296,601 results match your criteria central nervous

Expression of FOXO transcription factors in the brain following traumatic brain injury.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Apr 7:135882. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Graduate School of Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, 241002, Anhui, China; Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, 241002, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a substantial clinical and social problem worldwide, causing high morbidity and mortality along with significant economic and medical costs. Forkhead box O transcription factors (FOXOs) have been found to play a critical role in the regulation of cell functions, such as nutrient metabolism, programmed cell death, and tumor suppression. In the central nervous system, FOXOs are reported to be pivotal regulators of learning and memory, neurite outgrowth, and axonal degeneration. Read More

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Fasudil enhances the phagocytosis of myelin debris and the expression of neurotrophic factors in cuprizone-induced demyelinating mice.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Apr 7:135880. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurology, Bethune Hospital Affiliated to Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, 030032, China; The Key Research Laboratory of Benefiting Qi for Acting Blood Circulation Method to Treat Multiple Sclerosis of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Research Center of Neurobiology, Shanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Taiyuan, 030024, China; Institute of Brain Science, Shanxi Key Laboratory of Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Diseases, Medical School of Shanxi Datong University, Datong, 037009, China. Electronic address:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is mainly associated with the neuroinflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS), in which the failure of remyelination results in persistent neurological dysfunction. Fasudil, a typical Rho kinase inhibitor, has been exhibited beneficial effects on several models of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we showed that Fasudil promoted the uptake of myelin debris by microglia via cell experiments and through a cuprizone (CPZ)-induced demyelinating model. Read More

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Clinical care of neonates undergoing opioid withdrawal in the immediate postpartum period.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 Apr 7:106978. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.

As the opioid epidemic escalates in westernized countries around the world, chronic opioid use during pregnancy has become a growing public health issue. There are increasing concerns that chronic maternal opioid use might adversely affect the developing fetal brain. Furthermore, the sudden discontinuation of the trans-placental opioid supply at birth puts newborns at acute risk for neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). Read More

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Putative anxiolytic-like behavioral effects of acute paracetamol in adult zebrafish.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 7:113293. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Bioscience Institute, University of Passo Fundo (UPF), Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil; Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology and Neurobiology, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow, Russia; The International Zebrafish Neuroscience Research Consortium (ZNRC), Slidell, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Typically triggered by stress, anxiety disorders are most common and widespread mental illnesses. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly becoming an important aquatic model species in stress research and central nervous system (CNS) drug screening. Paracetamol is currently the most prescribed medication for pain and fever, and is among the most commonly used drugs globally. Read More

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Long-term Impacts and Benefit-Cost Analysis of the Communities That Care Prevention System at Age 23, 12 Years After Baseline.

Prev Sci 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Social Development Research Group, School of Social Work, University of Washington, 9725 Third Avenue NE, Suite 401, Seattle, WA, 98115 , USA.

This study estimated sustained impacts and long-term benefits and costs of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system, implemented and evaluated in a longitudinal cluster-randomized trial involving 24 communities in seven states. Analyses utilized reports from a longitudinal panel of 4407 participants, followed since the study's baseline in grade 5, with most recent follow-up 12 years later at age 23. Impacts on lifetime abstinence from primary outcomes of substance use and antisocial behavior were estimated using generalized linear mixed Poisson regression analysis, adjusted for individual and community-level covariates. Read More

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The Treatment of Tuberculosis.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of infectious death worldwide, and poverty is a major driver. Clinically, TB presents as "latent" TB and active TB disease, and the treatment for each is different. TB drugs can display "early bactericidal activity (EBA)" and / or "sterilizing activity" (clearing persisters). Read More

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Chronotropic effects and mechanisms of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on heartbeat: the latest insights.

Weiguo Zhang

Nutr Rev 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

W. Zhang is with the Las Colinas Institutes, Irving, Texas, USA.

The roles of the resting heart rate (RHR) have been actively investigated and increasingly recognized in recent decades, because of the growing evidence that fast RHR is associated with and predicts the risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, as well as all-cause mortality. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (eg, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) have been shown to have chronotropic effects on heartbeat in both healthy people and patients with various disease conditions. The aims of this review are (1) to briefly summarize the importance of elevated RHR in disease pathogenesis and mortality; (2) to provide an update on the negative chronotropic effect of omega-3 PUFAs on the heart; (3) to highlight how omega-3 PUFAs regulate heart rate through the autonomic nervous system - a central control mechanism; and (4) to highlight how omega-3 PUFAs modulate the trans-membrane ionic channels in cardiomyocytes - a fundamental mechanism of cardiac automaticity. Read More

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Neuroendocrine control of appetite and metabolism.

Exp Mol Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea.

Body homeostasis is predominantly controlled by hormones secreted by endocrine organs. The central nervous system contains several important endocrine structures, including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Conventionally, neurohormones released by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland (hypophysis) have received much attention owing to the unique functions of the end hormones released by their target peripheral organs (e. Read More

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Longitudinal imaging of T-cells and inflammatory demyelination in a preclinical model of multiple sclerosis using F-FAraG PET and MRI.

J Nucl Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University of California San Francisco, United States.

Lymphocytes and innate immune cells are key drivers of multiple sclerosis (MS) and are the main target of MS disease modifying therapies (DMT). Ex vivo analyses of MS lesions have revealed cellular heterogeneity and variable T-cell levels, which may have important implication for patient stratification and choice of DMT. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven valuable to monitor DMT efficacy, its lack of specificity for cellular subtypes highlights the need for complementary methods to improve lesion characterization. Read More

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Association of ST6GAL1 and CYP19A1 polymorphisms in the 3'-UTR with astrocytoma risk and prognosis in a Chinese Han population.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 9;21(1):391. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 277 YanTa West Road, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi, China.

Background: Astrocytoma is a common type of central nervous system tumor. In this study, we investigated the correlation between ST6GAL1 and CYP19A1 polymorphisms and the risk and prognosis of astrocytoma.

Methods: A total of 365 astrocytoma patients and 379 healthy controls were genotyped using the Agena MassARRAY system. Read More

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Correlations among disability, anti-AQP4 antibody status and prognosis in the spinal cord involved patients with NMOSD.

BMC Neurol 2021 Apr 9;21(1):153. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center and College of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Background: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare neuroinflammatory disorder of the central nervous system that typically involves the optic nerve, the spinal cord and other specific brain regions. In relapse of the disease, factors associated with clinical features and lesion severity are important for clinicians to predict disease-related disability.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 22 female patients with NMOSD who had spinal cord lesions. Read More

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Involvement of cytotoxic Eomes-expressing CD4 T cells in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Department of Immunology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, 187-8502 Japan;

Multiple sclerosis (MS), a putative autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), commonly presents as relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), characterized by recurrent episodes of peripheral disabling symptoms resulting from inflammatory CNS damage. Many RRMS patients transition to a chronic disease course with progressive neurological dysfunctions (secondary progressive MS, SPMS), with the progression rate varying between patients and over time. SPMS pathogenesis is now linked to immune-cell-mediated processes, although the mechanisms driving SPMS transition and progression remain elusive, and SPMS lacks biomarkers and effective treatments. Read More

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Impacts and challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic on emergency medicine physicians in the United States.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 2;48:38-47. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, Kendall Regional Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Emergency medicine (EM) physicians have been on the front line of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and other related factors such as resource availability and institutional support on well-being, burnout and job-satisfaction of EM physicians in the United States.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey study of EM physicians was conducted through the Emergency Medicine Practice Research Network of the ACEP. Read More

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Efficient conversion of human induced pluripotent stem cells into microglia by defined transcription factors.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Brain Research Center, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (ROC); Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, School of Life Sciences, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (ROC). Electronic address:

Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system, play critical roles in brain physiology and pathology. We report a novel approach that produces, within 10 days, the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into microglia (iMG) by forced expression of both SPI1 and CEBPA. High-level expression of the main microglial markers and the purity of the iMG cells were confirmed by RT-qPCR, immunostaining, and flow cytometry analyses. Read More

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Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and routine childhood vaccinations - a self-controlled case series.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Apr 9:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Paediatrics, Monash University, Clayton, Australia.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an autoimmune, central nervous system demyelinating disorder that follows antecedent immunologic challenges, such as infection or vaccination. This study aimed to investigate the potential association between routine childhood vaccinations and ADEM. Children under 7 years of age admitted to the two tertiary level pediatric hospitals in Victoria, Australia with ADEM from 2000-2015 had their clinical information linked to vaccination records from the Australian Childhood Immunization Register. Read More

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Examining How Health Navigation Affects Mental Health Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Guatemala.

AIDS Patient Care STDS 2021 Apr;35(4):126-133

Department of Health Behavior, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) are disproportionately affected by mental health problems and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Health navigation has the potential to improve both HIV and mental health outcomes; however, few studies have measured the impact of navigation on mental health among people living with HIV. We analyzed longitudinal data from a sociobehavioral survey and navigation monitoring system with GBMSM living with HIV in Guatemala ( = 346) that participated in a 12-month differentiated care intervention. Read More

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An overview of microglia ontogeny and maturation in the homeostatic and pathological brain.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States.

Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and are increasingly recognized as critical players in development, brain homeostasis, and disease pathogenesis. The lifespan, maintenance, proliferation, and turnover of microglia are important factors that regulate microglial behavior and affect their roles in the CNS. However, emerging evidence suggests that microglia are morphologically and phenotypically distinct in different brain areas, at different ages, and during disease. Read More

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The pivotal role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide for lactate production and secretion in astrocytes during fear memory.

Pharmacol Rep 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima, Kagoshima, 890-8544, Japan.

Background: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays an essential role in the modulation of astrocyte functions. Although lactate secretion from astrocytes contributes to many forms of neuronal plasticity in the central nervous system, including fear learning and memory, the role of PACAP in lactate secretion from astrocytes is unclear.

Methods: The amygdala and hippocampus of PACAP (+ / +) and PACAP (-/-) mice were acquired 1 h after memory acquisition and recall in the passive avoidance test. Read More

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IL-6 Regulates Hepcidin Expression Via the BMP/SMAD Pathway by Altering BMP6, TMPRSS6 and TfR2 Expressions at Normal and Inflammatory Conditions in BV2 Microglia.

Neurochem Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Pécs, Rókus Str. 2, Pécs, 7624, Hungary.

The hormone hepcidin plays a central role in controlling iron homeostasis. Iron-mediated hepcidin synthesis is triggered via the BMP/SMAD pathway. At inflammation, mainly IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokine mediates the regulation of hepcidin via the JAK/STAT signalling pathway. Read More

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Chronic Demyelination and Axonal Degeneration in Multiple Sclerosis: Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Implications.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2021 Apr 9;21(6):26. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181S W Sam Jackson Rd L226, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Inflammatory attacks in MS lead to both demyelination and axonal damage. However, due to incomplete remyelination most MS lesions remain chronically demyelinated. Read More

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[Cobalamin in the complex treatment and prevention of cognitive impairment].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(3):132-137

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia.

Cognitive impairment (CI) develops not only in structural damage to the central nervous system, but also in encephalopathies of dysmetabolic and deficiency etiology. Recently, special attention is focused on the appearance of CI due to the deficiency of cobalamin (vitamin B) and folic acid (FA), the change in the level of homocysteine (HC). To detect vitamin B deficiency is possible by examining key biomarkers in serum based on a decrease in the levels of vitamin B and holotranscobalamin, and levels of methylmalonic acid (MMA) and HC. Read More

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January 2021

Multimodal imaging characteristics in eyes with vitreoretinal lymphoma treated with intravitreal rituximab.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Medical Research Foundation, Shri Bhagwan Mahavir Vitreo-Retinal Services, Sankara Nethralaya, 18 College Road, Chennai, 600006, Tamilnadu, India.

Purpose: To characterize the imaging features in eyes with vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) using ultra-widefield fundus photography (UWF-FP), swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) that are correlated to ongoing treatment with intravitreal Rituximab(IVR).

Methods: Retrospective observational imaging-based study of 15 treatment-naive eyes with VRL treated with IVR. All patients with primary VRL underwent vitreous biopsy using 23/25G microincision vitrectomy system for confirmation of diagnosis. Read More

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Affinity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains for M059K microglial cells after migration through A549 alveolar epithelium.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major threat worldwide while central nervous system TB (CNS-TB) is one of the most severe forms of extrapulmonary TB. CNS-TB develops as a secondary infection during the hematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) from the lungs to the CNS. Read More

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Post-stroke Neurogenesis: Friend or Foe?

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 23;9:657846. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Neurovascular Pathophysiology, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid, Spain.

The substantial clinical burden and disability after stroke injury urges the need to explore therapeutic solutions. Recent compelling evidence supports that neurogenesis persists in the adult mammalian brain and is amenable to regulation in both physiological and pathological situations. Its ability to generate new neurons implies a potential to contribute to recovery after brain injury. Read More

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Histological Changes in Adipose Tissue: An Alarm When Methamphetamine Is Targeted for Weight Loss Purposes.

World J Plast Surg 2021 Jan;10(1):53-59

Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Methamphetamine (METH) may be administered for weight loss purposes and to understand the METH side-effects more in details, this study aimed at determining the effect of METH on changes in adipose tissue in experimental rats.

Methods: Forty five male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three equal groups. Group 1 was experimental receiving METH [0. Read More

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January 2021

Nanoparticles for Enhanced Adoptive T Cell Therapies and Future Perspectives for CNS Tumors.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:600659. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

The George Washington University Cancer Center, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States.

Adoptive T cell therapy has emerged as a revolutionary immunotherapy for treating cancer. Despite immense promise and clinical success in some hematologic malignancies, limitations remain that thwart its efficacy in solid tumors. Particularly in tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), T cell therapy is often restricted by the difficulty in intratumoral delivery across anatomical niches, suboptimal T cell specificity or activation, and intratumoral T cell dysfunction due to immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments (TMEs). Read More

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Biomarkers and the Role of α-Synuclein in Parkinson's Disease.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 23;13:645996. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of α-synuclein (α-Syn)-rich Lewy bodies (LBs) and the preferential loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta (SNpc). However, the widespread involvement of other central nervous systems (CNS) structures and peripheral tissues is now widely documented. The onset of the molecular and cellular neuropathology of PD likely occurs decades before the onset of the motor symptoms characteristic of PD, so early diagnosis of PD and adequate tracking of disease progression could significantly improve outcomes for patients. Read More

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Differential Spatiotemporal Expression of Type I and Type II Cadherins Associated With the Segmentation of the Central Nervous System and Formation of Brain Nuclei in the Developing Mouse.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 23;14:633719. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Natural Sciences, Mercy College, Dobbs Ferry, NY, United States.

Type I and type II classical cadherins comprise a family of cell adhesion molecules that regulate cell sorting and tissue separation by forming specific homo and heterophilic bonds. Factors that affect cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion include cadherin binding affinity and expression level. This study examines the expression pattern of type I cadherins (, , , and ), type II cadherins (, , , , , , , , , and ), and the atypical cadherin 13 () during distinct morphogenetic events in the developing mouse central nervous system from embryonic day 11. Read More

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The Role of Microglia in Inherited White-Matter Disorders and Connections to Frontotemporal Dementia.

Appl Clin Genet 2021 31;14:195-207. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA.

Microglia play a critical but poorly understood role in promoting white-matter homeostasis. In this review, we leverage advances in human genetics and mouse models of leukodystrophies to delineate our current knowledge and identify outstanding questions regarding the impact of microglia on central nervous system white matter. We first focus on the role of pathogenic mutations in genes, such as , and that cause leukodystrophies in which the primary deficit is thought to originate in microglia. Read More

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Olig2 regulates p53-mediated apoptosis, migration and invasion of melanoma cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7778. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Genetic Engineering and Graduate School of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 17104, Republic of Korea.

Melanoma is a disease with a high recurrence rate and poor prognosis; therefore, the need for targeted therapeutics is steadily increasing. Oligodendrocyte transcription factor2 (Olig2) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is expressed in the central nervous system during embryonic development. Olig2 is overexpressed in various malignant cell lines such as lung carcinoma, glioma and melanoma. Read More

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