions of individual stressors can be delineated based on associated changes in functional traits and these relationships should be generalizable across communities comprised of different species. Thus, combining trait perspectives with community composition data could help to identify the relative influence of different stressors. Read More

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September 2021

Replacing insulin with immunotherapy: time for a paradigm change in Type 1 Diabetes.

Diabet Med 2021 Sep 23:e14696. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Diabetes and Autoimmunity Research Group, Cardiff University School of Medicine.

For almost a hundred years, the management of Type 1 diabetes has not advanced beyond insulin replacement. However, insulin does not provide satisfactory glycaemic control in the majority of individuals and there remains a major unmet need for novel treatments for Type 1 diabetes. Immunomodulation to preserve beta-cell function offers the prospect of making treatment with insulin easier and/or preventing the need for insulin, particularly when it comes to novel low-risk immunotherapies. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of combined tannic acid/fluoride on sulfur transformations and methanogenic pathways in swine manure.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(9):e0257759. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Engineering, Air Quality Engineering, Aarhus University, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Livestock manure emits reduced sulfur compounds and methane, which affect nature and the climate. These gases are efficiently mitigated by addition of a tannic acid-sodium fluoride combination inhibitor (TA-NaF), and to some extent by acidification. In this paper, TA-NaF treatment was performed on swine manure to study the treatment influence on methanogenic pathways and sulfur transformation pathways in various laboratory experiments. Read More

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September 2021

Megafire affects stream sediment flux and dissolved organic matter reactivity, but land use dominates nutrient dynamics in semiarid watersheds.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(9):e0257733. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Plant and Wildlife Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, United States of America.

Climate change is causing larger wildfires and more extreme precipitation events in many regions. As these ecological disturbances increasingly coincide, they alter lateral fluxes of sediment, organic matter, and nutrients. Here, we report the stream chemistry response of watersheds in a semiarid region of Utah (USA) that were affected by a megafire followed by an extreme precipitation event in October 2018. Read More

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September 2021

Understanding Emerging Environmental Health Concerns and Environmental Public Health-Tracking Priorities Among State and Local Professionals in Colorado.

J Public Health Manag Pract 2021 Nov-Dec 01;27(6):598-606

Environmental and Occupational Health Department, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado (Drs Murphy and McKenzie); Department of Environmental and Radiological Sciences, Colorado School of Public Health, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (Dr Peel); Environmental Health Division; Tri-County Health Department, Greenwood Village, Colorado (Mr Butts); and Environmental Studies Department, University of Colorado-Boulder, Boulder, Colorado (Dr Litt).

Context: Colorado is experiencing dramatic changes related to population growth, climate change, and expanded industrial activity. Local and state public health professionals are trying to address a growing array of unique public health issues with stagnant or limited resources.

Objectives: To understand, through perspectives from local and state public health professionals, the alignment of contemporary environmental and community health issues with state and local capacity and state environmental public health-tracking priorities. Read More

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September 2021

Simulating for Quality: A Centralized Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Simulation Curriculum for Residents and Fellows.

Acad Med 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

J.T. Luty is assistant professor, Department of Medicine, and medical director of performance improvement for graduate medical education, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6040-3448. H. Oldham was chief resident in quality and safety, Veterans Affairs Portland Healthcare System, Portland, Oregon, at the time of writing. He is currently clinical hospitalist, Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, Oregon. A. Smeraglio is assistant professor, Veterans Affairs Portland Healthcare System, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon. M. DiVeronica is assistant professor, Veterans Affairs Portland Healthcare System, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon. C. Terndrup is assistant professor, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon. F.A. Tibayan is associate professor, Department of Surgery, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon. J. Engle is performance improvement consultant, School of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon. K. Lepin was quality manager for graduate medical education, School of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, at the time of writing. She is currently director of equity and collaborative impact, Southwest Washington Accountable Community of Health, Vancouver, Washington. S. Nonas is associate professor, Department of Medicine, and medical director of the medical intensive care unit, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.

Problem: Requirements for experiential education in quality improvement and patient safety (QI/PS) in graduate medical education (GME) have recently expanded. Major challenges to meeting these requirements include a lack of faculty with the needed expertise, paucity of standardized curricular models allowing for skill demonstration, and inconsistent access to data for iterative improvement.

Approach: In October 2017, the authors began development of a centralized QI/PS flipped-classroom simulation-based medical education (SBME) curriculum for GME trainees across multiple disciplines at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU). Read More

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September 2021

Entrustable professional activities framework for assessment of patient handoffs in dentistry.

J Dent Educ 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Director of Engaged Learning and Assessment, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Purpose/objectives: The aim of this study is to report data on the lack of a proper patient handoff system in dentistry and dental education and to present a possible solution to integrate this into curriculum using the "entrustable professional activities" (EPAs) framework.

Methods: Delphi participants from seven US dental schools provided feedback on a preliminary definition of handoff, a mnemonic and an assessment rubric. 2019 American Dental Education Association Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education (ADEA CCI) participants further evaluated the handoff EPA using the EQual rubric for EPA quality and structure. Read More

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September 2021