8,552 results match your criteria centrosome


The phytochemical, corynoline, diminishes Aurora kinase B activity to induce mitotic defect and polyploidy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 Jan 17;147:112645. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Chengdu Anticancer Bioscience, Ltd., and J. Michael Bishop Institute of Cancer Research (MBICR), Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Plants are a rich source for bioactive compounds. However, plant extracts can harbor a mixture of bioactive molecules that promote divergent phenotypes and potentially have confounding effects in bioassays. Even with further purification and identification, target deconvolution can be challenging. Read More

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January 2022

KIFC1 regulates the trajectory of neuronal migration.

J Neurosci 2022 Jan 18. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, PA 19129. USA.

During neuronal migration, forces generated by cytoplasmic dynein yank on microtubules extending from the centrosome into the leading process and move the nucleus along microtubules that extend behind the centrosome. Scaffolds such as radial glia guide neuronal migration outward from the ventricles, but little is known about the internal machinery that ensures that the soma migrates along its proper path rather than moving backward or off the path. Here we report that depletion of KIFC1, a minus-end-directed kinesin called HSET in humans, causes neurons to migrate off their appropriate path, suggesting that this molecular motor is what ensures fidelity of the trajectory of migration. Read More

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January 2022

Daughter centrioles assemble preferentially towards the nuclear envelope in syncytial embryos.

Open Biol 2022 Jan 19;12(1):210343. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK.

Centrosomes are important organizers of microtubules within animal cells. They comprise a pair of centrioles surrounded by the pericentriolar material, which nucleates and organizes the microtubules. To maintain centrosome numbers, centrioles must duplicate once and only once per cell cycle. Read More

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January 2022

Identification of polypharmacological anticancerous molecules against Aurora kinase family of proteins.

J Cell Biochem 2022 Jan 17. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

The Human Aurora Kinase (AURK) protein family is the key player of cell cycle events including spindle assembly, kinetochore formation, chromosomal segregation, centrosome separation, microtubule dynamics, and cytokinesis. Their aberrant expression has been extensively linked with chromosomal instability in addition to derangement of multiple tumor suppressors and oncoprotein regulated pathways. Therefore, the AURK family of kinases is a promising target for the treatment of various types of cancer. Read More

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January 2022

Novel phenotype and genotype spectrum of WDR62 in two patients with associated primary autosomal recessive microcephaly.

Ir J Med Sci 2022 Jan 15. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Pediatric Neurology Division, Children's Medical Center, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Myelin Disorders Clinic, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Microcephaly is a prominent feature of patients with primary autosomal recessive microcephaly 2 (MCPH2) caused by mutations in the WD Repeat Domain 62 (WDR62; OMIM: 613,583).

Aim: The study aimed to identify the underlying genetic factor(s) causing microcephaly in two patients in a consanguineous Iranian family.

Methods: Two male patients (11 and 27 years old) were noticed due to microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, and occasional seizures. Read More

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January 2022

The Spo13/Meikin pathway confines the onset of gamete differentiation to meiosis II in yeast.

EMBO J 2022 Jan 13:e109446. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Laboratory of Chromosome Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany.

Sexual reproduction requires genome haploidization by the two divisions of meiosis and a differentiation program to generate gametes. Here, we have investigated how sporulation, the yeast equivalent of gamete differentiation, is coordinated with progression through meiosis. Spore differentiation is initiated at metaphase II when a membrane-nucleating structure, called the meiotic plaque, is assembled at the centrosome. Read More

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January 2022

Molecular and cellular dynamics of early embryonic cell divisions in Volvox carteri.

Plant Cell 2022 Jan 9. Epub 2022 Jan 9.

Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology of Plants, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany.

Cell division is fundamental to all organisms, and the green alga used here exhibits both key animal and plant functions. Specifically, we analyzed the molecular and cellular dynamics of early embryonic divisions of the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri (Chlamydomonadales). Relevant proteins related to mitosis and cytokinesis were identified in silico, the corresponding genes were cloned, fused to yfp, and stably expressed in Volvox, and the tagged proteins were studied by live-cell imaging. Read More

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January 2022

CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system confirms centriolin's role in cytokinesis.

BMC Res Notes 2022 Jan 10;15(1). Epub 2022 Jan 10.

DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine, Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, TN, 37752, USA.

Objective: In addition to its function as the microtubule organizing center of the cell, the centrosome has functions in many other cellular processes including primary cilia formation, DNA damage checkpoints, and cell cycle progression. But the role of individual components of the centrosome in these processes remains unclear. Previous studies used siRNA (small interfering RNA) to "knock down" protein levels of the centrosome component centriolin, resulting in failed cytokinesis. Read More

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January 2022

A Novel Hyperactive Nud1 Mitotic Exit Network Scaffold Causes Spindle Position Checkpoint Bypass in Budding Yeast.

Cells 2021 Dec 24;11(1). Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Department of Biology, Emmanuel College, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Mitotic exit is a critical cell cycle transition that requires the careful coordination of nuclear positioning and cyclin B destruction in budding yeast for the maintenance of genome integrity. The mitotic exit network (MEN) is a Ras-like signal transduction pathway that promotes this process during anaphase. A crucial step in MEN activation occurs when the Dbf2-Mob1 protein kinase complex associates with the Nud1 scaffold protein at the yeast spindle pole bodies (SPBs; centrosome equivalents) and thereby becomes activated. Read More

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December 2021

Branched Actin Maintains Acetylated Microtubule Network in the Early Secretory Pathway.

Cells 2021 Dec 22;11(1). Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Molecular Mechanisms of Intracellular Transport Laboratory, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), UMR 144, 75005 Paris, France.

In the early secretory pathway, the delivery of anterograde cargoes from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites (ERES) to the Golgi apparatus is a multi-step transport process occurring via the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (IC, also called ERGIC). While the role microtubules in ER-to-Golgi transport has been well established, how the actin cytoskeleton contributes to this process remains poorly understood. Here, we report that Arp2/3 inhibition affects the network of acetylated microtubules around the Golgi and induces the accumulation of unusually long RAB1/GM130-positive carriers around the centrosome. Read More

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December 2021

Mechanical Torque Promotes Bipolarity of the Mitotic Spindle Through Multi-centrosomal Clustering.

Bull Math Biol 2022 Jan 10;84(2):29. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Department of Mathematics and Biology, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, USA.

Intracellular forces shape cellular organization and function. One example is the mitotic spindle, a cellular machine consisting of multiple chromosomes and centrosomes which interact via dynamic microtubule filaments and motor proteins, resulting in complicated spatially dependent forces. For a cell to divide properly, it is important for the spindle to be bipolar, with chromosomes at the center and multiple centrosomes clustered into two 'poles' at opposite sides of the chromosomes. Read More

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January 2022

Aster repulsion drives short-ranged ordering in the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm.

Development 2022 Jan 10. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Oeiras, Portugal.

Biological systems are highly complex, yet notably ordered structures can emerge. During syncytial stage development of the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, nuclei synchronously divide for nine cycles within a single cell, after which most of the nuclei reach the cell cortex. The arrival of nuclei to the cortex occurs with remarkable positional order, which is important for subsequent cellularisation and morphological transformations. Read More

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January 2022

Nine-fold symmetry of centriole: The joint efforts of its core proteins.

Bioessays 2022 Jan 7:e2100262. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

The centriole is a widely conserved organelle required for the assembly of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella. Its striking feature - the nine-fold symmetrical structure, was discovered over 70 years ago by transmission electron microscopy, and since elaborated mostly by cryo-electron microscopy and super-resolution microscopy. Here, we review the discoveries that led to the current understanding of how the nine-fold symmetrical structure is built. Read More

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January 2022

The BRCA2 missense mutation K2497R suppressed self-degradation and increased ATP production and cell proliferation.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 Jan 23;590:27-33. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510, Japan; Department of Genetic Diagnosis, The Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo, 135-8550, Japan. Electronic address:

Breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2) mediates genome maintenance during the S phase of the cell cycle, with important roles in replication stress, centrosome replication, and cytokinesis. In this study, we showed that a small heat shock protein, HSP27, interacted with and participated in the degradation of BRCA2 in estrogen-treated MCF-7 cells. BRCA2 degradation reportedly requires ubiquitination of the C-terminal region; thus, fragments of amino acid (aa) residues 2241-2940 were produced and assayed for their degradation following cycloheximide (CHX) treatment. Read More

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January 2022

Loss of USP28 and SPINT2 expression promotes cancer cell survival after whole genome doubling.

Cell Oncol (Dordr) 2021 Dec 28. Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Molecular Genetics, TU Kaiserslautern, Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse 24, 67663, Kaiserslautern, Germany.

Background: Whole genome doubling is a frequent event during cancer evolution and shapes the cancer genome due to the occurrence of chromosomal instability. Yet, erroneously arising human tetraploid cells usually do not proliferate due to p53 activation that leads to CDKN1A expression, cell cycle arrest, senescence and/or apoptosis.

Methods: To uncover the barriers that block the proliferation of tetraploids, we performed a RNAi mediated genome-wide screen in a human colorectal cancer cell line (HCT116). Read More

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December 2021

New Heterocyclic Combretastatin A-4 Analogs: Synthesis and Biological Activity of Styryl-2(3)-benzothiazolones.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Dec 20;14(12). Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Roumen Tsanev Institute of Molecular Biology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria.

Here, we describe the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of a series of 26 new styryl-2(3H)-benzothiazolone analogs of combretastatin-A4 (CA-4). The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were tested in several cell lines (EA.hy926, A549, BEAS-2B, MDA-MB-231, HT-29, MCF-7, and MCF-10A), and the relations between structure and cytotoxicity are discussed. Read More

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December 2021

Zika Virus Overview: Transmission, Origin, Pathogenesis, Animal Model and Diagnosis.

Zoonoses (Burlingt) 2021 7;1(1). Epub 2021 Dec 7.

Department of Microbiology, Howard University College of Medicine, 520 W Street NW Washington, DC 20059, USA.

Zika virus (ZIKV) was first discovered in 1947 in Uganda. ZIKV did not entice much attention until Brazil hosted the 2016 Summer Olympics Game, where ZIKV attracted a global audience. ZIKV is a flavivirus that can be transmitted chiefly through the biting of the mosquito or sexually or by breastfeeding at a lower scale. Read More

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December 2021

SF3B14 is involved in the centrosome regulation through splicing of TUBGCP6 pre-mRNA.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 Jan 18;588:133-139. Epub 2021 Dec 18.

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tenno-dai, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki, 305-8577, Japan; Life Science Center for Survival Dynamics, Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance (TARA), University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tenno-dai, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki, 305-8577, Japan. Electronic address:

Splicing precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) is a critical step to produce physiologically functional protein. Splicing failure not only gives rise to dysfunctional proteins but also generates abnormal protein function, which causes several diseases. Several pre-mRNA splicing factors are reported to regulate mitosis directly at mitotic structures and/or indirectly through controlling the pre-mRNA splicing for mitotic proteins. Read More

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January 2022

Structural and Functional Insights into the Microtubule Organizing Centers of and spp.

Microorganisms 2021 Dec 3;9(12). Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Apicomplexan Biology, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Montevideo 11400, Uruguay.

Microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) perform critical cellular tasks by nucleating, stabilizing, and anchoring microtubule's minus ends. These capacities impact tremendously a wide array of cellular functions ranging from ascribing cell shape to orchestrating cell division and generating motile structures, among others. The phylum Apicomplexa comprises over 6000 single-celled obligate intracellular parasitic species. Read More

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December 2021

Kinesin Family Member C1 (KIFC1/HSET): A Potential Actionable Biomarker of Early Stage Breast Tumorigenesis and Progression of High-Risk Lesions.

J Pers Med 2021 Dec 14;11(12). Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Department of Population Science, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

The enigma of why some premalignant or pre-invasive breast lesions transform and progress while others do not remains poorly understood. Currently, no radiologic or molecular biomarkers exist in the clinic that can successfully risk-stratify high-risk lesions for malignant transformation or tumor progression as well as serve as a minimally cytotoxic actionable target for at-risk subpopulations. Breast carcinogenesis involves a series of key molecular deregulatory events that prompt normal cells to bypass tumor-suppressive senescence barriers. Read More

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December 2021

The Roles of Tricellular Tight Junction Protein Angulin-1/Lipolysis-Stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor (LSR) in Endometriosis and Endometrioid-Endometrial Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Dec 17;13(24). Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Department of Cell Science, Research Institute for Frontier Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8556, Japan.

Tight junction proteins play roles beyond permeability barriers functions and control cell proliferation and differentiation. The relation between tight junctions and the signal transduction pathways affects cell growth, invasion and migration. Abnormality of tight junction proteins closely contributes to epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and malignancy of various cancers. Read More

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December 2021

The Hippo Signaling Pathway in Cancer: A Cell Cycle Perspective.

Authors:
Yi Xiao Jixin Dong

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Dec 10;13(24). Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, Fred & Pamela Buffett Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

Cell cycle progression is an elaborate process that requires stringent control for normal cellular function. Defects in cell cycle control, however, contribute to genomic instability and have become a characteristic phenomenon in cancers. Over the years, advancement in the understanding of disrupted cell cycle regulation in tumors has led to the development of powerful anti-cancer drugs. Read More

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December 2021

Coordination of Zika Virus Infection and Viroplasm Organization by Microtubules and Microtubule-Organizing Centers.

Cells 2021 11 27;10(12). Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.

Zika virus (ZIKV) became a global health concern in 2016 due to its links to congenital microcephaly and other birth defects. Flaviviruses, including ZIKV, reorganize the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to form a viroplasm, a compartment where virus particles are assembled. Microtubules (MTs) and microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) coordinate structural and trafficking functions in the cell, and MTs also support replication of flaviviruses. Read More

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November 2021

Microcephaly gene Cenpj regulates axonal growth in cortical neurons through microtubule destabilization.

J Neurochem 2021 Dec 23. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Laboratório de Neuroplasticidade, Centro de Ciências da Saúde Bloco F, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Neocortex development comprises of a complex series of time- and space-specific processes to generate the typical interconnected six-layered architecture of adult mammals. Axon growth is required for the proper establishment of cortical circuits. Malformations in axonal growth and pathfinding might lead to severe neuropathologies, such as corpus callosum dysgenesis. Read More

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December 2021

Hypoxia Drives Centrosome Amplification in Cancer Cells via HIF1α-Dependent Induction of Polo-Like Kinase 4.

Mol Cancer Res 2021 Dec 21. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Centrosome amplification (CA) has been implicated in the progression of various cancer types. Although studies have shown that overexpression of PLK4 promotes CA, the effect of tumor microenvironment on polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) regulation is understudied. The aim of this study was to examine the role of hypoxia in promoting CA via PLK4. Read More

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December 2021

Endoderm development requires centrioles to restrain p53-mediated apoptosis in the absence of ERK activity.

Dev Cell 2021 12;56(24):3334-3348.e6

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Centrioles comprise the heart of centrosomes, microtubule-organizing centers. To study the function of centrioles in lung and gut development, we genetically disrupted centrioles throughout the mouse endoderm. Surprisingly, removing centrioles from the endoderm did not disrupt intestinal growth or development but blocked lung branching. Read More

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December 2021

Adaptive Lipid Immiscibility and Membrane Remodeling Are Active Functional Determinants of Primary Ciliogenesis.

Small Methods 2021 Feb 16;5(2):e2000711. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Cell Biology and Immunology, Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, 28049, Spain.

Lipid liquid-liquid immiscibility and its consequent lateral heterogeneity have been observed under thermodynamic equilibrium in model and native membranes. However, cholesterol-rich membrane domains, sometimes referred to as lipid rafts, are difficult to observe spatiotemporally in live cells. Despite their importance in many biological processes, robust evidence for their existence remains elusive. Read More

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February 2021

ER proteins decipher the tubulin code to regulate organelle distribution.

Nature 2022 Jan 15;601(7891):132-138. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Cell Biology Section, Neurogenetics Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Organelles move along differentially modified microtubules to establish and maintain their proper distributions and functions. However, how cells interpret these post-translational microtubule modification codes to selectively regulate organelle positioning remains largely unknown. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an interconnected network of diverse morphologies that extends promiscuously throughout the cytoplasm, forming abundant contacts with other organelles. Read More

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January 2022

Lighting up Individual Organelles With Fluorescent Carbon Dots.

Front Chem 2021 26;9:784851. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Precision Medicine Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Cell organelles play crucial roles in the normal functioning of an organism, therefore the disruption of their operation is associated with diseases and in some cases death. Thus, the detection and monitoring of the activities within these organelles are of great importance. Several probes based on graphene oxide, small molecules, and other nanomaterials have been developed for targeting specific organelles. Read More

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November 2021

Loss of TACC1 variant25 inducing cell proliferation and suppressing autophagy in head and neck squamous carcinoma.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Dec 11;7(1):386. Epub 2021 Dec 11.

Department of Oral Mucosal Diseases, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Transforming acidic coiled-coil containing protein1 (TACC1) is closely related to transcription, translation and centrosome dynamics. Dysregulation of TACC1 is associated with multiple malignancies. Alternative splicing (AS) of TACC1 produces multiple variants, which are of great significance in cancer biology. Read More

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December 2021