5,052 results match your criteria challenge measuring


How many tRNAs are out there?

Mol Cell 2021 Apr;81(8):1595-1597

Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel. Electronic address:

In this issue of Molecular Cell, Behrens et al. (2021) address a long-standing challenge in the field of tRNA regulation and develop an approach for measuring tRNA abundance at unprecedented accuracy. Read More

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Challenges and new methods in the diagnosis of Lyme disease in children.

Przegl Epidemiol 2020 ;74(4):652-661

Medical University of Bialystok, Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases.

Despite the constant development of biotechnology, laboratory diagnostics of Lyme disease in children still poses a significant challenge. The aim of this article is to present the current methods of Lyme disease diagnosis and its future perspectives. A serological test is often the first step in supporting clinical diagnosis of Lyme disease in children. Read More

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January 2020

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications of Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with Warts: A Case Controlled Study.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Dermatology, National Research Centre, Egypt.

Background: Cutaneous warts are frequent conditions that possess much challenge to treat.

Objective: To verify the potential role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of viral warts by measuring the serum levels of vitamin D in patients diagnosed with viral warts compared to healthy controls and to verify whether oral vitamin D supplementation of those vitamin D- deficient patients would result in wart clearance.

Methods: To evaluate the serum vitamin D levels, the study recruited 80 subjects, including 40 patients diagnosed with viral warts and 40 age and sex matched healthy controls. Read More

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Measuring communication quality in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Pediatr Res 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: High quality communication between providers and parents of seriously ill neonatal patients is vital and yet poorly understood. Feudtner summarized five challenges and seven priorities to the study and advancement of pediatric palliative care. Improvement of communication is a priority, while lack of specification and measurement of outcomes relevant to the pediatric population remains a challenge. Read More

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Metformin prevents PFKFB3-related aerobic glycolysis from enhancing collagen synthesis in lung fibroblasts by regulating AMPK/mTOR pathway.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 31;21(6):581. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120, P.R. China.

Aerobic glycolysis has been shown to contribute to the abnormal activation of lung fibroblasts with excessive collagen deposition in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Targeting aerobic glycolysis in lung fibroblasts might therefore be considered as a promising therapeutic approach for LPS-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, the aim was to investigate whether metformin, a widely used agent for treating type 2 diabetes, could alleviate LPS-induced lung fibroblast collagen synthesis and its potential underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Irisin enhances osteogenic differentiation of mouse MC3T3-E1 cells via upregulating osteogenic genes.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 31;21(6):580. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Orthopaedics, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 10000, P.R. China.

Osteoporosis affects millions of individuals and remains a clinical challenge in terms of prevention and treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of irisin on osteogenic differentiation by exposing MC3T3-E1 cells to different concentrations of irisin. Treated cells were assayed for osteoblast proliferation and osteogenic differentiation by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, formation of mineralized nodules and the expression of osteogenic genes using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Read More

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Multidimensional Approach for Investigating the Effects of an Antibiotic-Probiotic Combination on the Equine Hindgut Ecosystem and Microbial Fibrolysis.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:646294. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, AgroSup Dijon, PAM UMR A 02.102, Dijon, France.

The equine hindgut ecosystem is specialized in dietary fibers' fermentation to provide horses' energy and contribute to its health. Nevertheless, antibiotics are known to disrupt the hindgut microbiota, affecting the fibrolytic activity of bacteria and the intestinal immune balance, leading to diseases. This study used a general and comprehensive approach for characterizing the hindgut ecosystem of 9 healthy horses over 28 days in response to a 5-day challenge with oral trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (TMS), with a special emphasis on microbial fibrolytic activity and the host immune response. Read More

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Human in vivo neuroimaging to detect reprogramming of the cerebral immune response following repeated systemic inflammation.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Radboud university medical center, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Radboud university medical center, Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Despite increasing evidence that immune training within the brain may affect the clinical course of neuropsychiatric diseases, data on cerebral immune tolerance are scarce. This study in healthy volunteers examined the trajectory of the immune response systemically and within the brain following repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenges. Five young males underwent experimental human endotoxemia (intravenous administration of 2 ng/kg LPS) twice with a 7-day interval. Read More

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An improved strategy for analysis of lipid molecules utilising a reversed phase C UHPLC column and scheduled MS/MS acquisition.

Talanta 2021 Jul 17;229:122262. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom; Phenome Centre Birmingham, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Measuring physiochemically diverse molecules (including lipids) which vary significantly in their concentrations poses a great analytical challenge. In untargeted lipidomics studies, reversed phase chromatography coupled with data-dependent MS/MS acquisition (DDA) is frequently applied. The optimal assay should deliver a high number of detected compounds with associated fragmentation data. Read More

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Blood flow response to orthostatic challenge identifies signatures of the failure of static cerebral autoregulation in patients with cerebrovascular disease.

BMC Neurol 2021 Apr 9;21(1):154. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology (Stroke Unit). Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The cortical microvascular cerebral blood flow response (CBF) to different changes in head-of-bed (HOB) position has been shown to be altered in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) by diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) technique. However, the relationship between these relative ΔCBF changes and associated systemic blood pressure changes has not been studied, even though blood pressure is a major driver of cerebral blood flow.

Methods: Transcranial DCS data from four studies measuring bilateral frontal microvascular cerebral blood flow in healthy controls (n = 15), patients with asymptomatic severe internal carotid artery stenosis (ICA, n = 27), and patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS, n = 72) were aggregated. Read More

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Modeling the mature CNS: A predictive screening platform for neurodegenerative disease drug discovery.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Apr 6:109180. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Cognition Therapeutics Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, 15203, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Mature primary neuronal cultures are an important model of the nervous system, but limited scalability has been a major challenge in their use for drug discovery of neurodegenerative diseases. This work describes a method for improving scalability through the use of larger format microtiter plates while preserving culture quality.

New Method: Here we describe a method and quality control procedures for growing embryonic day 18 rat hippocampal/cortical neuronal cultures in 384-well microtiter plates for three weeks in vitro. Read More

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An integrated quality and resilience engineering framework in healthcare with Z-number data envelopment analysis.

Health Care Manag Sci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Fouman Faculty of Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Supplier selection for medical equipment is a major challenge for hospitals in healthcare supply chains. The primary reason for measuring medical equipment supplier efficiency is to achieve the highest level of overall performance and productivity in healthcare supply chains. This study presents an integrated quality and resilience engineering (QRE) framework for evaluating medical equipment suppliers' performance using structural equation modeling and Z-number data envelopment analysis (Z-DEA). Read More

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Magnetically switchable soft suction grippers.

Extreme Mech Lett 2021 Apr 5;44:101263. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, 33720 Tampere, Finland.

Grasping is one of the key tasks for robots. Gripping fragile and complex three-dimensional (3D) objects without applying excessive contact forces has been a challenge for traditional rigid robot grippers. To solve this challenge, soft robotic grippers have been recently proposed for applying small forces and for conforming to complex 3D object shapes passively and easily. Read More

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The Continuing Challenge of Measuring Maternal Mortality.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Dr. MacDorman is from the Maryland Population Research Center at the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. Dr. Declercq is from the Department of Community Health Sciences at the Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; email:

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A targeted e-learning approach for keeping universities open during the COVID-19 pandemic while reducing student physical interactions.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249839. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Neuroscience and Behavioural Disorders Programme, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.

The COVID-19 pandemic led to widespread closure of universities. Many universities turned to e-learning to provide educational continuity, but they now face the challenge of how to reopen safely and resume in-class learning. This is difficult to achieve without methods for measuring the impact of school policies on student physical interactions. Read More

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In-situ digital image correlation and thermal monitoring in directed energy deposition additive manufacturing.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(7):9927-9941

As in welding, directed energy deposition (DED) additive manufacturing (AM) generates complex residual stresses and distortions commensurate with the complexity of the scan pattern used for deposition. To date, measuring DED distortions on complex geometries has only been achieved post process, discarding the complex thermomechanical history that leads to that final material state. In this work, surround stereo digital image correlation (DIC) is used to 3D map surfaces and strain tensors in-situ in a powder-blown laser DED system. Read More

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NASYM, a live intranasal vaccine, protects young calves from bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the presence of maternal antibodies.

Vet Rec 2021 Jan 28:e83. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.

Background: Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a major problem for cattle worldwide during their first year of life. The aim of the present study was to evaluate efficacy and longevity of immunity of a live vaccine (NASYM, HIPRA) in the presence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA).

Method: Calves (36) were distributed in four groups, based on MDA status and treatment. Read More

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January 2021

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Patients and Staff in Radiation Oncology Departments in Belgium: A National Survey.

Front Oncol 2021 19;11:654086. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Human Structure and Repair, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

COVID-19 reached Belgium in February and quickly became a major public health challenge. It is of importance to evaluate the actual impact of COVID-19 on patients and staff in Belgian radiotherapy departments (RTDs). This was evaluated through a weekly national survey sent to departments measuring key factors that were affected by the pandemic. Read More

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Human Body Parts Proximity Measurement Using Distributed Tactile Robotic Skin.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 18;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechatronics, Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, A. Boboli 8 St., 02-525 Warsaw, Poland.

Safety in human-machine cooperation is the current challenge in robotics. Safe human-robot interaction requires the development of sensors that detect human presence in the robot's workspace. Detection of this presence should occur before the physical collision of the robot with the human. Read More

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Measuring the Response Performance of U.S. States against COVID-19 Using an Integrated DEA, CART, and Logistic Regression Approach.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Mar 3;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Maritime Police and Production System, College of Marine Science, Gyeongsang National University, 2-6 Tongyeonghaean-ro, Tongyeong-si 53064, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.

Measuring the U.S.'s COVID-19 response performance is an extremely important challenge for health care policymakers. Read More

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Measurement of Electric Double Layer Capacitance Using Dielectrophoresis-Based Particle Manipulation.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 2;93(14):5882-5889. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

An electric double layer (EDL) generally exists at the interface between a conductive electrode and its adjacent liquid electrolyte. Accurate measurement of the capacitance of EDL is requisite but a great challenge due to the complexity of its variation mechanism correlated with the magnitude and frequency of applied signals and the difficulty in measuring the inner layer potentials across the EDL. Herein, a novel dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based approach is proposed to measure the capacitance of an EDL at a microelectrode/electrolyte interface. Read More

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Levothyroxine Therapy in Elderly Patients With Hypothyroidism.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 12;12:641560. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Medical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Levothyroxine (L-T4) treatment of overt hypothyroidism can be more challenging in elderly compared to young patients. The elderly population is growing, and increasing incidence and prevalence of hypothyroidism with age are observed globally. Elderly people have more comorbidities compared to young patients, complicating correct diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism. Read More

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Primary Aldosteronism with Parathyroid Hormone Elevation: A Single-center Retrospective Study.

Intern Med 2021 1;60(7):993-998. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

Objective Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a major cause of secondary hypertension. The association between PA and other hormone disorders is unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the parathyroid hormone (PTH) value is associated with PA subtypes or specific treatments. Read More

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Collecting New Peak and Intermediate Infliximab Levels to Predict Remission in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hôpital Erasme, ULB, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: The loss of response to infliximab is a challenge for clinicians in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Mounting evidence suggests that therapeutic drug monitoring at induction may predict remission during maintenance. The aim of the study was to improve predictive models of remission by exploring new peak and intermediate infliximab measurements during induction. Read More

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Winning the Battle after Three Years of Suffering: A Case of a Refractory Pyoderma Gangrenosum Treatment Challenge.

Case Rep Rheumatol 2021 13;2021:8869914. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Reid Healthcare System, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Pyoderma gangrenosum is an uncommon inflammatory disorder characterized by neutrophilic infiltration of the skin. It can present as skin papules or pustules that progress into painful ulcers. 30-40% of the cases are associated with other systemic diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and proliferative hematological disorders. Read More

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Effect of levodopa/carbidopa on stress response in zebrafish.

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Programa de Pós-Graduação Em Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Av. Roraima, 1000, Cidade Universitária, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900, Brasil.

The dopaminergic system of zebrafish is complex and the numerous pathways and receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) are being extensively studied. A critical factor for the synthesis, activation and release of catecholamines (CAs) is the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase, an enzyme which converts L-tyrosine into levodopa. Levodopa thus is the intermediary in the synthesis of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and promotes its release; therefore, CAs play an important role in the CNS with hormonal functions. Read More

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Verifying the value of existing frameworks for formulary review at a large academic health system: assessing inter-rater reliability.

J Manag Care Spec Pharm 2021 Apr;27(4):488-496

RxRevu, Denver, CO.

The value assessment framework (VAF) is one approach to assessing the evidence and value of medications. VAFs are a way to measure and communicate the value of medications and other health care technologies for decision-making purposes. Given the increasing number of high-cost medications, challenging formulary inquiries, and critiques of currently available tools, health systems need to explore a standardized way to incorporate value assessment into formulary decision making. Read More

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Measuring inequality in community resilience to natural disasters using large-scale mobility data.

Nat Commun 2021 03 25;12(1):1870. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Marron Institute of Urban Management, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

While conceptual definitions provide a foundation for the study of disasters and their impacts, the challenge for researchers and practitioners alike has been to develop objective and rigorous measures of resilience that are generalizable and scalable, taking into account spatiotemporal dynamics in the response and recovery of localized communities. In this paper, we analyze mobility patterns of more than 800,000 anonymized mobile devices in Houston, Texas, representing approximately 35% of the local population, in response to Hurricane Harvey in 2017. Using changes in mobility behavior before, during, and after the disaster, we empirically define community resilience capacity as a function of the magnitude of impact and time-to-recovery. Read More

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Factors that increase risk for poor adherence to phenylketonuria treatment in Brazilian patients.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Genetics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Neurotoxic effects caused by high phenylalanine (Phe) in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) can be avoided through dietary treatment. However, achieving the recommended Phe levels has been a challenge. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with adherence to PKU treatment among patients followed at a medical genetics public service in southern Brazil. Read More

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Synergistic Additive-Assisted Growth of 2D Ternary In SnS with Giant Gate-Tunable Polarization-Sensitive Photoresponse.

Small 2021 Mar 24:e2008078. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, 430074, P. R. China.

2D ternary materials exhibit great promise in the field of polarization-sensitive photodetectors due to the low-symmetry crystal structure. However, the realization of ternary material growth is still a huge challenge because of the complex reaction process. Here, for the first time, 2D ternary In SnS flakes are obtained via synergistic additive of salt and molecular sieve-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Read More

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