24,278 results match your criteria central memory

Structural insight into transmissive mutant huntingtin species by correlative light and electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 10;560:99-104. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA; Institute for Quantitative Biomedicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA. Electronic address:

Aggregates of mutant huntingtin (mHTT) containing an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract are hallmarks of Huntington's Disease (HD). Studies have shown that mHTT can spread between cells, leading to the propagation of misfolded protein pathology. However, the structure of transmissive mHTT species, and the molecular mechanisms underlying their transmission remain unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Health utility in preclinical and prodromal Alzheimer's disease for establishing the value of new disease-modifying treatments-EQ-5D data from the Swedish BioFINDER study.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Clinical Memory Research Unit, Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Quality of life and health utility are important outcomes for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and central for demonstrating the value of new treatments. Estimates in biomarker-confirmed AD populations are missing, potentially delaying payer approval of treatment. We examined whether health utility, assessed with the EuroQoL-5 3-level version (EQ-5D-3L), differed between individuals with a positive or negative amyloid beta (Aβ) biomarker in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively unimpaired (CU) participants from the Swedish BioFINDER study (n = 578). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Harmonizing neuropsychological assessment for mild neurocognitive disorders in Europe.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Introduction: Harmonized neuropsychological assessment for neurocognitive disorders, an international priority for valid and reliable diagnostic procedures, has been achieved only in specific countries or research contexts.

Methods: To harmonize the assessment of mild cognitive impairment in Europe, a workshop (Geneva, May 2018) convened stakeholders, methodologists, academic, and non-academic clinicians and experts from European, US, and Australian harmonization initiatives.

Results: With formal presentations and thematic working-groups we defined a standard battery consistent with the U. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neurobehavioral effects of acute low-dose whole-body irradiation.

J Radiat Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Radiobiology and Hygiene Management, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 807-8555, Japan.

Radiation exposure has multiple effects on the brain, behavior and cognitive functions. It has been reported that high-dose (>20 Gy) radiation-induced behavior and cognitive aberration partly associated with severe tissue destruction. Low-dose (<3 Gy) exposure can occur in radiological disasters and cerebral endovascular treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Aerobic fitness and the sleeping brain of adolescents-a pilot study.

Sleep Adv 2021 9;2(1):zpab005. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, School of Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA.

Study Objectives: Aerobic fitness (AF) and sleep are major determinants of health in adolescents and impact neurocognitive and psychological development. However, little is known about the interactions between AF and sleep during the developmental transition experienced across adolescence. This study aimed to consider the relationships between AF and habitual sleep patterns and sleep neurophysiology in healthy adolescents. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Immunophenotyping Changes of Peripheral CD4+ T Lymphocytes and Inflammatory Markers of Class III Obesity Subjects After Laparoscopic Gastric Sleeve Surgery - A Follow-Up Study.

J Inflamm Res 2021 5;14:1743-1757. Epub 2021 May 5.

Metabolic Unit, Surgery Department, Hammed Medical Corporation (HMC), Doha, Qatar.

Purpose: Obesity is a chronic disorder characterized by a low-grade inflammatory state and immune cell irregularities. The study aimed to follow up on the changes in the peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes and the pro-inflammatory cytokines; IL-6, TNF-alpha, MCP-1, and IL-10 at baseline and 12 weeks post-surgical intervention by the laparoscopic gastric sleeve (LGS) in morbidly obese patients (class III obesity subjects).

Materials And Methods: A prospective longitudinal research included 24 class III obesity subjects with a BMI > 40 kg/m. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

TLR4 Transactivates CD8 T Lymphocytes upon Acute Sterile Tissue Injury.

Immunohorizons 2021 May 12;5(5):298-306. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Trauma, Hand, and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; and

Acute major tissue injury induces immune dysregulation that is characterized by the development of systemic sterile inflammation and an increased risk for opportunistic infections. Although the contribution of the innate immune system has been examined in detail, research on the impact of acute sterile tissue damage on the T cell compartment remains limited. In the current study, we used a clinically relevant mouse model for traumatic skeletal muscle injury to investigate the impact of sterile tissue damage on diverse subpopulations of CD4 Th and CD8 cytotoxic T cells in systemic and local lymphoid organs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CD4 T cells are essential for the development of destructive thyroiditis induced by anti-PD-1 antibody in thyroglobulin-immunized mice.

Sci Transl Med 2021 May;13(593)

Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

Immune-related adverse events induced by anti-programmed cell death-1 antibodies (PD-1-Ab), including destructive thyroiditis (thyroid-irAE), are thought to be caused by activated T cells. However, the T cell subsets that are directly responsible for damaging self-organs remain unclear. To clarify which T cell subsets are involved in the development of thyroid-irAE, a mouse model of thyroid-irAE was analyzed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impairments in brain perfusion, executive control network, topological characteristics, and neurocognition in adult patients with asymptomatic Moyamoya disease.

BMC Neurosci 2021 May 12;22(1):35. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 119 South 4th Ring West Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100070, People's Republic of China.

Background: Asymptomatic Moyamoya disease (MMD) impairs hemodynamic and cognitive function. The relationship between these changes, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and network connectivity remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to increase understanding of the relationship between CBF, functional networks, and neurocognition in adults with asymptomatic MMD. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Failing Memory in Nonaffective Psychosis and Prolactin Response to 12.5 µg i.v. TRH.

Pharmacopsychiatry 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Päijät-Häme Central Hospital, Lahti, Finland.

The increase in plasma prolactin at 15 min following administration of 12.5 µg TRH i. v. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The medial olivocochlear reflex strength is modulated during a visual working memory task.

J Neurophysiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chilegrid.412248.9.

Top-down modulation of sensory responses to distracting stimuli by selective attention has been proposed as an important mechanism by which our brain can maintain relevant information during working memory tasks. Previous works in visual working memory (VWM) have reported modulation of neural responses to distracting sounds at different levels of the central auditory pathways. Whether these modulations occur also at the level of the auditory receptor is unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Oxytocin receptor activation does not mediate associative fear deficits in a Williams Syndrome model.

Genes Brain Behav 2021 May 12:e12750. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Genetics, Washington University in St. Louis.

Williams Syndrome results in distinct behavioral phenotypes, which include learning deficits, anxiety, increased phobias, and hypersociability. While the underlying mechanisms driving this subset of phenotypes is unknown, oxytocin dysregulation is hypothesized to be involved as some studies have shown elevated blood oxytocin and altered oxytocin receptor expression in patients. A 'Complete Deletion' mouse, modeling the hemizygous deletion in Williams Syndrome, recapitulates many of the phenotypes present in humans. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fluoride exposure decreased neurite formation on cerebral cortical neurons of SD rats in vitro.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, China.

Fluoride, a geochemical element, can damage the brain and result in dysfunction of the central nervous system. In recent years, fluoride-induced neurotoxicity has become one of research focuses of environmental toxicology. Our previous study showed that fluoride could induce the structural damages of the cerebral cortex and reduce the learning and memory abilities of mice offspring. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

IL-17 mediates protective immunity against nasal infection with Bordetella pertussis by mobilizing neutrophils, especially Siglec-F neutrophils.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Immune Regulation Research Group, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Understanding the mechanism of protective immunity in the nasal mucosae is central to the design of more effective vaccines that prevent nasal infection and transmission of Bordetella pertussis. We found significant infiltration of IL-17-secreting CD4 tissue-resident memory T (T) cells and Siglec-F neutrophils into the nasal tissue during primary infection with B. pertussis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immune cellular networks underlying recovery from influenza virus infection in acute hospitalized patients.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2691. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute For Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia.

How innate and adaptive immune responses work in concert to resolve influenza disease is yet to be fully investigated in one single study. Here, we utilize longitudinal samples from patients hospitalized with acute influenza to understand these immune responses. We report the dynamics of 18 important immune parameters, related to clinical, genetic and virological factors, in influenza patients across different severity levels. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Structure-Based SAR in the Design of Selective or Bifunctional Nociceptin (NOP) Receptor Agonists.

AAPS J 2021 May 11;23(3):68. Epub 2021 May 11.

Astraea Therapeutics, LLC, 320 Logue Avenue, Mountain View, California, 94043, USA.

The nociceptin opioid receptor (NOP), the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, and its endogenous peptide ligand, nociceptin or orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), play a vital role in several central nervous system pathways regulating pain, reward, feeding, anxiety, motor control and learning/memory. Both selective NOP agonists as well as bifunctional agonists at the NOP and mu opioid receptor (MOP) have potential therapeutic applications in CNS disorders related to these processes. Using Surflex-Dock protocols, we conducted a computational structure-activity study of four scaffold classes of NOP ligands with varying NOP-MOP selectivity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neural correlates of fat preference in frontotemporal dementia: translating insights from the obesity literature.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

ARC Centre of Excellence of Cognition and its Disorders, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objective: Alterations in eating behaviour are one of the diagnostic features of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). It is hypothesised that underlying brain network disturbances and atrophy to key structures may affect macronutrient preference in bvFTD. We aimed to establish whether a preference for dietary fat exists in bvFTD, its association with cognitive symptoms and the underlying neural mechanisms driving these changes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immune response with long-term memory triggered by amorphous aggregates of misfolded anti-EGFR V-7D12 is directed against the native V-7D12 as well as the framework of the analogous V-9G8.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakamachi, Koganei-shi, Tokyo, 184-8588, Japan. Electronic address:

We previously demonstrated that amorphous aggregates of misfolded V-7D12 antibodies (V-Mis), a potential anti-EGFR drug, can generate a robust serum IgG response. Here we investigate the immunogenic nature, especially the specificity of the immune response induced by V-Mis. To this end, we used two natively folded and 77% identical anti-EGFR Vs (V-7D12 and V-9G8) that possess a common framework but distinct complementarity determining regions (CDRs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neonatal amygdala volumes and the development of self-regulation from early infancy to toddlerhood.

Neuropsychology 2021 Mar;35(3):285-299

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku.

At the broadest level, self-regulation (SR) refers to a range of separate, but interrelated, processes (e.g., working memory, inhibition, and emotion regulation) central for the regulation of cognition, emotion, and behavior that contribute to a plethora of health and mental health outcomes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

What Executive Function Network is that? An Image-Based Meta-Analysis of Network Labels.

Brain Topogr 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL, 33199, USA.

The current state of label conventions used to describe brain networks related to executive functions is highly inconsistent, leading to confusion among researchers regarding network labels. Visually similar networks are referred to by different labels, yet these same labels are used to distinguish networks within studies. We performed a literature review of fMRI studies and identified nine frequently-used labels that are used to describe topographically or functionally similar neural networks: central executive network (CEN), cognitive control network (CCN), dorsal attention network (DAN), executive control network (ECN), executive network (EN), frontoparietal network (FPN), working memory network (WMN), task positive network (TPN), and ventral attention network (VAN). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Working Memory Network and Its Association with Working Memory Performance in Survivors of non-CNS Childhood Cancer.

Dev Neuropsychol 2021 Apr-Jun;46(3):249-264

Division of Neuropediatrics, Development and Rehabilitation, Children's University Hospital, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Childhood cancer and its treatment puts survivors at risk of low working memory capacity. Working memory represents a core cognitive function, which is crucial in daily life and academic tasks. The aim of this functional MRI (fMRI) study was to examine the working memory network of survivors of childhood cancer without central nervous system (CNS) involvement and its relation to cognitive performance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fasudil ameliorates cognitive deficits, oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis via inhibiting ROCK/MAPK and activating Nrf2 signalling pathways in APP/PS1 mice.

Folia Neuropathol 2021 ;59(1):32-49

Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, P.R. China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by neuron loss and dementia. Previous abundant evidence demonstrates that the first critical step in the course of AD is the state of oxidative stress and the neuronal loss is closely related to the interaction of several signalling pathways. The neuroprotective efficacy of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor in the treatment of AD has been reported, but its exact mechanism has not been well elucidated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Reveals Tissue Compartment-Specific Plasticity of Mycosis Fungoides Tumor Cells.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:666935. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. While initially restricted to the skin, malignant cells can appear in blood, bone marrow and secondary lymphoid organs in later disease stages. However, only little is known about phenotypic and functional properties of malignant T cells in relationship to tissue environments over the course of disease progression. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Role of CD4 Resident Memory T Cells in Local Immunity in the Mucosal Tissue - Protection Versus Pathology.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:616309. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Memory T cells are crucial for both local and systemic protection against pathogens over a long period of time. Three major subsets of memory T cells; effector memory T (T) cells, central memory T (T) cells, and tissue-resident memory T (T) cells have been identified. The most recently identified subset, T cells, is characterized by the expression of the C-type lectin CD69 and/or the integrin CD103. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immune Response of Indian Preterm Infants to Pentavalent Vaccine Varies With Component Antigens and Gestational Age.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:592731. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Communicable Diseases, Interactive Research School for Health Affairs, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed To Be University) University, Pune, India.

Childhood vaccination plays critical role in protecting infants from several dreaded diseases. Of the global 15 million preterm (PT) infants with compromised immune system born annually, India contributes to >3.5 million. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis with high-dose all-trans retinoic acid - no clear evidence of positive disease modifying effects.

Neurol Res Pract 2021 May 10;3(1):25. Epub 2021 May 10.

Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Eberhard-Karls University, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is an acid derivative of vitamin A which is discussed as a promising candidate to ameliorate the disease course of multiple sclerosis (MS) by immunomodulation or even by promoting regeneration in progressive MS. Here we report a patient who significantly improved for MS related disability following administration of chemotherapy including ATRA for mitoxantrone-related acute promyelocytic leukemia and assess the effect of high-dose ATRA in three additional patients with progressive MS.

Methods: Patients with progressive MS who had failed previous therapies were treated with high-dose ATRA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF


Georgian Med News 2021 Mar(312):75-78

3Ilia State University, School of Natural Sciences and Medicine, Tbilisi, Georgia.

Psoriasis is a T cell mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting about 2% of the population worldwide. Recently has established the central role of IL-23/Th17 immune axis in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and different subclasses of T cells including Th1 and Th17 cells are involved in initiation and amplification of the skin inflammation process, in addition, in cases of recurrent psoriasis, Th22 cells play the role of memory cells with the help of Th9 cells, which are also important in this process. The main goal was to evaluate the ratio of T cell profile and IL23/Th17 axis by evaluating IL17A, IL22, IL9 in peripheral blood of persons with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cognitive and Electrophysiological Correlates of Working Memory Impairments in Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Neuroscience & Experimental Psychology, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Room 3.310 Jean McFarlane Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL , UK.

Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a single gene disorder associated with working Memory (WM) impairments. The aim of this study was to investigate P300 event-related potential (ERP) associated with WM in NF1. Sixteen adolescents with NF1 were compared with controls on measures of WM and EEG was recorded during a WM nback task. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CXCR3 and CXCR5 are highly expressed in HIV-1-specific CD8 central memory T cells from infected patients.

Eur J Immunol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

CEA - Université Paris-Saclay - INSERM U1184, Immunology of Viral Infections, Autoimmune, Hematological and Bacterial diseases, (IMVA-HB/IDMIT), Fontenay-aux-Roses & Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

New ways of characterizing CD8 memory T cell responses in chronic infections are based on the measurement of chemokine receptor expression (CXCR3, CXCR5, and CX3CR1). We applied these novel phenotyping strategies to chronic HIV infection by comparing healthy donors (HDs), HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and spontaneous HIV controllers (HICs). In all groups, the memory cells exhibited high proportion of CXCR3 cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury affects inflammation and excitotoxic mRNA expression at acute and chronic time-points.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251315. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia.

The cumulative effect of mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) can result in chronic neurological damage, however the molecular mechanisms underpinning this detriment require further investigation. A closed head weight drop model that replicates the biomechanics and head acceleration forces of human mTBI was used to provide an exploration of the acute and chronic outcomes following single and repeated impacts. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned into one of four impact groups (control; one, five and 15 impacts) which were delivered over 23 days. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF