315,160 results match your criteria cellular processes


Temporal order of mutations influences cancer initiation dynamics.

Phys Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Chemistry and Rice Quantum Institute, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, USA, Houston, Texas, 77005-1892, UNITED STATES.

Cancer is a set of genetic diseases that are driven by mutations. It was recently discovered that the temporal order of genetic mutations affects the cancer evolution and even the nature of the disease itself. The mechanistic origin of these observations, however, remain not well understood. Read More

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Lipolytic enzymes and free fatty acids at the endothelial interface.

Atherosclerosis 2021 May 28;329:1-8. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Lipids released from circulating lipoproteins by intravascular action of lipoprotein lipase (LpL) reach parenchymal cells in tissues with a non-fenestrated endothelium by transfer through or around endothelial cells. The actions of LpL are controlled at multiple sites, its synthesis and release by myocytes and adipocytes, its transit and association with the endothelial cell luminal surface, and finally its activation and inhibition by a number of proteins and by its product non-esterified fatty acids. Multiple pathways mediate endothelial transit of lipids into muscle and adipose tissues. Read More

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Circadian misalignment leads to changes in cortisol rhythms, blood biochemical variables and serum miRNA profiles.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 12;567:9-16. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

The circadian clock plays a critical role in synchronizing the inner molecular, metabolic and physiological processes to environmental cues that cycle with a period of 24 h. Non-24 h and shift schedules are commonly used in maritime operations, and both of which can disturb circadian rhythms. In this study, we first conducted an experiment in which the volunteers followed a 3-d rotary schedule with consecutive shift in sleep time (rotatory schedule), and analyzed the changes in salivary cortisol rhythms and blood variables. Read More

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Nanonewton scale adhesion force measurements on biotinylated microbeads with a robotic micropipette.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jun 3;602:291-299. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Department of Biological Physics, Budapest, Hungary; CellSorter Company for Innovations, Erdőalja út 174, H-1037 Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address:

Binding force between biomolecules has a crucial role in most biological processes. Receptor-ligand interactions transmit physical forces and signals simultaneously. Previously, we employed a robotic micropipette both in live cell and microbead adhesion studies to explore the adhesion force of biomolecules such as cell surface receptors including specific integrins on immune cells. Read More

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Combined toxicity of nano-TiO and Cd to Scenedesmus obliquus: Effects at different concentration ratios.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 9;418:126354. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China.

The continuous release of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) to environments raised concerns on their combined toxicological risks with co-existing contaminants, since MNMs might severely alter the environmental behavior and fate of the contaminants. In this study, the combined toxicity of nano-sized titanium dioxide (nTiO) and cadmium (Cd) to the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the underlying physicochemical mechanisms were investigated for the first time at different concentration ratios of Cd to nTiO to closely mimic the realistic environment scenarios where the concentration ratios of nTiO to other contaminants are constantly changing. Our results suggested that under the co-exposure to different concentration ratios of Cd to nTiO, the co-exposure contaminants exhibited three different combined toxicity modes (antagonistic, partially additive, and synergistic). Read More

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Glutamine addiction in virus-infected mammalian cells: A target of the innate immune system?

Med Hypotheses 2021 Jun 2;153:110620. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Life and Health Sciences, University of Nicosia, Nicosia, Cyprus. Electronic address:

Control of core cell metabolism is a key aspect of the evolutionary conflict between viruses and the host's defence mechanisms. From their side, the invading viruses press the accelerator on their host cell's glycolysis, fatty acid, and glutaminolytic metabolic processes among others. It is also well established that activation of innate immune system responses modulates facets of metabolism such as that of polyamine, cholesterol, tryptophan and many more. Read More

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An update on cell division of Giardia duodenalis trophozoites.

Microbiol Res 2021 Jun 10;250:126807. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV), Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated protozoan that is responsible for many cases of diarrheal disease worldwide and is characterized by its great divergence from the model organisms commonly used in studies of basic cellular processes. The life cycle of Giardia involves an infectious cyst form and a proliferative and mobile trophozoite form. Each Giardia trophozoite has two nuclei and a complex microtubule cytoskeleton that consists of eight flagellar axonemes, basal bodies, the adhesive disc, the funis and the median body. Read More

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In vivo immobilized carbonic anhydrase and its effect on the enhancement of CO absorption rate.

J Biotechnol 2021 Jun 12;336:41-49. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, P.le V. Tecchio, 80, 80125, Napoli, Italy.

Reactive absorption into aqueous solutions promoted by carbonic anhydrase (CA, E.C. 4. Read More

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Targeting Alveolar Repair in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

AstraZeneca PLC, 4625, Cambridge, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland;

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal interstitial lung disease with limited therapeutic options. Current evidence suggests that IPF may be initiated by repeated epithelial injury in the distal lung followed by abnormal wound healing responses which occur due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Mechanisms contributing to chronic damage of the alveolar epithelium in IPF include dysregulated cellular processes such as apoptosis, senescence, abnormal activation of developmental pathways, aging, as well as genetic mutations. Read More

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SIRT7: a sentinel of genome stability.

Open Biol 2021 Jun 16;11(6):210047. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Genome Instability and Human Disease Prevention, Shenzhen University International Cancer Center, Marshall Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shenzhen University School of Medicine, Shenzhen 518055, People's Republic of China.

SIRT7 is a class III histone deacetylase that belongs to the sirtuin family. The past two decades have seen numerous breakthroughs in terms of understanding SIRT7 biological function. We now know that this enzyme is involved in diverse cellular processes, ranging from gene regulation to genome stability, ageing and tumorigenesis. Read More

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ALS-linked mutations impair UBQLN2 stress-induced biomolecular condensate assembly in cells.

J Neurochem 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, 13244, USA.

Mutations in Ubiquilin-2 (UBQLN2), a ubiquitin-binding shuttle protein involved in several protein quality control processes, can lead to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We previously found that wild-type UBQLN2 forms dynamic, membraneless biomolecular condensates upon cellular stress, and undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation in vitro. However, the impact of ALS-linked mutations on UBQLN2 condensate formation in cells is unknown. Read More

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Photon-recycling effect in perovskites for photovoltaic applications: a Monte Carlo study.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2988-2991

Photon recycling has been shown to play an important role in the optoelectronic properties and device performance of perovskite solar cells recently. However, there lacks an analytical method to accurately predict the dynamics of charge carriers and photons and the device performance with photon recycling due to the complexity of multiple electron-photon conversion processes involved in photon recycling. We propose a model based on the Monte Carlo simulation method that combines charge carrier diffusion and photon radiation transport to analyze the effects of photon recycling on electron-photon dynamics and device performance of perovskite solar cells. Read More

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Reducing phenotypic instabilities of a microbial population during continuous cultivation based on cell switching dynamics.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Terra Research and Teaching Centre, Microbial Processes and Interactions (MiPI), Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, Gembloux, Belgium.

Predicting the fate of individual cells among a microbial population (i.e., growth and gene expression) remains a challenge, especially when this population is exposed to very dynamic environmental conditions, such as those encountered during continuous cultivation. Read More

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A Mathematical Study of the Influence of Hypoxia and Acidity on the Evolutionary Dynamics of Cancer.

Bull Math Biol 2021 Jun 15;83(7):83. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Mathematical Sciences "G. L. Lagrange", Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, Torino, Italy.

Hypoxia and acidity act as environmental stressors promoting selection for cancer cells with a more aggressive phenotype. As a result, a deeper theoretical understanding of the spatio-temporal processes that drive the adaptation of tumour cells to hypoxic and acidic microenvironments may open up new avenues of research in oncology and cancer treatment. We present a mathematical model to study the influence of hypoxia and acidity on the evolutionary dynamics of cancer cells in vascularised tumours. Read More

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Prognostic SLC family genes promote cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Experimental and Translational Non-coding RNA Research, Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China.

The solute carrier (SLC) superfamily genes encode more than 300 members that are responsible for the transmembrane transportation of many essential endogenous and exogenous compounds ranging from nutrients to drugs. SLCs are highly expressed in metabolic organs such as the liver, regulating the homeostasis of metabolites and the disposition of drugs. In contrast to their well-studied roles in physiological and pharmacological processes, little is known about the relationship between SLCs and cancer progression. Read More

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CAV1 rs7804372 (T29107A) polymorphism might be a potential risk for digestive cancers: A protocol for systematic review and meta analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26186

Department of Medical Technology, Jiangsu College of Nursing, Huai an, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is an essential structural component of caveolae, regulates cellular processes through complex cellular signaling pathways, and influences tumorigenicity. However, the role of the CAV1 (rs7804372) polymorphism in digestive cancers remains inconclusive. The meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of CAV1 polymorphism on digestive cancer susceptibility and to provide a basis for precise treatment. Read More

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Description of sp. nov., based on phylogenomic analysis.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Jun;71(6)

Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Bhubaneswar - 751023, India.

A novel strain of a member of the genus strain PS-1, was isolated from the skin of fresh water pufferfish () collected from Mahanadi River, India. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, coccoid and non-motile. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phospholipid (PL) and the cell wall sugars were glucose, galactose and ribose. Read More

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PrimPol-mediated repriming facilitates replication traverse of DNA interstrand crosslinks.

EMBO J 2021 Jun 15:e106355. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

DNA Replication Group, Molecular Oncology Programme, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain.

DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) induced by endogenous aldehydes or chemotherapeutic agents interfere with essential processes such as replication and transcription. ICL recognition and repair by the Fanconi Anemia pathway require the formation of an X-shaped DNA structure that may arise from convergence of two replication forks at the crosslink or traversing of the lesion by a single replication fork. Here, we report that ICL traverse strictly requires DNA repriming events downstream of the lesion, which are carried out by PrimPol, the second primase-polymerase identified in mammalian cells after Polα/Primase. Read More

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Detecting FRET in living cells by conventional and spectral flow cytometry.

Cytometry A 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, The University of Texas-MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Assays based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) can be used to study many processes in cell biology. Although this is most often done with microscopy for fluorescence detection, we report two ways to measure FRET in living cells by flow cytometry. Using a conventional flow cytometer and the "3-cube method" for intensity-based calculation of FRET efficiency, we measured the enzymatic activity of specific kinases in cells expressing a genetically-encoded reporter. Read More

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Synthesis and screening of 6-alkoxy purine analogs as cell type-selective apoptotic inducers in Jurkat cells.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2021 Jun 15:e2100095. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Medicinal & Organic Chemistry and Excellence Research Unit of "Chemistry Applied to Biomedicine and the Environment", Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Purines are ubiquitous structures in cell biology involved in a multitude of cellular processes, because of which substituted purines and analogs are considered excellent scaffolds in drug design. In this study, we explored the key structural features of a purine-based proapoptotic hit, 8-tert-butyl-9-phenyl-6-benzyloxy-9H-purine (1), by setting up a library of 6-alkoxy purines with the aim of elucidating the structural requirements that govern its biological activity and to study the cell selectivity of this chemotype. This was done by a phenotypic screening approach based on cell cycle analysis of a panel of six human cancer cell lines, including T cell leukemia Jurkat cells. Read More

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Long-term effects of somatostatin analogues in rat GH-secreting pituitary tumor cell lines.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Laboratory of Geriatric and Oncologic Neuroendocrinology Research, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, IRCCS, Via Zucchi 18, 20095, Cusano Milanino, MI, Italy.

Purpose: First-generation somatostatin analogs, octreotide (OCT) and lanreotide, are the cornerstone for the medical treatment of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumors. A new multireceptor analog, such as pasireotide (PAS), showed better activity than OCT in long-term treatment of patients with acromegaly, but modulation of intracellular key processes is still unclear in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the antitumor activity of OCT and PAS in two GH-secreting pituitary tumor cell lines, GH3 and GH4C1, after a long-term incubation. Read More

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Transcriptome of D14 in vivo x in vitro bovine embryos: is there any difference?

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

University of Brasilia, Animal Science, Merk Millipore /Sigma-Aldrich Brasil, São Paulo, DF, 70910-900, Brazil.

It is well-established that in vitro culture affects quality, gene expression, and epigenetic processes in bovine embryos and that trophectoderm cells are the most susceptible to abnormalities. These changes have been reported as the main factors responsible for losses observed after transfer of in vitro-produced embryos. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of an in vitro system on bovine embryo transcriptional profiles on D14 of development. Read More

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Unravelling HP1 functions: post-transcriptional regulation of stem cell fate.

Chromosoma 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology "C. Darwin", Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a non-histone chromosomal protein first identified in Drosophila as a major component of constitutive heterochromatin, required for stable epigenetic gene silencing in many species including humans. Over the years, several studies have highlighted additional roles of HP1 in different cellular processes including telomere maintenance, DNA replication and repair, chromosome segregation and, surprisingly, positive regulation of gene expression. In this review, we briefly summarize past research and recent results supporting the unexpected and emerging role of HP1 in activating gene expression. Read More

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Metabolomic profiling of single enlarged lysosomes.

Nat Methods 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute on Aging and Brain Disorders, the First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Lysosomes are critical for cellular metabolism and are heterogeneously involved in various cellular processes. The ability to measure lysosomal metabolic heterogeneity is essential for understanding their physiological roles. We therefore built a single-lysosome mass spectrometry (SLMS) platform integrating lysosomal patch-clamp recording and induced nano-electrospray ionization (nanoESI)/mass spectrometry (MS) that enables concurrent metabolic and electrophysiological profiling of individual enlarged lysosomes. Read More

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Continuous-wave near-infrared stimulated-emission depletion microscopy using downshifting lanthanide nanoparticles.

Nat Nanotechnol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Stimulated-emission depletion (STED) microscopy has profoundly extended our horizons to the subcellular level. However, it remains challenging to perform hours-long, autofluorescence-free super-resolution imaging in near-infrared (NIR) optical windows under facile continuous-wave laser depletion at low power. Here we report downshifting lanthanide nanoparticles that enable background-suppressed STED imaging in all-NIR spectral bands (λ = 808 nm, λ = 1,064 nm and λ = 850-900 nm), with a lateral resolution of below 20 nm and zero photobleaching. Read More

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Jejunal mucosa proteomics unravel metabolic adaptive processes to mild chronic heat stress in dairy cows.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12484. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Nutritional Physiology "Oskar Kellner", Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196, Dummerstorf, Germany.

Climate change affects the duration and intensity of heat waves during summer months and jeopardizes animal health and welfare. High ambient temperatures cause heat stress in dairy cows resulting in a reduction of milk yield, feed intake, and alterations in gut barrier function. The objectives of this study were to investigate the mucosal amino acid, glucose and lactate metabolism, as well as the proteomic response of the small intestine in heat stressed (HS) Holstein dairy cows. Read More

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IL-13 deficiency exacerbates lung damage and impairs epithelial-derived type 2 molecules during nematode infection.

Life Sci Alliance 2021 08 14;4(8). Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Wellcome Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

IL-13 is implicated in effective repair after acute lung injury and the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as allergic asthma. Both these processes involve matrix remodelling, but understanding the specific contribution of IL-13 has been challenging because IL-13 shares receptors and signalling pathways with IL-4. Here, we used infection as a model of acute lung damage comparing responses between WT and IL-13-deficient mice, in which IL-4 signalling is intact. Read More

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CD4 T-cell exhaustion: Does it exist and what are its roles in cancer?

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Duke Medical Center

In chronic infections and in cancer, persistent antigen stimulation under suboptimal conditions can lead to the induction of T-cell exhaustion. Exhausted T-cells are characterized by an increased expression of inhibitory markers and a progressive and hierarchical loss of function. While cancer-induced exhaustion in CD8 T-cells has been well-characterized and identified as a therapeutic target (i. Read More

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Auxin Transporters-A Biochemical View.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Plant Systems Biology, School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany.

From embryogenesis to fruit formation, almost every aspect of plant development and differentiation is controlled by the cellular accumulation or depletion of auxin from cells and tissues. The respective auxin maxima and minima are generated by cell-to-cell auxin transport via transporter proteins. Differential auxin accumulation as a result of such transport processes dynamically regulates auxin distribution during differentiation. Read More

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Alarmins/stressorins and immune dysregulation in intractable skin disorders.

Allergol Int 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Dermatology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan.

Unlike other barrier epithelia of internal organs, the stratified squamous epithelium of the skin is always exposed to the external environment. However, the robust barrier structure and function of the skin are highly resistant against external insults so as to not easily allow foreign invasions. Upon sensing danger signals, the innate immunity system is promptly activated. Read More

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