7,876 results match your criteria cessation efficacy

Percutaneous cryoablation of chondroblastoma and osteoblastoma in pediatric patients.

Insights Imaging 2021 Jul 27;12(1):106. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: To review the safety and efficacy of percutaneous cryoablation for the treatment of chondroblastoma and osteoblastoma in the pediatric and adolescent population.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review from 2016 to 2020 was performed to evaluate clinical and imaging response to percutaneous cryoablation in 11 symptomatic patients with diagnosis of chondroblastoma and osteoblastoma treated from two pediatric hospitals with at least 12-month follow-up. Technical success (correct needle placement and potential full coverage of the tumor with the planned ablation zone) and clinical success (relief of the symptoms) were evaluated. Read More

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Relationships among Self-Efficacy, Quality of Life, Perceived Vulnerability, and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV.

J Smok Cessat 2021 11;2021:6697404. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of Texas at Austin, 110 Inner Campus Drive, Austin, TX 78705, USA.

Smoking-related diseases (e.g., lung cancer) are the leading cause of mortality in HIV-infected patients. Read More

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Impact of tobacco cessation education on behaviors of nursing undergraduates in helping smokers to quit smoking.

Tob Induc Dis 2021 14;19:58. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

College of Nursing, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Introduction: Smoking continues to be a significant public health issue, but nursing students do not receive sufficient training on tobacco cessation education. Integrating the 5As behaviors for tobacco cessation into a compulsory course could improve nursing students' skills and increase their clinical behaviors for assisting patients in quitting smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of evidence-based tobacco cessation education on the perceptions and behaviors of nursing students who are assisting patients to quit smoking. Read More

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The Role of PINP in Diagnosis and Management of Metabolic Bone Disease.

Clin Biochem Rev 2021 Feb;42(1):3-10

Medical School, University Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009.

Serum procollagen type I N-propeptide (PINP) is designated the reference marker of bone formation in osteoporosis; the reference marker for resorption is C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). PINP has very low circadian and biological variation, is not affected by food intake, and is very stable in serum after venepuncture. The two automated commercial assays for PINP provide similar results in subjects with normal renal function, allowing reference intervals to be used interchangeably. Read More

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February 2021

Distinct influences of nicotine and sensorimotor stimuli on reducing cravings to smoke and vape among dual users.

Addict Behav 2021 Jul 15;122:107051. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Health Outcomes and Behavior, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA; Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; Department of Oncologic Sciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Introduction: When considering the clinical efficacy of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, non-pharmacologic influences, such as conditioned reinforcers (e.g. sensorimotor stimuli), must be considered in addition to nicotine. Read More

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Identifying Behavior Change Techniques Used in Tobacco Cessation Interventions by Oral Health Professionals and Their Relation to Intervention Effects-A Review of the Scientific Literature.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 13;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia.

This review aimed to identify the behavioral change techniques (BCTs) used in behavioral interventions for tobacco cessation at dental practices in relation to their effect on tobacco use. Six scientific databases were searched for behavior change interventions for tobacco cessation and were coded using the BCT taxonomy of behavioral support for smoking cessation (BCTTsm). Fifteen interventions were identified, and data related to intervention characteristics were abstracted. Read More

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Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of zonisamide in children with epileptic spasms: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Seizure 2021 Jul 18;91:374-383. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India-160012.

Background: Valproate, levetiracetam, benzodiazepines, and topiramate are antiseizure medications (ASMs) considered to have definite efficacy in reducing the frequency of epileptic spasm frequency, apart from ketogenic dietary therapies. Although zonisamide has also been shown to have efficacy as second-line ASM for epileptic spasms, various studies have conflicting results in literature. This systematic review aims to summarize clinical studies regarding the efficacy of zonisamide for epileptic spasms. Read More

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The knowns & unknowns of pulmonary toxicity following immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies: a narrative review.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2021 Jun;10(6):2752-2765

Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria, Australia.

Since their discovery immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have dramatically changed the treatment landscape for many cancers. In addition to their efficacy they are generally well tolerated, however, they have led to a new range of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) including pneumonitis. While not the most frequently reported immune-related adverse event in the clinical trial setting, recent real-world data suggests a significantly higher rate of pneumonitis leading to treatment suspension or cessation. Read More

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Interventions for the treatment of persistent post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 07 22;7:CD013876. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Cochrane UK, Oxford, UK.

Background: Olfactory dysfunction is an early and sensitive marker of COVID-19 infection. Although self-limiting in the majority of cases, when hyposmia or anosmia persists it can have a profound effect on quality of life. Little guidance exists on the treatment of post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction, however several strategies have been proposed from the evidence relating to the treatment of post-viral anosmia (such as medication or olfactory training). Read More

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Efficacy and safety of levetiracetam versus (fos)phenytoin for second-line treatment of epilepticus: a meta-analysis of latest randomized controlled trials.

Seizure 2021 Jul 13;91:339-345. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To assess the efficiency and safety profiles of levetiracetam and (fos)phenytoin (phenytoin or fosphenytoin) for second-line treatment of seizures by performing a meta-analysis of RCTs.

Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, FDA.gov, and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Effects of testosterone undecanoate on performance during multi-stressor military operations: A trial protocol for the Optimizing Performance for Soldiers II study.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2021 Sep 3;23:100819. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Military Nutrition Division, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA, USA.

Background: Previously, young males administered 200 mg/week of testosterone enanthate during 28 days of energy deficit (EDef) gained lean mass and lost less total mass than controls (Optimizing Performance for Soldiers I study, OPS I). Despite that benefit, physical performance deteriorated similarly in both groups. However, some experimental limitations may have precluded detection of performance benefits, as performance measures employed lacked military relevance, and the EDef employed did not elicit the magnitude of stress typically experienced by Soldiers conducting operations. Read More

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September 2021

Hormone therapy regimens for managing the menopause and premature ovarian insufficiency.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jun 30:101561. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Menopause Unit, 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aretaieio Hospital, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

The transition to menopause is associated with a changing hormonal milieu, leading to bothersome menopausal symptoms in the short-term and chronic health problems in the long-term. Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is characterized by the cessation of menses before the age of 40 years. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is indicated to restore sex hormones to normal premenopausal levels and prevent chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Read More

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Precision Mental Health Care for Cannabis Use Disorder: Utility of a bioSocial Cognitive Theory to Inform Treatment.

Front Psychiatry 2021 28;12:643107. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

National Centre for Youth Substance Use Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Globally, cannabis is the most frequently used controlled substance after alcohol and tobacco. Rates of cannabis use are steadily increasing in many countries and there is emerging evidence that there is likely to be greater risk due to increased concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabis use and Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) has been linked to a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Read More

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Patients and general practitioners assessment of the main outcomes employed in the acute and preventive treatment of migraine: a cross sectional study.

BMC Neurol 2021 Jul 15;21(1):279. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Headache Unit, Neurology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Avenida Ramón y Cajal 3, 47005, Valladolid, Spain.

Background: We aim to describe and compare patients and general practitioners' opinions about the different variables related to acute and preventive treatment for migraine.

Patients And Methods: An observational descriptive study was performed. Patients with episodic migraine and general practitioners, from our healthcare area, were invited to answer a survey about the different variables related to migraine treatment. Read More

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Exploring barriers of quitting smokeless tobacco among coronary artery disease patients of India: A qualitative study.

Chronic Illn 2021 Jul 14:17423953211032262. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Humanities and Social Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India.

Background: Cessation of all forms of tobacco is necessary for controlling mortality associated with coronary artery diseases (CADs). In India, smokeless tobacco (SLT) is the most used form of tobacco. With around 60% of the world's smokeless tobacco users living in India, the task of tobacco cessation has become daunting and complicated for Indian researchers and policy makers. Read More

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Levo-tetrahydropalmatine inhibits α4β2 nicotinic receptor response to nicotine in cultured SH-EP1 cells.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Neurobiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, 85013, USA.

Nicotine, a major component of tobacco, is highly addictive and acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to stimulate reward-associated circuits in the brain. It is well known that nAChRs play critical roles in mediating nicotine reward and addiction. Current FDA-approved medications for smoking cessation are the antidepressant bupropion and the nicotinic partial agonist varenicline, yet both are limited by adverse side effects and moderate efficacy. Read More

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The feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a remotely delivered, financial-incentive intervention to initiate vaping abstinence in young adults.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology, Health and Behavioral Integrated Treatments (HABIT) Research Unit, Rowan University.

Electronic cigarette use (i.e., vaping) has become increasingly popular, especially among youth. Read More

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Exploring attitudes towards smoking behaviour and cessation among hospitalised smokers via a socio-ecological framework: A scoping review.

Addict Behav 2021 Jul 2;122:107040. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Southern Cross University, Bilinga, QLD, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable mortality and disability. Smoke-free policies in healthcare settings have been implemented as a public health measure. This scoping review aims to explore attitudes on smokers' cessation in smoke-free healthcare settings using a socio-ecological framework. Read More

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Femoral Nerve Blockade Does Not Lead to Subjective Functional Deficits After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

Mil Med 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Management, Department of Anesthesiology, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.

Introduction: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) ranks among the most common surgeries performed in civilian as well as military orthopedic settings. Regional anesthesia, and the femoral nerve block (FNB) in particular, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing postoperative pain and opioid use after ACLR, however concerns linger about possible impaired functional outcomes. The purpose of the current investigation was to assess International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF) scores at 6 to 12 months after ACLR in patients who did (FNB) and did not (NoFNB) receive a perioperative FNB. Read More

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A guideline for the outpatient management of glycaemic control in people with cancer.

Diabet Med 2021 Jul 9:e14636. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Individuals with cancer are at increased risk of developing new-onset diabetes mellitus and hyperglycaemia, and an estimated 20% of people with cancer already have an underlying diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. People with both cancer and diabetes may have an increased risk of toxicities, hospital admissions and morbidity, with hyperglycaemia potentially attenuating the efficacy of chemotherapy often secondary to dose reductions and early cessation. Numerous studies have demonstrated that hyperglycaemia is prognostic of worse overall survival and risk of cancer recurrence. Read More

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Active Ingredients and Mechanisms of Change in Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Mixed Methods Study.

Front Psychol 2021 22;12:599203. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Inholland University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

For patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), smoking is an important risk factor for the recurrence of a cardiovascular event. Motivational interviewing (MI) may increase the motivation of the smokers to stop smoking. Data on MI for smoking cessation in patients with CAD are limited, and the active ingredients and working mechanisms of MI in smoking cessation are largely unknown. Read More

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Exercise as a smoking cessation treatment for women: a randomized controlled trial.

J Behav Med 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Box G-S121, Providence, RI, 02912, USA.

Cigarette smoking remains the leading behavioral risk factor for chronic disease and premature mortality. This RCT tested the efficacy of moderate intensity aerobic exercise as an adjunctive smoking cessation treatment among women. Participants (N = 105; age = 42. Read More

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The effects of pharmacological interventions on smoking cessation in people with alcohol dependence: A systematic review and meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jul 6:e14594. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Health Technology Assessment Center/Evidence-based Social Science Research Center, School of Public Health, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Background: Pharmacotherapies are widely used for smoking cessation. However, their efficacy for people with alcohol dependence remains unclear.

Objective: This study aimed to explore the effects of pharmacotherapies on smoking cessation for people with alcohol dependence. Read More

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Mobile health in preventive cardiology: current status and future perspective.

Curr Opin Cardiol 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Digital Health Innovation Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Johns Hopkins Center for Mobile Technologies to Achieve Equity in Cardiovascular Health (mTECH) Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Despite cutting edge acute interventions and growing preventive strategies supported by robust clinical trials, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has stubbornly persisted as a leading cause of death in the United States and globally. The American Heart Association recognizes mobile health technologies (mHealth) as an emerging strategy in the mitigation of CVD risk factors, with significant potential for improving population health. The purpose of this review is to highlight and summarize the latest available literature on mHealth applications and provide perspective on future directions and barriers to implementation. Read More

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Reach versus effectiveness: The design and protocol of randomized clinical trial testing a smartphone application versus in-person mindfulness-based smoking cessation intervention among young cancer survivors.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2021 Jun 19;22:100784. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1120 NW 14th St, 9th Floor, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

Approximately 45% of young cancer survivors (18-40 years) are cigarette smokers. Continued smoking after cancer diagnosis leads to lower survival rates. A major logistical problem with smoking cessation efforts in this group is their geographic dispersion which makes them hard to reach. Read More

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Efficacy of Laser Auricular Acupuncture for Smoking Cessation: A randomised controlled trial.

Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2021 May 21;21(2):e275-e281. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Dayanand Sagar College of Dental Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Objectives: The aim of the current study was to compare urinary cotinine levels, nicotine dependence and physical effects related to smoking in smokers before and after laser auricular acupuncture, psychological counselling and a combination of laser treatment with counselling.

Methods: This study was carried out from February to July 2019 in India. A total of 60 smokers were randomly allocated to three interventional groups. Read More

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Comparison between Acupuncture and Nicotine Replacement Therapies for Smoking Cessation Based on Randomized Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 16;2021:9997516. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

School of Public Health, Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, Gansu University of Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and/or safety of acupuncture therapy (AT) in quitting smoking.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, and Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM). We used Cochrane Collaborative Quality Assessment to assess the risk of bias. Read More

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Ketogenic diet for mitochondrial disease: a systematic review on efficacy and safety.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Jul 3;16(1):295. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Radboud Center for Mitochondrial Medicine (RCMM), Amalia Children's Hospital, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: No curative therapy for mitochondrial disease (MD) exists, prioritizing supportive treatment for symptom relief. In animal and cell models ketones decrease oxidative stress, increase antioxidants and scavenge free radicals, putting ketogenic diets (KDs) on the list of management options for MD. Furthermore, KDs are well-known, safe and effective treatments for epilepsy, a frequent symptom of MD. Read More

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The effect of varenicline on smoking and drinking outcomes among Black and White adults with alcohol use disorder and co-occurring cigarette smoking: A secondary analysis of two clinical trials.

Addict Behav 2021 May 1;122:106970. Epub 2021 May 1.

Yale School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT 06511, United States; Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT 06511, United States.

Introduction: Varenicline is an FDA-approved medication for smoking cessation and has demonstrated promise in reducing alcohol use. This study sought to compare the efficacy of varenicline in reducing smoking and drinking among Black and White people seeking alcohol treatment.

Methods: Linear mixed modeling was conducted using data from two multi-site placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials examining the effects of varenicline for treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD; O'Malley et al. Read More

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