39,069 results match your criteria central cord


Architecture and assembly mechanism of native glycine receptors.

Nature 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Vollum Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, 97239, USA.

Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are pentameric, 'Cys-loop' receptors that form chloride-permeable channels and mediate fast inhibitory signaling throughout the central nervous system. In the spinal cord and brainstem, GlyRs regulate locomotion and cause movement disorders when mutated. However, the stoichiometry of native GlyRs and the mechanism by which they are assembled remain unclear, despite extensive investigation. Read More

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September 2021

Geniposide exerts protective effects on spinal cord injury in rats by inhibiting the IKKs/NF-κB signaling pathway.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Sep 20;100:108158. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Medicine, Quzhou College of Technology, Quzhou, 324000, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic condition of the central nervous system , which can cause nerve injury and affect nerve regeneration, thus leading to severe dysfunction of motor and sensory pathways, and unfortunately these effects are irreversible. Inflammatory response constitutes one of the important mechanisms of spinal cord secondary injury. Geniposide (Gen) is reported to possess anti-inflammation and neuronal repair capacities. Read More

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September 2021

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for the Management of Neuropathic Pain: A Narrative Review.

Pain Physician 2021 Sep;24(6):E771-E781

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Korea.

Background: Neuropathic pain (NP) is common and often resistant to conventional analgesics. Among different types of noninvasive brain stimulation techniques, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been widely used to mitigate pain in patients with NP.

Objective: The aim of this study was to review the effects of tDCS on the management of various types of NP. Read More

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September 2021

Current concepts on communication between the central nervous system and peripheral immunity via lymphatics: what roles do lymphatics play in brain and spinal cord disease pathogenesis?

Biol Futur 2021 Mar 1;72(1):45-60. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

The central nervous system (CNS) lacks conventional lymphatics within the CNS parenchyma, yet still maintains fluid homeostasis and immunosurveillance. How the CNS communicates with systemic immunity has thus been a topic of interest for scientists in the past century, which has led to several theories of CNS drainage routes. In addition to perineural routes, rediscoveries of lymphatics surrounding the CNS in the meninges revealed an extensive network of lymphatics, which we now know play a significant role in fluid homeostasis and immunosurveillance. Read More

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Brain Sensory Organs of the Ascidian : Structure, Function and Developmental Mechanisms.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 6;9:701779. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Napoli, Italy.

During evolution, new characters are designed by modifying pre-existing structures already present in ancient organisms. In this perspective, the Central Nervous System (CNS) of ascidian larva offers a good opportunity to analyze a complex phenomenon with a simplified approach. As sister group of vertebrates, ascidian tadpole larva exhibits a dorsal CNS, made up of only about 330 cells distributed into the anterior sensory brain vesicle (BV), connected to the motor ganglion (MG) and a caudal nerve cord (CNC) in the tail. Read More

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September 2021

Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote the Proliferation of Schwann Cells by Regulating the PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway via Transferring miR-21.

Stem Cells Int 2021 11;2021:1496101. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Central Laboratory, Jintan Hospital, Jiangsu University, 500 Avenue Jintan, Jintan 213200, China.

As an alternative mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC-) based therapy, MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have shown promise in the field of regenerative medicine. We previously found that human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived EVs (hUCMSC-EVs) improved functional recovery and nerve regeneration in a rat model of sciatic nerve transection. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Read More

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September 2021

Retinal optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and MOG-antibody associated disorders: an updated review.

Expert Rev Neurother 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine and Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Introduction: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG antibody associated disorders (MOGAD) comprise two groups of rare neuroinflammatory diseases that cause attack-related damage to the central nervous system (CNS). Clinical attacks are often characterized by optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, and to a lesser extent, brainstem encephalitis/area postrema syndrome. Retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique that allows for in vivo thickness quantification of the retinal layers. Read More

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September 2021

Exosomal OTULIN from M2 macrophages promotes the recovery of spinal cord injuries via stimulating Wnt/β-catenin pathway-mediated vascular regeneration.

Acta Biomater 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Department of Spine Surgery and Orthopaedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China; Key Laboratory of Organ Injury, Aging and Regenerative Medicine of Hunan Province, 410008, Changsha, China; Hunan Engineering Research Center of Sports and Health; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Vascularization following spinal cord injury (SCI) provides trophic support for rebuilding up and maintaining the homeostasis of neuronal networks, and the promotion of angiogenesis is beneficial for functional recovery after SCI. M2 macrophages have been reported to exhibit powerful pro-angiogenic functions during tissue repair. Exosomes are important paracrine mediators of their parent cells and play critical roles in tissue regeneration. Read More

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September 2021

Application of developmental principles for spinal cord repair after injury.

Int J Dev Biol 2021 Aug 9. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology-Stem Cells, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens, Greece.

The superiority of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) among other vertebrates does not involve an advanced capacity for regeneration and any insult results to irreversible function loss. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one example of CNS trauma affecting thousands of individuals, mostly young, each year. Despite enormous progress in our comprehension of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology after SCI, also providing targets for therapeutic interventions, so far, no efficient therapy exists, emphasizing the necessity for further research. Read More

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Maternal-Neonatal Transfer of SARS CoV-2 IgG Antibodies among Parturient Women Treated with BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine during Pregnancy.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 Sep 18:100492. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: The exclusion of pregnant women from COVID-19 mRNA vaccine trials raised hesitancy regarding the benefit of vaccination of pregnant women, hence little is known about the vaccine's efficacy in this population.

Objective: To determine the maternal-neonatal transplacental transfer of SARS CoV-2 antibodies among vaccinated parturient women. A control group of COVID 19 recovered patients was included in order to compare IgG levels between vaccinated and recovered patients. Read More

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September 2021

Brief exposure to systemic hypoxia enhances plasticity of the central nervous system in spinal cord injured animals and man.

Curr Opin Neurol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Shirley Ryan AbilityLab Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We have known for many decades that animals that sustain injuries to the neuraxis, which result in respiratory impairment, are able to develop rapid neural compensation for these injuries. This compensation, which is linked to the systemic hypoxia resulting from damage to the respiratory apparatus, is a potent manifestation of neural plasticity. Hypoxia-induced plasticity is also applicable to somatic neural systems that regulate motor activity in extremity muscles. Read More

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September 2021

Therapy of spinal cord injury by zinc modified gold nanoclusters via immune-suppressing strategies.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Sep 20;19(1):281. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Basic Science, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the central nervous system (CNS) that causes devastating complications from chronic pain to breathing problems. Unfortunately, few effective and safe treatments are known to relieve the damages of SCI. Nanomedicines are used for the treatment of SCI with relatively few side effects, but only depending on the delivery of additional drugs, which increase complexity to the treatment. Read More

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September 2021

A2B5-positive oligodendrocyte precursor cell transplantation improves neurological deficits in rats following spinal cord contusion associated with changes in expression of factors involved in Notch signaling pathway.

Neurochirurgie 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department Anesthesiology, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi 563000, Guizhou, China; Translational Neuroscience Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China.

Background: Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are myelinated glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS), able to regenerate oligodendrocytes and myelin. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of A2B5-positive (A2B5+) OPC transplantation in rats with spinal cord contusion (SCC) and to investigate changes in expression of various factors involved in the Notch signaling pathway after OPC transplantation.

Methods: OPCs were obtained from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) originating from mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). Read More

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September 2021

Leptomeningeal dissemination of anaplastic medullary cone astrocytoma: an unexpected findings in a patient with leptomeningeal enhancement and clinical history of multiple myeloma.

Pathologica 2021 Aug;113(4):294-299

Pathology Units, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Italy.

We report a challenging autopsy case with an insidious clinical presentation with diffuse lepto- and pachymeningeal enhancement in a context of a complex clinical history. Clinical features, neuroradiological and anamnestic data were consistent with central nervous system (CNS) dissemination of a previously known lambda restricted multiple myeloma. Autoptic findings allowed to discard this hypothesis. Read More

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Fetal and perinatal expression profiles of proinflammatory cytokines in the neuroplacodes of rats with myelomeningoceles: A contribution to the understanding of secondary spinal cord injury in open spinal dysraphism.

J Neurotrauma 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, 54186, Neurosurgery, Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

The cellular and molecular mechanisms that presumably underlie the progressive functional decline of the myelomeningocele (MMC) placode are not well understood. We previously identified key players in posttraumatic spinal cord injury cascades in human MMC tissues obtained during postnatal repair. In this study we conducted experiments to further investigate these mediators in the prenatal time course under standardized conditions in a retinoic-acid-induced MMC rat model. Read More

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September 2021

The evaluation and surgical management of post-intubation tracheal strictures at a thoracic surgery referral centre in South Africa.

Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med 2018 21;24(2). Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, School of Clinical Medicine, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: The surgical treatment of tracheal stenosis following endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy is well described in the developed world.

Objectives: To describe our surgical experience with this pathology, and highlight the nuances of its diagnosis and management in South Africa.

Methods: We reviewed the clinical records and archived imaging of all patients who underwent tracheal resection and reconstruction for post-intubation tracheal stenosis between 1 July 2003 and 31 July 2014 in the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Durban, South Africa. Read More

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Peripheral Nerve Injury: a Mouse Model of Neuropathic Pain.

Bio Protoc 2017 May 5;7(9):e2252. Epub 2017 May 5.

Department of Life Innovation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Neuropathic pain is one of the highly debilitating chronic pain conditions, for which, currently, there is no therapeutic treatment. In order to reveal the underlying mechanism for neuropathic pain, various animal models have been established ( Burma , 2016 ). This protocol describes how to prepare spinal nerve injury model (Kim and Chung, 1992; Rigaud , 2008 ; Masuda , 2016 ), one of the most frequently-used and highly reproducible models in which multiple alterations occur both in the peripheral and central nervous system. Read More

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Preparation of Primary Astrocyte Culture Derived from Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Specimen.

Bio Protoc 2017 Apr 20;7(8):e2241. Epub 2017 Apr 20.

Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a grade 4 astrocytoma tumor in central nervous system. Astrocytes can be isolated from human GBM. Study of astrocytes can provide insights about the formation, progression and recurrence of glioblastoma. Read More

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Spinal Cord Preparation from Adult Red-eared Turtles for Electrophysiological Recordings during Motor Activity.

Bio Protoc 2017 Jul 5;7(13):e2381. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Center for Neuroscience, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Although it is known that the generation of movements is performed to a large extent in neuronal circuits located in the spinal cord, the involved mechanisms are still unclear. The turtle as a model system for investigating spinal motor activity has advantages, which far exceeds those of model systems using other animals. The high resistance to anoxia allows for investigation of the fully developed and adult spinal circuitry, as opposed to mammals, which are sensitive to anoxia and where using neonates are often required to remedy the problems. Read More

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The Effect of Intrathecal Injection of Dextromethorphan on the Experimental Neuropathic Pain Model.

Anesth Pain Med 2021 Jun 29;11(3):e114318. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Neurosurgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Background: Peripheral glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are altered by peripheral nerve injury and may modulate the development of neuropathic pain. Two central pathogenic mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain are neuroinflammation and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent neural plasticity in the spinal cord.

Objectives: This study examined the effect of the non-competitive NMDAR antagonist dextromethorphan on partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL)-induced neuropathic pain and the spinal expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Read More

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Mycoplasma pneumoniae Associated Acute Transverse Myelitis: An Atypical Clinical Presentation in an Adolescent Child.

Cureus 2021 Aug 17;13(8):e17259. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Nemours Children's Hospital, Orlando, USA.

We report an atypical case of a 15-year-old pediatric patient diagnosed with Mycoplasma pneumoniaeassociated acute transverse myelitis (ATM). The patient had no prodromal or pulmonary symptoms that are commonly associated with mycoplasma infection. Yet, the patient exhibited acute bilateral lower extremity paralysis, paresthesia, decreased sensation at the level of T11 and below, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and thrombocytopenia. Read More

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Why Firing Rate Distributions Are Important for Understanding Spinal Central Pattern Generators.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 3;15:719388. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Networks in the spinal cord, which are responsible for the generation of rhythmic movements, commonly known as central pattern generators (CPGs), have remained elusive for decades. Although it is well-known that many spinal neurons are rhythmically active, little attention has been given to the distribution of firing rates across the population. Here, we argue that firing rate distributions can provide an important clue to the organization of the CPGs. Read More

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September 2021

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosome-Containing Linc00632 Regulates GATA Binding Protein-3 Expression in Allergic Rhinitis by Interacting with Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 to Inhibit T Helper Cell 2 Differentiation.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 Sep 17:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is regarded as one of the most common allergic disease of nasal mucosa affecting many people worldwide. Long noncoding RNAs are critical modulators affecting AR progression, whereas the pathogenesis of Linc00632 in the development of AR remains unclear.

Methods: T helper cell 2 (Th2) differentiation of CD4+ T cells was measured by flow cytometry. Read More

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September 2021

The Central Cord Score: A Novel Classification and Scoring System Specific to Acute Traumatic Central Cord Syndrome.

World Neurosurg 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Banner University of Arizona Medical Center - Tucson, Tucson, AZ.

Background: Acute traumatic central cord syndrome (ATCCS) remains the most common form of spinal cord injury (SCI) in the United States. Its treatment remains controversial and is a consequence of ATCCS having an inherently different natural history from conventional SCI, thus requiring a separate classification system. We devised a novel Central Cord Score (CCscore) that both guides treatment and tracks improvement over time with symptoms specific to ATCCS. Read More

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September 2021

Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions of resveratrol after experimental nervous system insults. Special focus on the molecular mechanisms involved.

Neurochem Int 2021 Sep 16;150:105188. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Laboratorio de Dolor en Cáncer, Instituto de Investigaciones en Medicina Traslacional CONICET - Universidad Austral, Av. Pte. Perón 1500, B1629AHJ, Pilar, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Facultad de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Austral, Av. Pte. Perón 1500, B1629AHJ, Pilar, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

After different types of acute central nervous system insults, including stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage and traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries, secondary damage plays a central role in the induction of cell death, neurodegeneration and functional deficits. Interestingly, secondary cell death presents an attractive target for clinical intervention because the temporal lag between injury and cell loss provides a potential window for effective treatment. While primary injuries are the direct result of the precipitating insult, secondary damage involves the activation of pathological cascades through which endogenous factors can exacerbate initial tissue damage. Read More

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September 2021

IIIG9 inhibition in adult ependymal cells changes adherens junctions structure and induces cellular detachment.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 17;11(1):18537. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Laboratory of Neurobiology and Stem Cells, NeuroCellT, Department of Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, 4030000, Concepcion, Chile.

Ependymal cells have multiple apical cilia that line the ventricular surfaces and the central canal of spinal cord. In cancer, the loss of ependymal cell polarity promotes the formation of different types of tumors, such as supratentorial anaplastic ependymomas, which are highly aggressive in children. IIIG9 (PPP1R32) is a protein restricted to adult ependymal cells located in cilia and in the apical cytoplasm and has unknown function. Read More

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September 2021

Pericyte-derived fibrotic scarring is conserved across diverse central nervous system lesions.

Nat Commun 2021 Sep 17;12(1):5501. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Fibrotic scar tissue limits central nervous system regeneration in adult mammals. The extent of fibrotic tissue generation and distribution of stromal cells across different lesions in the brain and spinal cord has not been systematically investigated in mice and humans. Furthermore, it is unknown whether scar-forming stromal cells have the same origin throughout the central nervous system and in different types of lesions. Read More

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September 2021

[Necrostatin-1 promotes locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury through inhibiting apoptosis and M1 polarization of microglia/macrophage in mice].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Sep;37(9):775-780

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710054, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To investigate the effect of necrostatin-1 on locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in mice, and to explore the role of apoptosis and M1 type-microglia/macrophage-mediated pro-inflammation in the protective effect. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group, necrostatin-1 group, SCI model group, necrostatin-1-treated group after SCI, with 20 mice in each. For SCI model group, mice were anesthetized with 10 g/L pentobarbital sodium with a dose of 8 mL/kg. Read More

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September 2021

Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A is affected in the CNS of Huntington's Disease mice and post-mortem human HD brain.

J Nucl Med 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Antwerp University, Belgium.

Synaptic dysfunction is a primary mechanism underlying Huntington's Disease (HD) progression. This study investigated changes in synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) density by means of C-UCB-J microPET imaging in the central nervous system (CNS) of HD mice. Dynamic C-UCB-J microPET imaging was performed at clinically relevant disease stages (at 3, 7, 10, and 16 months, M) in the heterozygous knock-in Q175DN mouse model of HD and WT littermates ( = 16-18/genotype and time point). Read More

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September 2021

A case of paraplegia due to asymptomatic varicella-zoster virus infection in AIDS patient unexpectedly diagnosed by CSF metagenomic next-generation sequencing.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 16;21(1):963. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of AIDS Prevention and Treatment & Guangxi Universities Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Highly Prevalent Disease, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, No. 22 Shuangyong Road, Nanning, 530021, Guangxi, China.

Background: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection may induce central nervous system complications in HIV/AIDS patients. However, it is rare to have paraplegia caused by VZV infection but no herpes zoster clinically. Asymptomatic VZV infection in HIV/AIDS patient increased the difficulty of diagnosis. Read More

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September 2021