42 results match your criteria cements radiopacifying


Tooth Discoloration Using Calcium Silicate-Based Cements For Simulated Revascularization in Vitro.

Braz Dent J 2021 Jan-Feb;32(1):53-58

Postgraduate Program in Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Taubaté, Taubaté, Brazil.

The endodontic revascularization may be an alternative treatment for necrotic immature teeth, however, several treatment steps may cause tooth discoloration. This study evaluated the use of three calcium silicate-based cements with different radiopacifying agents on the color alteration (∆E) of extracted premolars after simulation of revascularization. Forty single rooted extracted premolars were shaped with #1-6 gates Glidden drills, rinsed with sodium hypochlorite, and filled with fresh human blood. Read More

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Effects of Milling Time, Zirconia Addition, and Storage Environment on the Radiopacity Performance of Mechanically Milled BiO/ZrO Composite Powders.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Jan 24;13(3). Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Research Center of Digital Oral Science and Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan.

Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) typically consists of Portland cement (75 wt.%), bismuth oxide (20 wt.%), and gypsum (5 wt. Read More

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January 2020

Comparative Evaluation of Tissue Response of MTA and Portland Cement with Three Radiopacifying Agents: An Animal Study.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2019 Jan 1;20(1):20-25. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, SRM Dental College and Hospital, SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, Phone: 91-98841 94454, e-mail:

Aim: This study compared the tissue reaction of 80 wt% of White Portland cement (WPC) mixed with 20 wt% of three radiopacifying agents: Bismuth oxide/Iodoform/Zirconium oxide with MTA in rat subcutaneous connective tissue.

Materials And Methods: The study was performed in 18 albino rats by implanting the WPC mixed with radiopacifying agents loaded in a polyethylene tube. Empty tubes were used as a control. Read More

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January 2019

Ytterbium Oxide as Radiopacifier of Calcium Silicate-Based Cements. Physicochemical and Biological Properties.

Braz Dent J 2018 Sep-Oct;29(5):452-458

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

This study evaluated physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity and bioactivity of MTA Angelus (MTA), calcium silicate-based cement (CSC) and CSC with 30% Ytterbium oxide (CSC/Yb2O3). Setting time was evaluated using Gilmore needles. Compressive strength was evaluated in a mechanical machine. Read More

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Interfacial Characteristics and Cytocompatibility of Hydraulic Sealer Cements.

J Endod 2018 Jun 2;44(6):1007-1017. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Surgery, University of Malta, Msida, Malta; School of Dentistry, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: The stability and long-term success of root canal obturation depends on the choice of sealer because the sealer bonds to the dentin and stabilizes the solid cone. Furthermore, the sealer needs to be nontoxic because sealer toxicity will certainly lead to treatment failure. The aim of this study was to assess the sealer-dentin interface of 3 hydraulic root canal sealers and to evaluate their cytocompatibility compared with AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany). Read More

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Physico-chemical and Biological Properties of a New Portland Cement-based Root Repair Material.

Eur Endod J 2018 2;3(1):38-47. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Department of Materials Science, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Objective: To propose bismuth carbonate, a radiopacifying agent, as a new endodontic root repair material that was added to Portland cement (PC) at 2 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 15 wt%, and physicochemical and biological properties of each formulation were evaluated in comparison to MTA-Angelus.

Methods: Mixed and powder samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray power diffraction (XRD), and the semiquantitative constitution of the powder was determined by energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Setting time was evaluated by Vicat needle and radiopacity analysed with digital X-ray. Read More

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November 2017

Development of novel tricalcium silicate-based endodontic cements with sintered radiopacifier phase.

Clin Oral Investig 2016 Jun 1;20(5):967-82. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Surgery, Mater Dei Hospital, University of Malta Medical School, Msida, MSD 2090, Malta.

Objectives: All implants, bone and endodontic cements need to be sufficiently radiopaque to be able to be distinguished from neighbouring anatomical structures post-operatively. For this purpose, radiopacifying materials are added to the cements to render them sufficiently radiopaque. Bismuth oxide has been quite a popular choice of radiopacifier in endodontic materials. Read More

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The effect of radiopacifiers agents on pH, calcium release, radiopacity, and antimicrobial properties of different calcium hydroxide dressings.

Microsc Res Tech 2015 Jul 19;78(7):620-5. Epub 2015 May 19.

Department of Operative Dentistry, Dental Materials and Endodontics, Dental School of Bauru, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, pH level, calcium ion release, and radiopacity of calcium hydroxide pastes associated with three radiopacifying agents (iodoform, zinc oxide, and barium sulfate). For the pH and calcium release tests, 45 acrylic teeth were utilized and immersed in ultrapure water. After 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days the solution was analyzed by using a pH meter and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Read More

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Physicochemical properties of calcium silicate cements associated with microparticulate and nanoparticulate radiopacifiers.

Clin Oral Investig 2016 Jan 8;20(1):83-90. Epub 2015 May 8.

Araraquara School of Dentistry, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: The objective of this paper was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of calcium silicate cements with different chemical compositions, associated with radiopacifying agents.

Materials And Methods: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Angelus, calcium silicate cement with additives (CSC), and resinous calcium silicate cement (CSCR) were evaluated, with the addition of the following radiopacifiers: microparticles (micro) or nanoparticles (nano) of zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)), niobium oxide (Nb(2)O(5)), bismuth oxide (Bi(2)O(3)), or calcium tungstate (CaWO(4)). Setting time was evaluated using Gilmore needles. Read More

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January 2016

Clinical and radiographic evaluation of Portland cement added to radiopacifying agents in primary molar pulpotomies.

Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2015 Oct 19;16(5):377-82. Epub 2015 Mar 19.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Orthodontics and Public Health, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Alameda Dr. Octávio Pinheiro Brisolla, 9-75, Bauru, São Paulo, 17012-901, Brazil.

Aim: This was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of Portland cement (PC) added to radiopacifying agents in primary molar pulpotomies.

Methods: Thirty primary mandibular molars of children aged between 5 and 9 years were randomly assigned to the following groups: PC; PC with iodoform (PC + CHI(3)); PC with zirconium oxide (PC + ZrO(2)) and treated by pulpotomy technique. Clinical and radiographic follow-up assessments were performed at 6, 12 and 24 months. Read More

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October 2015

Calcium silicate bioactive cements: Biological perspectives and clinical applications.

Dent Mater 2015 Apr 7;31(4):351-70. Epub 2015 Feb 7.

Laboratory of Biomaterials and Oral Pathology, Dental School, Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: To introduce and to examine the research progress and the investigation on hydraulic calcium silicate cements (HCSCs), well-known as MTA (mineral trioxide aggregate).

Methods: This review paper introduces the most important investigations of the last 20 years and analyze their impact on HCSCs use in clinical application.

Results: HCSCs were developed more than 20 years ago. Read More

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Niobium pentoxide as radiopacifying agent of calcium silicate-based material: evaluation of physicochemical and biological properties.

Clin Oral Investig 2015 Nov 3;19(8):2015-25. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, UNESP-Univ. Estadual Paulista, Dental School, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Objectives: The physicochemical properties and the tissue reaction promoted by microparticulated or nanoparticulated niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) added to calcium silicate-based cement (CS), compared to MTA-Angelus™, were evaluated.

Materials And Methods: Materials were submitted to the tests of radiopacity, setting time, pH, and calcium ion release. Polyethylene tubes filled with the materials were implanted into rats subcutaneously. Read More

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November 2015

Calcium Silicate-Based Cements Associated with Micro- and Nanoparticle Radiopacifiers: Physicochemical Properties and Bioactivity.

Int Sch Res Notices 2015 23;2015:874283. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, University of Estadual Paulista (UNESP), 14801-903 Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and bioactivity of two formulations of calcium silicate-based cements containing additives (CSCM) or resin (CSCR), associated with radiopacifying agents zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and niobium oxide (Nb2O5) as micro- and nanoparticles; calcium tungstate (CaWO4); and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3). MTA Angelus was used as control. Read More

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Evaluation of conventional and digital radiography capacities for distinguishing dental materials on radiograms depending on the present radiopacifying agent.

Vojnosanit Pregl 2014 Nov;71(11):1006-12

Background/aim: The radiopacity of an endodontic material can considerably vary as measured on film and a digital sensor. Digital radiography offers numerous advantages over conventional film-based radiography in dental clinical practice regarding both diagnostic capabilities and postintervention procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of conventional and charge-conpled device (CCD) based digital radiography to detect material on radiograph depending on the radio-pacifying agent present in the mate- rial. Read More

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November 2014

Biocompatibility of Portland cement combined with different radiopacifying agents.

J Oral Sci 2014 Mar;56(1):29-34

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Orthodontics and Public Health, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of rat subcutaneous tissue to Portland cement combined with two different radiopacifying agents, iodoform (CHI3) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2). These materials were placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of Wistar rats for 7 and 15 days. The specimens were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and inflammatory reaction parameters were evaluated by light microscopy. Read More

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Microparticulated and nanoparticulated zirconium oxide added to calcium silicate cement: Evaluation of physicochemical and biological properties.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2014 Dec 20;102(12):4336-45. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Dental School - Araraquara, UNESP (Univ. Estadual Paulista), Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The physicochemical and biological properties of calcium silicate-based cement (CS) associated to microparticulated (micro) or nanoparticulated (nano) zirconium oxide (ZrO2 ) were compared with CS and bismuth oxide (BO) with CS. The pH, release of calcium ions, radiopacity, setting time, and compression strength of the materials were evaluated. The tissue reaction promoted by these materials in the subcutaneous was also investigated by morphological, immunohistochemical, and quantitative analyses. Read More

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December 2014

Solubility and disintegration of new calcium aluminate cement (EndoBinder) containing different radiopacifying agents.

J Endod 2014 Feb 31;40(2):261-5. Epub 2013 Aug 31.

Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Ribeirão Preto School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the solubility and disintegration of EndoBinder (EB) containing 3 different radiopacifying agents, bismuth oxide (Bi2O3), zinc oxide (ZnO), or zirconium oxide (ZrO2), in comparison with gray mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA) and white MTA (WMTA).

Methods: Ten specimens of each cement were made in a stainless steel matrix (20 × 1.5 mm) according to Specification no. Read More

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February 2014

The influence of different radiopacifying agents on the radiopacity, compressive strength, setting time, and porosity of Portland cement.

Clin Oral Investig 2014 Jul;18(6):1597-604

Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate the radiopacity, compressive strength, setting time, and porosity of white Portland cement (PC) with the addition of bismuth oxide (Bi2O3), zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), and ytterbium trifluoride (YbF3) after immersion at 37 °C for 7 days in distilled water or phosphate buffer saline.

Materials And Methods: Specimens measuring 8 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness were fabricated from PC with the addition of 10, 20, and 30 wt% Bi2O3, ZrO2 or YbF3. ProRoot MTA (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK, USA) and pure PC were used as controls. Read More

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Physicochemical and mechanical properties of zirconium oxide and niobium oxide modified Portland cement-based experimental endodontic sealers.

Int Endod J 2014 May 28;47(5):437-48. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Aim: To evaluate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of Portland cement-based experimental sealers (ES) with different radiopacifying agents (zirconium oxide and niobium oxide micro- and nanoparticles) in comparison with the following conventional sealers: AH Plus, MTA Fillapex and Sealapex.

Methodology: The materials were tested for setting time, compressive strength, flow, film thickness, radiopacity, solubility, dimensional stability and formaldehyde release. Data were subjected to anova and Tukey tests (P < 0. Read More

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Tantalum oxide and barium sulfate as radiopacifiers in injectable calcium phosphate-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) cements for monitoring in vivo degradation.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2014 Jan 24;102(1):141-9. Epub 2013 Apr 24.

Department of Biomaterials, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Implantology and Periodontology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Monitoring the degradation of calcium phosphate-based bone substitute materials in vivo by means of noninvasive techniques (e.g., radiography) is often a problem due to the chemical resemblance of those substitutes with the mineral phase of bone. Read More

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January 2014

Influence of radiopacifying agents on the solubility, pH and antimicrobial activity of portland cement.

Braz Dent J 2012 ;23(5):515-20

Center of Health Sciences, Sagrado Coração University, Bauru, SP, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference of the radiopacifiers bismuth oxide (BO), bismuth carbonate (BC), bismuth subnitrate (BS), and zirconiun oxide (ZO) on the solubility, alkalinity and antimicrobial properties of white Portland cement (WPC). The substances were incorporated to PC, at a ratio of 1:4 (v/v) and subjected to a solubility test. To evaluate the pH, the cements were inserted into retrograde cavities prepared in simulated acrylic teeth and immediately immersed in deionized water. Read More

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December 2013

Characterization of set Intermediate Restorative Material, Biodentine, Bioaggregate and a prototype calcium silicate cement for use as root-end filling materials.

Int Endod J 2013 Jul 4;46(7):632-41. Epub 2013 Jan 4.

Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malta, Msida, Malta.

Aim: To investigate the composition of materials and leachate of a hydrated prototype cement composed of tricalcium silicate and radiopacifier and compare this to other tricalcium silicate-based cements (Biodentine and Bioaggregate) to assess whether the additives in the proprietary brand cements affect the hydration of the materials, using Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), a standard root-end filling material as a control.

Methodology: The materials investigated included a prototype-radiopacified tricalcium silicate cement, Biodentine, Bioaggregate and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM). The pH and calcium ion concentration of the leachate were investigated. Read More

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The impact of zirconium oxide radiopacifier on the early hydration behaviour of white Portland cement.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2013 Jan 23;33(1):427-33. Epub 2012 Sep 23.

School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

Zirconium oxide has been identified as a candidate radiopacifying agent for use in Portland cement-based biomaterials. During this study, the impact of 20 wt.% zirconium oxide on the hydration and setting reactions of white Portland cement (WPC) was monitored by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), (29)Si and (27)Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Vicat apparatus. Read More

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January 2013

pH and Antimicrobial Activity of Portland Cement Associated with Different Radiopacifying Agents.

ISRN Dent 2012 16;2012:469019. Epub 2012 Oct 16.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, São Paulo State University (UNESP), 14801-385 Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and pH changes induced by Portland cement (PC) alone and in association with radiopacifiers. Methods. Read More

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November 2012

Staining susceptibility of new calcium aluminate cement (EndoBinder) in teeth: a 1-year in vitro study.

Dent Traumatol 2013 Oct 16;29(5):383-8. Epub 2012 Oct 16.

Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Ribeirão Preto School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Aim: To evaluate the staining susceptibility of new calcium aluminate cement (EndoBinder, EB) in teeth, with or without radiopacifying agent, in comparison with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA).

Materials And Methods: Forty bovine incisors were used. After biomechanical preparation and filling, 2 mm of their fillings were removed for cervical plug fabrication (n = 10): EB without radiopacifier; EndoBinder + Bismuth Oxide (EBBO); Gray mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA) and White mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA). Read More

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October 2013

Characterization and analyses of acid-extractable and leached trace elements in dental cements.

Int Endod J 2012 Aug 6;45(8):737-43. Epub 2012 Mar 6.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Surgery, University of Malta, Msida, Malta.

Aims: Determination of the elemental constitution and investigation of the total and leachable arsenic, chromium and lead in Portland cement, pure tricalcium silicate, Biodentine, Bioaggregate and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Angelus.

Methodology: The chemical composition of Portland cement, MTA Angelus, tricalcium silicate cement, Biodentine and Bioaggregate was determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Measurements of arsenic, lead and chromium were taken with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), following acid digestion on the hydrated material and on leachates of cements soaked in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). Read More

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Effect of different radiopacifying agents on the physicochemical properties of white Portland cement and white mineral trioxide aggregate.

J Endod 2012 Mar 15;38(3):394-7. Epub 2011 Dec 15.

Department of Operative Dentistry, Dental Materials and Endodontics, Dental School of Bauru, University of São Paulo, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH, calcium ion release, setting time, and solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) and white Portland cement (WPC) combined with the following radiopacifying agents: bismuth oxide (BO), calcium tungstate (CT), and zirconium oxide (ZO).

Methods: Fifty acrylic teeth with root-end filling material were immersed in ultrapure water for measurement of pH and calcium release (atomic absorption spectrophotometry) at 3, 24, 72, and 168 hours. For evaluation of setting time, each material was analyzed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials guidelines 266/08. Read More

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The effect of curing conditions on the physical properties of tricalcium silicate cement for use as a dental biomaterial.

Int Endod J 2012 Apr 2;45(4):326-36. Epub 2011 Nov 2.

Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malta, Msida, Malta.

Aim: To investigate the physical properties of tricalcium silicate (TCS) with and without the addition of a radiopacifier and compare them with that of Portland cement (PC) and radiopaque PC in an mineral trioxide aggregate-like system.

Methodology: Tricalcium silicate, PC and radiopacified variants containing 20% bismuth oxide were tested for radiopacity, compressive strength, setting time and dimensional stability. All the testing was performed at 37 °C and under different environmental conditions namely at 100% humidity or immersed in either water or Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). Read More

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Tantalumpentoxide as a radiopacifier in injectable calcium phosphate cements for bone substitution.

Tissue Eng Part C Methods 2011 Sep 20;17(9):907-13. Epub 2011 Jun 20.

Department of Biomaterials, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

The chemical resemblance of calcium phosphate (CaP) cements and the mineral phase of bone is a problem in distinguishing CaP cement from bone tissue by means of common, noninvasive techniques (e.g., X-ray imaging and microcomputed tomography [μCT]). Read More

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September 2011

Cytotoxicity of Portland cement with different radiopacifying agents: a cell death study.

J Endod 2011 Feb;37(2):203-10

Department of Restorative Dentistry, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of white Portland cement (PC) alone or associated with bismuth oxide (PCBi), zirconium oxide (PCZir), and calcium tungstate (PCCa) in 2 cell lineages.

Methods: Murine periodontal ligament cells (mPDL) and rat osteosarcoma cells (ROS 17/2.8) were exposed for 24 hours to specific concentrations of fresh PC and PC associations with radiopacifiers. Read More

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February 2011