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Radiotherapy dose calculations in high-Z materials: comprehensive comparison between experiment, Monte Carlo, and conventional planning algorithms.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Level 1 Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales, 2065, AUSTRALIA.

Purpose: To compare the accuracies of the AAA and AcurosXB dose calculation algorithms and to predict the change in the down-stream and lateral dose deposition of high energy photons in the presence of material with densities higher that commonly found in the body.

Method: Metal rods of titanium (d =4.5g/m2), stainless steel (d=8g/cm2) and tungsten (d=19. Read More

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Clinical outcomes of nonoperatively managed degenerative cervical myelopathy: an ambispective longitudinal cohort study in 117 patients.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Apr 9:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

1Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto.

Objective: Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is among the most common pathologies affecting the spinal cord but its natural history is poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate functional outcomes in patients with DCM who were managed nonoperatively as well as the utility of quantitative clinical measures and MRI to detect deterioration.

Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed DCM or recurrent myelopathic symptoms after previous surgery who were initially managed nonoperatively were included. Read More

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Identifying advanced stage NSCLC patients who benefit from afatinib therapy using F-afatinib PET/CT imaging.

Lung Cancer 2021 Mar 26;155:156-162. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pulmonology, Amsterdam UMC location VUmc, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objectives: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors harboring common (exon19del, L858R) and uncommon (e.g. G719X, L861Q) activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are best treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as the first-generation EGFR TKI erlotinib, second-generation afatinib or third-generation osimertinib. Read More

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Heteromerization of Dopaminergic Receptors in the Brain: Pharmacological Implications.

Authors:
Desye Misganaw

Pharmacol Res 2021 Apr 6:105600. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Pharmacology and Toxicology unit, Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Science, Wollo University, P.O. Box 1145, Dessie, Ethiopia.

Dopamine exerts its physiological effects through two subtypes of receptors, i.e. the receptors of the D family (D and D) and the D family (D, D3R, and D), which differ in their pattern of distribution, affinity, and signaling. Read More

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Effects of Myo-inositol Hexaphosphate (SNF472) on Bone Mineral Density in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis: An Analysis of the Randomized, Placebo-Controlled CaLIPSO Study.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

Background And Objectives: In the CaLIPSO study, intravenous administration of SNF472 (300 or 600 mg) during hemodialysis significantly attenuated progression of coronary artery and aortic valve calcification. SNF472 selectively inhibits formation of hydroxyapatite, the final step in cardiovascular calcification. Because bone mineral is predominantly hydroxyapatite, we assessed changes in bone mineral density in CaLIPSO. Read More

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Novel Predictors of Coronavirus Protective Behaviors among US adults: The role of trait reactance, conspiracy beliefs, and belief in the apocalypse.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Center for Health Communications Research, Rogel Cancer Center, University of Michigan, North Campus Research Complex, Building 162800 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, US.

Background: A central component of the public health strategy to control the 2019 Sars-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus involves encouraging mask wearing and social distancing to protect individuals from acquiring and transmitting the virus.

Objective: Understanding the psychologic factors that drive adoption or rejection of these protective behaviors can inform public health interventions to control the pandemic.

Methods: We conducted an online survey of a representative sample of 1,074 U. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Iran; the dynamics of the epidemic and evidence on two independent introductions.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been rapidly spreading globally since December 2019, triggering a pandemic, soon after its emergence. While Iran was among the first countries confronted with rapid spread of virus in February 2020, no real-time SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome tracking in early phase of outbreak was performed in the country. To address this issue, we provided 50 whole-genome sequences of viral isolates ascertained from different geographical locations in Iran during March-July 2020. Read More

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Pericardiocentesis induced right ventricular changes in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension.

Echocardiography 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: Pericardial effusion drainage in patients with significant pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been questioned because of hemodynamic collapse concern, mainly because of right ventricular (RV) function challenging assessment. We aimed to assess RV function changes related to pericardiocentesis in patients with and without PH.

Methods: Consecutive patients with symptomatic moderate-to-large pericardial effusion who had either echocardiographic or clinical signs of cardiac tamponade and who underwent pericardiocentesis from 2013 to 2018 were included. Read More

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Minimal Important Differences and self-identifying treatment response in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

Muscle Nerve 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Inflammatory Neuropathy Clinic, Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Birmingham, Birmingham, U.K.

Introduction: The use of outcome measures is recommended for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Implications of minimal important differences (MID) to ascertain responder status are unknown. The reliability of patient-reported treatment-response in relation to clinically-relevant change is also unknown. Read More

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Teaching Medical Students to Help Patients Manage Their Weight: Outcomes of an Eight-School Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: Given the rising rates of obesity there is a pressing need for medical schools to better prepare students for intervening with patients who have overweight or obesity and for prevention efforts.

Objective: To assess the effect of a multi-modal weight management curriculum on counseling skills for health behavior change.

Design: A pair-matched, group-randomized controlled trial (2015-2020) included students enrolled in eight U. Read More

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Real-world analysis of clinical and economic impact of 21-gene recurrence score (RS) testing in early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) in Ireland.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medical Oncology, St Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Purpose: Results from TAILOR-X suggest that up to 70% of hormone receptor-positive (HR+) node-negative (N0) ESBC patients (pts) may avoid chemotherapy (CT) with RS ≤ 25. We assess clinical and economic impacts of RS testing on treatment using real-world data.

Methods: From October 2011 to February 2019, a retrospective, cross-sectional observational study was conducted of HR+ N0 ESBC pts who had RS testing in Ireland. Read More

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Prevention of non-cavitated lesions with fluoride and xylitol varnishes during orthodontic treatment: a randomized clinical trial.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Bauru Dental School and Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of São Paulo, Alameda Octávio Pinheiro Brisolla 9-75, Bauru, SP, 17012-901, Brazil.

Objective: Fixed orthodontic appliances impair oral hygiene increasing the risk of non-cavitated lesions (NCLs) and tooth decay. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of fluoride and xylitol varnishes in preventing NCLs during comprehensive orthodontic treatment.

Materials And Methods: The sample comprised 55 volunteers from 15 to 20 years of age under orthodontic treatment that were randomly divided into three groups: Fluoride Group (FG; n=17), Xylitol Group (XG; n=19), and Placebo Group (PG; n=19). Read More

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How will artificial intelligence and bioinformatics change our understanding of IgA in the next decade?

Semin Immunopathol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Faculty of Medicine, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common glomerulonephritis. It is characterized by the deposition of immune complexes containing immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the kidney's glomeruli, triggering an inflammatory process. In many patients, the disease has a progressive course, eventually leading to end-stage kidney disease. Read More

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Relationship Between Glenoid Component Shift and Osteolysis After Anatomic Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Analysis.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopedic and Rheumatologic Institute (E.T.R., J.C.H., T.E.P., and J.P.I.), Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute (B.-J.J. and K.A.D.), and Department of Quantitative Health Sciences (Y.J. and J.E.D.), Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate glenoid component position and radiolucency following anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) using sequential 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) analysis.

Methods: In a series of 152 patients (42 Walch A1, 16 A2, 7 B1, 49 B2, 29 B3, 3 C1, 3 C2, and 3 D glenoids) undergoing anatomic TSA with a polyethylene glenoid component, sequential 3D CT analysis was performed preoperatively (CT1), early postoperatively (CT2), and at a minimum 2-year follow-up (CT3). Glenoid component shift was defined as a change in component version or inclination of ≥3° from CT2 to CT3. Read More

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The Utility of the Subalar Graft in Nostril Symmetry in Rhinoplasty.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

From the Department of Surgery, Divisions of Otolaryngology and Surgical Outcomes and Epidemiology, Yale School of Medicine; the Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School-Baystate; and the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

Background: A deviated nose can be attributable to multiple anatomical factors, including asymmetric maxilla. A subalar graft helps to correct maxillary hypoplasia and may be a useful tool for correcting a deviated nose. The authors' objective is to show the effects of the subalar graft in improving nostril symmetry and to propose an algorithm for using this graft in open and endonasal rhinoplasty. Read More

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Do Relaxation Exercises Decrease Pain After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

D. G. Weekes, R. E. Campbell, E. D. Wicks, C. J. Hadley, Z. S. Chaudhry, A. H. Carter, M. D. Pepe, B. S. Tucker, K. B. Freedman, F. P. Tjoumakaris, The Rothman Orthopaedic Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Pain after rotator cuff repair is commonly managed with opioid medications; however, these medications are associated with serious adverse effects. Relaxation exercises represent a potential nonpharmacologic method of pain management that can be easily implemented without substantial adverse effects; however, the effects of relaxation exercises have not been studied in a practical, reproducible protocol after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

Questions/purposes: (1) Does performing relaxation exercises after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) decrease pain compared with standard pain management medication? (2) Does performing relaxation exercises after ARCR decrease opioid consumption? (3) What proportion of patients who used the relaxation techniques believed they decreased their pain level, and what proportion continued using these techniques at 2 weeks? (4) Does performing relaxation exercises after ARCR affect shoulder function?

Methods: During the study period, 563 patients were eligible for inclusion; however, only 146 were enrolled, randomized, and postoperatively followed (relaxation group: 74, control group: 72); 68% (384 of 563) of patients were not contacted due to patient and research staff availability. Read More

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Which Risk Factors Are Associated with Pain and Patient-reported Function in Patients with a Rotator Cuff Tear?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

N. G. Lemaster, N. Heebner, Department of Rehabilitation Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Background: Patient-reported measures guide physicians in clinical decision making and therefore it is critical to determine what clinical factors are associated with these scores. Psychological and physical factors are commonly studied separately in patients with rotator cuff tears to determine their influence on outcomes. It is well established that psychological distress and scapular motion change in the presence of a symptomatic rotator cuff tear. Read More

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Clinical effects of ursodeoxycholic acid on patients with ulcerative colitis may improve via the regulation of IL-23-IL-17 axis and the changes of the proportion of intestinal microflora.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, The 900th Hospital of Joint Logistic Support Force, PLA, Fujian Medical University Fuzong Clinical College, Fuzhou, China.

Background: We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of additional ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) with mesalazine, compared to mesalazine alone in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The mechanism was evaluated by monitoring the changes of IL-23-IL-17 axis and the intestinal microflora.

Methods: In this prospective, single center study, patients with UC were randomly assigned to the Mesalazine group (n=20) or the UDCA + Mesalazine group (n=20). Read More

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The S-STARTS Test: Validation of a Composite Test for the Assessment of Readiness to Return to Sport After Shoulder Stabilization Surgery.

Sports Health 2021 Apr 9:19417381211004107. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Background: The time elapsed since surgery is the primary criterion for allowing athletes to return to sport after shoulder stabilization surgery using the Latarjet procedure. The objective assessment of shoulder functional status through the return-to-sport continuum demands a scoring instrument that includes psychological and physical dimensions. This study aimed to statistically validate the Shoulder-SanTy Athletic Return To Sport (S-STARTS) score in patients who have undergone primary shoulder stabilization surgery. Read More

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Exploring the Safety, Effectiveness, and Cost-Effectiveness of a Chinese Patent Medicine (Fufang E'jiao Syrup) for Alleviating Cancer-Related Fatigue: A Protocol for a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Trial.

Integr Cancer Ther 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15347354211002919

Xiyuan Hospital of Chinese Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Objective: To provide higher level evidence on the benefits of a Chinese patent medicine (CPM) (Fufang E'jiao Syrup, FFEJS) for alleviating cancer-related fatigue (CRF), this article describes a protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Methods/design: We designed a double-blind, placebo-controlled stratified permuted block randomization clinical trial on CRF among 3 types of cancer in China. Participants will be equally allocated to FFEJS group or placebo group according to the randomization sequence and the hospitals they were enrolled at. Read More

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[Clinical and phenomenological features of the formation of gender reassignment ideas in schizophrenia spectrum disorders].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(3):18-23

Serbsky National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Narcology, Moscow, Russia.

Objective: To study the features of the formation of gender reassignment`s ideas in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and to differentiate diagnosis of these psychopathological formations with transsexualism.

Material And Methods: The study was carried out in the Department of Sexology and Therapy of Sexual Dysfunctions of the Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry - a branch of the Serbsky National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Narcology in the period from October 2018 to May 2020. The study included 100 outpatients referred for gender reassignment. Read More

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January 2021

Comparison of lecture and manipulative teaching methods on learning and application to practice.

Nurs Forum 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Mennonite College of Nursing at Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois, USA.

Importance: Manipulatives are hands-on or virtual displays that facilitate teaching and learning and are interactive and engaging to students during the learning activity. Manipulatives have been shown to be effective teaching tools for a wide range of students.

Objective: This study examined whether the use of manipulatives in nursing education improved Satisfaction, Learning/Knowledge Retention, Behavior/Transfer of Learning, and Intentions to Change Practice. Read More

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Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder: Insights into a New Generation of Face-to-Face Treatment and Digital Self-Help Approaches.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1305:311-332

Faculty of Healthcare, Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences, Krefeld, Germany.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) represents a key contributor to the global burden of mental illness given its relatively high lifetime prevalence, frequent comorbidity, and disability rates. Evidence-based treatment options for depression include pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Beyond traditional CBT, over 15 years ago, Hayes proclaimed a new generation of contextualistic and process-orientated so-called third wave of CBT interventions, including acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Read More

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January 2021

A Robust Percutaneous Myocardial Infarction Model in Pigs and Its Effect on Left Ventricular Function.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Center for Clinical Research, Texas Heart Institute, 6770 Bertner Ave, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

In this study, we created a reproducible myocardial infarction (MI) model in pigs characterized by a low mortality rate and significant changes in left ventricular function. After administering an arrhythmia prevention regimen, we created a 90-min balloon-induced percutaneous MI in 42 pigs below the first diagonal branch (D1) of the left anterior descending artery. Echocardiograms were performed before and 14 days after MI induction. Read More

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Retention forces between primary and secondary CAD/CAM manufactured telescopic crowns: an in vitro comparison of common material combinations.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Section for Digital Implant- and Reconstructive Dentistry [DIRecD], Department of Reconstructive Dentistry and Gerodontology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 7, 3010, Bern, Switzerland.

Objectives: To analyze the retention forces between primary and secondary telescopic crowns milled from various materials and to compare them with the retention forces between cast telescopic crowns made of precious metal alloys.

Materials And Methods: Primary and secondary crowns (N = 60; n = 10 per group) were fabricated using various material combinations (1: zirconia [ZIR]/polyether ether ketone [PEEK]; 2: titanium grade IV [TI]/PEEK; 3: PEEK/PEEK; 4: non-precious alloy [NPA]/PEEK; 5:NPA/NPA), while precious alloy (PA) was used for the control group (6: PA/PA). The retention forces at 10, 1000, 5000, and 10,000 connection and disconnection cycles and the relative weights were analyzed, applying nonparametric repeated measures ANOVA and post hoc Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (α < 0. Read More

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Clinical Characteristics of Presenile Cataract: Change over 10 Years in Southern Taiwan.

Biomed Res Int 2021 20;2021:9385293. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical characteristics of presenile cataract and compare that to ten years ago in southern Taiwan.

Methods: The subjects who received cataract surgeries aged 30 to 54 years were recruited in Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital during September 2015 and August 2016. Patients with uveitis or those who received combined cataract surgeries were excluded. Read More

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Attitudes and Practices of Healthcare Professionals and Clinical Medical Students on Contraception: A Cross-Sectional Study in Cape Coast, Ghana.

Int J Reprod Med 2021 22;2021:6631790. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Cape Coast, Ghana.

Background: Healthcare providers play a major role in the implementation of family planning policies. In Ghana, there has been a conscious effort to improve the knowledge of preservice and practicing health professionals on family planning. However, there have been concerns about the appropriateness of the attitudes and practices of these health cadres and, hence, their propensity to become barriers to the uptake of contraception in the general population. Read More

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Peptidoglycan Recognition Peptide 2 Aggravates Weight Loss in a Murine Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Gastrointestinal Toxicity.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:635005. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity (CIGT) is a frequent, severe and dose-limiting side effect. Few treatments have proven effective for CIGT. CIGT is characterized by activation of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway which, leads to upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Read More

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Stress distribution of cementless stems with unique flanges in a rectangular cross-section: thermoelastic stress imaging study.

J Rural Med 2021 Apr 1;16(2):83-90. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Human Informatics and Interaction Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan.

In this study, thermoelastic stress analysis was conducted to clarify the surface stress distribution of a femur in which a BiCONTACT E stem was inserted. The contact sites between the stem and femur were examined to investigate the association with the range of stress distribution. BiCONTACT E was set up using two synthetic femurs that mimic the morphology and mechanical properties of living bone. Read More

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