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Shattered thyroid gland from blunt neck trauma in a child: A case report.

Nelson H Bansil

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Jun 8;49:163-165. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital of Orange County, Orange, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Thyroid gland rupture in a child secondary to blunt trauma is an extremely rare occurrence. The number of published cases of thyroid gland injuries in children is very limited in the research literature. A case report of shattered thyroid gland in a child is presented. Read More

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Prognostic value of tumor mutational burden in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma treated with upfront surgery.

ESMO Open 2021 Jun 9;6(4):100178. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Drug Development and Innovation (D3i), Institut Curie, Paris and Saint-Cloud, France. Electronic address:

Background: Oral cavity is the most prevalent site of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Most often diagnosed at a locally advanced stage, treatment is multimodal with surgery as the cornerstone. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular landscape of a homogenous cohort of oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OCSCCs), and to assess the prognostic value of tumor mutational burden (TMB), along with classical molecular and clinical parameters. Read More

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High throughput proteomic and metabolic profiling identified target correction of metabolic abnormalities as a novel therapeutic approach in head and neck paraganglioma.

Transl Oncol 2021 Jun 9;14(8):101146. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, The Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, No. 639, Zhi-Zao-Ju Road, Shanghai 200011, China; Ear Institute, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine on Ear and Nose Diseases, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) are rare neoplasms that represent difficult treatment paradigms in neurotology. Germline mutations in genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) are the cause of nearly all familial HNPGLs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis remain unclear. Read More

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Hirschsprung disease with Edward syndrome: A rare association: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Jun 9;84:106084. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of GI and General Surgery, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal. Electronic address:

Introduction And Importance: Edward's syndrome (ES) occurs as a result of trisomy of chromosome 18 and is associated with multisystem congenital anomalies. The association of ES with various gastrointestinal malformations but Hirschsprung disease (HD) is well documented.

Case Presentation: A female infant on her 5th day of life presented with episodes of bilious vomiting along with abdominal distension and no passage of stool. Read More

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A homozygous nonsense mutation early in exon 5 of BRCA2 is associated with very severe Fanconi anemia.

Eur J Med Genet 2021 Jun 9:104260. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pediatrics III, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45122 Essen, Germany; Department of Otorhinolaryngology & Head/Neck Surgery, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Heinrich Heine University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany. Electronic address:

Fanconi anemia (FA) due to biallelic mutations in the BRCA2 gene is very rare and associated with an extremely high risk of early-onset of aggressive childhood malignancies, predominantly brain tumors, leukemia, and nephroblastoma. Here, we present a consanguineous family with three affected children of the D1 subtype of FA and describe the clinical consequences of the earliest known biallelic nonsense/stop-gain germ-line mutation in BRCA2, exon 5 c.469A>T, that leads to a premature stop of translation, p. Read More

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Life History Recorded in the Vagino-cervical Microbiome Along with Multi-omics.

Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China.

The vagina contains at least a billion microbial cells, dominated by lactobacilli. Here we perform metagenomic shotgun sequencing on cervical and fecal samples from a cohort of 516 Chinese women of reproductive age, and cervical, fecal, and salivary samples from a second cohort of 632 women. Factors such as pregnancy, delivery histories, cesarean section, and breast-feeding were all more important than menstrual cycle in shaping the microbiome, and such information would be necessary before trying to interpret differences between vagino-cervical microbiome data. Read More

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How does cervical spinal cord injury impact the cardiopulmonary response to exercise?

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2021 Jun 9:103714. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1M9, Canada; Canadian Sport Institute - Pacific, Victoria, BC, V9E 2C5, Canada; Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC, V1Y 1T3, Canada. Electronic address:

We compared cardiopulmonary responses to arm-ergometry, in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury (C-SCI) and able-bodied controls. We hypothesized that individuals with C-SCI would have higher respiratory frequency (f) but lower tidal volume (VT) at a given work rate and dynamically hyperinflate during exercise, whereas able-bodied individuals would not. Participants completed pulmonary function testing, an arm-ergometry test to exhaustion, and a sub-maximal exercise test consisting of four-minute stages at 20, 40, 60, and 80% peak work rate. Read More

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Changes in Scapular Bone Density Vary by Region and are Associated with Age and Sex.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle WA, USA.

Background: Decreases in bone density of the scapula due to age and disease can make orthopedic procedures such as arthroplasty and fracture fixation challenging. There is limited information in the literature regarding the effect of age and sex on the patterns of these density changes across the bone. Characterizing these changes could assist the surgeon in planning optimal instrumentation placement. Read More

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Kinematics after cervical laminoplasty: risk factors for cervical kyphotic deformity after laminoplasty.

Spine J 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background Context: Laminoplasty of the cervical spine is widely used as an effective surgical method to treat compressive myelopathy of the cervical spine; however, there is an adverse effect of kyphosis after surgery. The risk factors or predictors of kyphosis have not been sufficiently evaluated.

Purpose: To assess the risk factors for kyphosis following laminoplasty. Read More

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Circulating microRNA profile in humans and mice with congenital GH deficiency.

Aging Cell 2021 Jun 12:e13420. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.

Reduced inflammation, increased insulin sensitivity, and protection against cancer are shared between humans and mice with GH/IGF1 deficiency. Beyond hormone levels, miRNAs are important regulators of metabolic changes associated with healthy aging. We hypothesized that GH deficiency in humans alters the abundance of circulating miRNAs and that a subset of those miRNAs may overlap with those found in GH-deficient mice. Read More

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Baicalein modulates the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells in vitro via miR-183 and the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, China.

Background: Increasing radiosensitivity of cancer cells can enhance the efficacy of cervical cancer treatment.

Objectives: This study evaluated the potential roles and mechanism of baicalein in regulating the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells in vitro.

Material And Methods: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to assess miR-183 expression in End1/E6E7 cells, Hela cells and Hela cells irradiated with X-ray (0 Gy, 1 Gy, 3 Gy, 5 Gy, and 10 Gy). Read More

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Phase 1 pharmacokinetics and safety study of extended duration dapivirine vaginal rings in the United States.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Jun;24(6):e25747

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Introduction: Vaginal rings are a promising approach to provide a woman-centred, long-acting HIV prevention strategy. Prior trials of a 25 mg dapivirine (DPV) ring have shown a favourable safety profile and approximately 30% risk reduction of HIV-1 infection. Extended duration rings replaced every three months may encourage user adherence, improve health service efficiency and reduce cost overall. Read More

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Using Item Response Theory to Identify Responders to Treatment: Examples with the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Physical Function Scale and Emotional Distress Composite.

Psychometrika 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of psychology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1563, USA.

The reliable change index has been used to evaluate the significance of individual change in health-related quality of life. We estimate reliable change for two measures (physical function and emotional distress) in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) 29-item health-related quality of life measure (PROMIS-29 v2.1). Read More

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Human papillomavirus in Italy: retrospective cohort analysis and preliminary vaccination effect from real-world data.

Eur J Health Econ 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute for Leadership and Management in Health, Kingston University London, London, UK.

Introduction: The objective of this study was to estimate the lifetime risk of hospitalization associated with all major human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Italy. Moreover, a preliminary vaccination effect was also performed.

Methods: A retrospective, nonrandomized, observational study was developed based on patients hospitalized between 2006 and 2018 in Italy. Read More

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Review of personal radiation exposure dose and history of the interventional procedure records for 40 years.

Jpn J Radiol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of the Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nasu Red Cross Hospital, 1081-4, Nakadawara, Ohtawara, Tochigi, 324-8686, Japan.

Objective: To inspect personal dose as an interventional radiologist for 40 years, to assess the enforcement number of interventional radiology (IR), and to check for radiation cataract.

Materials And Methods: I evaluated my own effective dose, an equivalent dose to the lens of the eye (EDL), and the number of IR procedures between March 2019 and June 1979. I examined the lens in June 2019 as a radiologist for 40 years. Read More

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Treatment of juvenile recurrent parotitis with irrigation therapy without anesthesia.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Philipps-University, Marburg, 35043, Baldingerstraße, Germany.

Purpose: No standardized treatment regimen exists for juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP). The investigators hypothesized that irrigation with saline only without local anesthesia will be an effective and beneficial option.

Methods: Using a retrospective study design, a series of children with typical symptoms of JRP who were treated with at least one irrigation therapy were evaluated. Read More

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Constitutive Hedgehog/GLI2 signaling drives extracutaneous basaloid squamous cell carcinoma development and bone remodeling.

Carcinogenesis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Uncontrolled activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, operating through GLI transcription factors, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and contributes to the development of several malignancies arising in extracutaneous sites. We now report that K5-tTA;tetO-Gli2 bitransgenic mice develop distinctive epithelial tumors within their jaws. These tumors consist of large masses of highly proliferative, monomorphous, basaloid cells with scattered foci of keratinization and central necrosis, mimicking human basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC), an aggressive upper aerodigestive tract tumor. Read More

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Impact of Adjuvant Medical Therapies on Surgical Outcomes in Idiopathic Subglottic Stenosis.

Laryngoscope 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: Adjuvant medications including proton pump inhibitors (PPI), antibiotics (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole [TMP-SMX]), and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) may be prescribed for patients with idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS). We describe medication use with endoscopic dilation (ED) or endoscopic resection with medical treatment (ERMT) and evaluate impact on outcomes.

Study Design: International, prospective, 3-year multicenter cohort study of 810 patients with untreated, newly diagnosed, or previously treated iSGS. Read More

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Immune correlates of therapy outcomes in women with cervical cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy: A systematic review.

Cancer Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Departments of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Immune markers have been correlated with prognosis in a variety of solid tumors, including cervical cancer.

Objective: To review the literature on hematologic and immune markers and their association with recurrence and survival among patients with cervical cancer treated with chemoradiation.

Evidence Review: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines via searches of Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, and the Cochrane Library using keywords regarding cervical cancer, immune markers, and HIV. Read More

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Sinonasal adenocarcinoma: A population-based analysis of demographic and socioeconomic disparities.

Head Neck 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Sinonasal adenocarcinoma (SNAC) is a rare tumor. The impact of health disparities on survival, stage at presentation, and utilization of surgery is not well understood in patients with SNAC.

Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for cases of SNAC from 1973 to 2015. Read More

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Bleeding complications in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

Head Neck 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Head and Neck Medical Oncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Hemorrhage in recurrent and/or metastatic (R/M) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) may be attributed to chemotherapy and local tumor irradiation. Evidence of the relationship between hemorrhage in R/M HNSCC and targeted therapies, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, or immune checkpoint inhibitors, is limited. We aimed to identify epidemiological and clinical data related to the occurrence of hemorrhage in R/M HNSCC and to explore its relationship with various therapies. Read More

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Pignat's vertical partial laryngectomy with crico-hyoido-epiglotto-plasty.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Otorhinolaryngology Division, Leon Berard Cancer Center, Lyon, France.

Purpose: Pignat's partial laryngectomy with crico-hyoido-epiglotto-plasty (CHEPL) is a vertical laryngectomy with resection of the anterior portion of the thyroid cartilage and reconstruction with a wires net and the subhyoid muscles. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate and analyze oncologic and functional outcomes in patients affected by laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and treated with Pignat's partial laryngectomy.

Methods: Seventy patients with cT1-cT3 glottic cancer were surgically treated with Pignat's technique. Read More

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Swallowing Exercise During Head and Neck Cancer Treatment: Results of a Randomized Trial.

Dysphagia 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cancer Late Effects Research Unit (CASTLE), Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The diagnosis and treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC) can have substantial impact on swallowing function, nutritional balance, physical function and quality of life (QoL). Early initiated swallowing exercises are hypothesized to improve swallowing function in HNC patients. The aim was to investigate the effects of swallowing exercises and progressive resistance training (PRT) during radiotherapy on swallowing function, physical function and QoL in patients with pharynx-, larynx-, oral cavity cancer or unknown primary compared to usual care. Read More

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Correction to: Doppler Ultrasonographic Anatomy of the Midline Nasal Dorsum.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Banpo-daero 222, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06591, Korea.

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Clinicopathological Significance of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Located in the Isthmus: A Meta-Analysis.

World J Surg 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chosun University Hospital, Chosun University School of Medicine, 588 Seoseok-Dong, Dong-Gu, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Background: The thyroid isthmus is located directly anterior to the trachea and is covered by the strap muscles. Several studies have suggested that papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in the isthmus is more aggressive and is associated with a poor prognosis. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the clinicopathological characteristics and recurrence rates of PTC in the isthmus compared to PTC at other sites. Read More

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Traumatic cervical spine fracture patterns on CT: a retrospective analysis at a level 1 trauma center.

Emerg Radiol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of our study was to determine common acute traumatic cervical spine fracture patterns on CT cervical spine (CTCS).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 1091 CTCS positive for traumatic fractures performed over a 10-year period at a level 1 trauma center. Fractures were classified by vertebral level, laterality, and anatomic location (anterior/posterior arch, body, odontoid, pedicle, facet, lateral mass, lamina, spinous process, transverse foramina, and transverse processes). Read More

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Mandatory HPV Vaccination; Opportunity to Save Lives, Improve Readiness and Cut Costs.

Mil Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brooke Army Medical Center, Joint Base San Antonio, TX 78234, USA.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the U.S. military and accounts for more healthcare visits than the next two most common STIs combined. Read More

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Raman spectral cytopathology for cancer diagnostic applications.

Nat Protoc 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Centre for Radiation and Environmental Science, FOCAS Research Institute, Technological University Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Raman spectroscopy can provide a rapid, label-free, nondestructive measurement of the chemical fingerprint of a sample and has shown potential for cancer screening and diagnosis. Here we report a protocol for Raman microspectroscopic analysis of different exfoliative cytology samples (cervical, oral and lung), covering sample preparation, spectral acquisition, preprocessing and data analysis. The protocol takes 2 h 20 min for sample preparation, measurement and data preprocessing and up to 8 h for a complete analysis. Read More

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Design of a multi-epitope vaccine against cervical cancer using immunoinformatics approaches.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12397. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

Cervical cancer, caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), is the fourth most common type of cancer among women worldwide. While HPV prophylactic vaccines are available, they have no therapeutic effects and do not clear up existing infections. This study aims to design a therapeutic vaccine against cervical cancer using reverse vaccinology. Read More

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