381,053 results match your criteria cellular pathways


Combined histochemical approach in assessing tryptase expression in the mast cell population.

Acta Histochem 2021 Apr 7;123(4):151711. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute for Hematopathology, Hamburg, Germany.

To increase the efficiency of interpretation of mast cell's contribution to the state of a specific tissue microenvironment, it is necessary to detail the molecular composition of their secretome and analyze the pathways of degranulation. Developed method of combining immunomorphological and histochemical staining protocols contributes to the most objective detection of the integral level of tryptase expression in the intraorgan population of the skin mast cells. Novel technique for tryptase detection expands the possibilities of morphological analysis, provides researchers with additional data on the structure of the mast cell population and helps visualize the processing and cytological features and structural targets of tryptase during the development of adaptive and pathological reactions. Read More

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Long noncoding RNA GAS8-AS1: A novel biomarker in human diseases.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 7;139:111572. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China. Electronic address:

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a group of ncRNAs with more than 200 nucleotides. These RNAs can specifically regulate gene expression at both the transcriptional and the post-transcriptional levels, and increasing evidence indicates that they play vital roles in a variety of disease-related cellular processes. The lncRNA GAS8 antisense RNA 1 (GAS8-AS1, also known as C16orf3) is located in the second intron of GAS8 and has been reported to be both abnormally expressed in several diseases and closely correlated with many clinical characteristics. Read More

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Comments on the ambiguity of selected surface markers, signaling pathways and omics profiles hampering the identification of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

Cell Immunol 2021 Mar 29;364:104347. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are important immune-regulatory cells but their identification remains difficult. Here, we provide a critical view on selected surface markers, transcriptional and translational pathways commonly used to identify MDSC by specific, their developmental origin and new possibilities by transcriptional or proteomic profiling. Discrimination of MDSC from their non-suppressive counterparts is a prerequisite for the development of successful therapies. Read More

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Effects of dim artificial light at night on locomotor activity, cardiovascular physiology, and circadian clock genes in a diurnal songbird.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 31;282:117036. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV, USA.

Artificial light is transforming the nighttime environment and quickly becoming one of the most pervasive pollutants on earth. Across taxa, light entrains endogenous circadian clocks that function to synchronize behavioral and physiological rhythms with natural photoperiod. Artificial light at night (ALAN) disrupts these photoperiodic cues and has consequences for humans and wildlife including sleep disruption, physiological stress and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Read More

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High-Fat Diet Drives an Aggressive Pancreatic Cancer Phenotype.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 7;264:163-172. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Surgery, Charleston, South Carolina; Department of Hollings Cancer Center, Charleston, South Carolina; Department of Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina. Electronic address:

Background: Emerging evidence indicates associations between high-fat diet (HFD), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and increased risk of pancreatic cancer. However, individual components of an HFD that increase cancer risk have not been isolated. In addition, a specific pattern of cytokine elevation by which MetS drives pancreatic tumor progression is not well described. Read More

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PM and the typical components cause organelle damage, apoptosis and necrosis: Role of reactive oxygen species.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 27;782:146785. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

In this research, the organelle damage, apoptosis and necrosis induced by PM, BC and Kaolin were studied using human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells. PM, BC and Kaolin all induce cell death, LDH release and excess intracellular ROS generation. For the organelle injuries, Kaolin and high-dose PM (240 μg/mL) cause lysosomal acidification, but BC causes lysosomal alkalization (lysosomal membrane permeabilization, LMP). Read More

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Mitochondrial calcium signaling in the brain and its modulation by neurotropic viruses.

Mitochondrion 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Neurovirology Section, National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, Haryana, India. Electronic address:

Calcium (Ca) plays fundamental and diverse roles in brain cells as a second messenger of many signaling pathways. Given the high energy demand in the brain and the generally non-regenerative state of neurons, the role of brain mitochondrial calcium [Ca] in particular, in regulating ATP generation and determination of cell fate by initiation or inhibition of programmed cell death (PCD) becomes critical. Since [Ca] signaling has a central role in brain physiology, it represents an ideal target for viruses to hijack the Ca machinery to favor their own persistence, replication and/or dissemination by modulating cell death. Read More

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Anti-inflammatory activity of the Tongmai Yangxin Pill in the treatment of Coronary Heart Disease is associated with Estrogen Receptor and NF-κB signaling pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 7:114106. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Integrative Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 301617, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The Tongmai Yangxin Pill (TMYX) is a patented traditional Chinese medicine originating from two classic prescriptions, Zhigancao Decoction and Shenmai Yin, which composed of 11 Chinese medicinal herbs: Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) DC., Spatholobus suberectus Dunn, Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb. Read More

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Understanding the cellular origin and progression of esophageal cancer using esophageal organoids.

Cancer Lett 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Three-dimensional (3D) organoids are a novel tool to model epithelial cell biology and human diseases of the esophagus. 3D organoid culture systems have been utilized to investigate the pathobiology of esophageal cancer, including both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Additional organoid-based approaches for study of esophageal development and benign esophageal diseases have provided key insights into esophageal keratinocyte differentiation and mucosal regeneration. Read More

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A functional outside-in signaling network of proteoglycans and matrix molecules regulating autophagy.

Matrix Biol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, and the Translational Cellular Oncology Program, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Proteoglycans and selected extracellular matrix constituents are emerging as intrinsic and critical regulators of evolutionarily conversed, intracellular catabolic pathways. Often, these secreted molecules evoke sustained autophagy in a variety of cell types, tissues, and model systems. The unique properties of proteoglycans have ushered in a paradigmatic shift to broaden our understanding of matrix-mediated signaling cascades. Read More

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Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 radiosensitizes HNSCC xenograft by inhibition of DNA damage repair, nucleotide metabolism, and radiation-induced tumor vasculogenesis.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Radiation Biology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Electronic address:

Purpose: Recent pre-clinical studies suggest combining the HSP90 inhibitor AT13387 (Onalespib) with radiation (IR) against colon cancer and HNSCC. These studies emphasized that AT13387 down-regulates HSP90 client proteins involved in oncogenic signaling and DNA repair mechanisms as major drivers of enhanced radiosensitivity. Given the large array of client proteins HSP90 directs, we hypothesized that other key proteins or signaling pathways may be inhibited by AT13387 and contribute to enhanced radiosensitivity. Read More

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Meet me halfway: Are in vitro 3D cancer models on the way to replace in vivo models for nanomedicine development?

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel; Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. Electronic address:

The complexity and diversity of the biochemical processes that occur during tumorigenesis and metastasis are frequently over-simplified in the traditional in vitro cell cultures. Two-dimensional cultures limit researchers' experimental observations and frequently give rise to misleading and contradictory results. Therefore, in order to overcome the limitations of in vitro studies and bridge the translational gap to in vivo applications, 3D models of cancer cell were developed in the last decades. Read More

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MiR-3663-3p participates in the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation activity of baicalein by targeting SH3GL1 and negatively regulating EGFR/ERK/NF-κB signaling.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:115522. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Biodiagnosis and Biotherapy, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710004, China; Shaanxi Provincial Clinical Research Center for Hepatic & Splenic Diseases, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710004, China; Center for Tumor and Immunology, the Precision Medical Institute, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710004, China. Electronic address:

Baicalein is a purified flavonoid that exhibits anticancer effects in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. In this study, we found that baicalein inhibited HCC cell growth, induced apoptosis, and blocked cell cycle arrest at the S phase in vitro, as well as reduced HCC tumor volume and weight in vivo. Read More

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Upregulation of histone acetylation reverses organic anion transporter 2 repression and enhances 5-fluorouracil sensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:114546. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Drug Metabolism and Pharmaceutical Analysis; Cancer Center of Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti-Cancer Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. The failure of chemotherapy in HCC patients is partly due to inadequate intracellular drug accumulation caused by abnormally expressed drug transporters. Human organic anion transporter 2 (hOAT2), a transporter mainly expressed in liver and kidney, is responsible for uptake of various antineoplastic drugs such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Read More

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Unveiling the Pathogenesis of Perineural Invasion from the Perspective of Neuroactive molecules.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:114547. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Perineural invasion (PNI) is characterized by an encounter between the cancer cells and neuronal fibers and holds an extremely poor prognosis for malignant tumors. The exact molecular mechanism behind PNI yet remains to be explored. However, it is worth-noting that an involvement of the neuroactive molecules plays a major part in this process. Read More

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HDL: Fact, fiction, or function? HDL cholesterol and cardiovascular risk.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Apr;28(2):166-173

Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, USA.

The measurement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is highly utilized by clinicians to help predict cardiovascular risk, but this measure is not causally associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events. The use of Mendelian randomization studies has led to a change in investigative attention from the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration to its physiological functions. High-density lipoprotein plays key roles in important pathways related to the development of atherosclerotic disease including reverse cholesterol transport, oxidation and inflammation, and endothelial function as well as in other physiological systems including immune system modulation, cellular apoptosis, and endothelial progenitor cell homeostasis. Read More

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REPEATED EXPOSURE TO JWH-018 INDUCES ADAPTIVE CHANGES IN THE MESOLIMBIC AND MESOCORTICAL DOPAMINE PATHWAYS, GLIAL CELLS ALTERATION AND BEHAVIOURAL CORRELATES.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Italy.

Background And Purpose: Spice/K2 herbal mixtures, containing synthetic cannabinoids such as JWH-018, have been marketed as marijuana surrogates since 2004. We demonstrated that JWH-018 has cannabinoid CB1 receptor-dependent reinforcing properties and acutely increases dopamine transmission selectively in the NAc shell. Here we tested the hypothesis that repeated administration of JWH-018 (i) modulates behaviour, (ii) affects dopamine transmission and its responsiveness to motivational stimuli, and (iii) is associated with a neuroinflammatory phenotype. Read More

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UNC93B1 curbs cytosolic DNA signaling by promoting STING degradation.

Eur J Immunol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Unit of Viral Hepatitis, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

UNC93B1 is a trafficking chaperone of endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and plays an essential role in the TLR-mediated innate signaling. However, whether it is also involved in other innate immune sensing or cellular pathways remains largely unexplored. Here we investigated the role of UNC93B1 in cytosolic DNA-triggered cGAS-STING signaling in mouse and human cell lines. Read More

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Identification of transcriptomic signatures and crucial pathways involved in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

Endocrine 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Xiamen Diabetes Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Purpose: Our study aimed to uncover the crucial genes and functional pathways involved in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Methods: Liver transcriptome datasets were integrated with Robust rank aggregation (RRA) method, and transcriptomic signatures for NASH progression and fibrosis severity in NAFLD were developed. The functions of transcriptomic signatures were explored by multiple bioinformatic analyses, and their diagnostic role was also evaluated. Read More

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Viral cell-to-cell spread: Conventional and non-conventional ways.

Adv Virus Res 2020 29;108:85-125. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, United States. Electronic address:

A critical step in the life cycle of a virus is spread to a new target cell, which generally involves the release of new viral particles from the infected cell which can then initiate infection in the next target cell. While cell-free viral particles released into the extracellular environment are necessary for long distance spread, there are disadvantages to this mechanism. These include the presence of immune system components, the low success rate of infection by single particles, and the relative fragility of viral particles in the environment. Read More

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September 2020

Betaherpesvirus assembly and egress: Recent advances illuminate the path.

Adv Virus Res 2020 7;108:337-392. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology & Immunology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, United States. Electronic address:

The human betaherpesviruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV; species Human betaherpesvirus 5) and human herpesviruses 6A, 6B, and 7 (HHV-6A, -6B, and -7; species Human betaherpesviruses 6A, 6B, and 7) are highly prevalent and can cause severe disease in immune-compromised and immune-naive populations in well- and under-developed communities. Herpesvirus virion assembly is an intricate process that requires viral orchestration of host systems. In this review, we describe recent advances in some of the many cellular events relevant to assembly and egress of betaherpesvirus virions. Read More

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October 2020

Cell membrane mechanics and mechanosensory transduction.

Curr Top Membr 2020 ;86:83-141

Molecular Cardiology and Biophysics Division, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Sydney, Australia; St. Vincent's Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

The rapid progress in mechanobiology has brought together many scientific and engineering disciplines to work hand in hand toward better understanding of the role that mechanical force plays in functioning and evolution of different forms of life. New tools designed by engineers helped to develop new methods and techniques for investigation of mechanical properties of biological cells and tissues. This multidisciplinary approach made it clear that cell mechanics is tightly linked to intracellular signaling pathways, which directly regulate gene expression in response to mechanical stimuli originating outside or inside the cells. Read More

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January 2020

Mechanics of the cell: Interaction mechanisms and mechanobiological models.

Curr Top Membr 2020 2;86:143-184. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, United States. Electronic address:

The importance of cell mechanics has long been recognized for the cell development and function. Biomechanics plays an important role in cell metabolism, regulation of mechanotransduction pathways and also modulation of nuclear response. The mechanical properties of the cell are likely determined by, among many others, the cytoskeleton elasticity, membrane tension and cell-substrate adhesion. Read More

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October 2020

Endothelial cell autophagy in homeostasis and cancer.

FEBS Lett 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Cell Death Research and Therapy Group, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for the degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic materials, is increasingly recognized as a major player in endothelial cell (EC) biology and vascular pathology. Particularly in solid tumors, tumor microenvironmental stress such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, inflammatory mediators and metabolic aberrations stimulate autophagy in tumor-associated blood vessels. Increased autophagy in ECs may serve as a mechanism to alleviate stress and restrict exacerbated inflammatory responses. Read More

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Transcriptional networks controlling stromal cell differentiation.

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Center for Functional Genomics and Tissue Plasticity, Functional Genomics & Metabolism Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Stromal progenitors are found in many different tissues, where they play an important role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis owing to their ability to differentiate into parenchymal cells. These progenitor cells are differentially pre-programmed by their tissue microenvironment but, when cultured and stimulated in vitro, these cells - commonly referred to as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) - exhibit a marked plasticity to differentiate into many different cell lineages. Loss-of-function studies in vitro and in vivo have uncovered the involvement of specific signalling pathways and key transcriptional regulators that work in a sequential and coordinated fashion to activate lineage-selective gene programmes. Read More

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Temporally specific roles of ventral tegmental area projections to the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex in attention and impulse control.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Translational Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands

Deficits in impulse control and attention are prominent in the symptomatology of mental disorders such as ADHD, substance addiction, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Frontostriatal structures, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAcb), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and their dopaminergic innervation from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been implicated in impulse control and attention. What remains unclear, is how the temporal pattern of activity of these VTA projections contributes to these processes. Read More

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Biosensor-based multi-gene pathway optimization for enhancing the production of glycolate.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

National Engineering Laboratory for Cereal Fermentation Technology (NELCF), Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China;

Glycolate is widely used in industry, especially in the fields of chemical cleaning, cosmetics, and medical materials, and has broad market prospects for the future. Recent advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have significantly improved the titer and yield of glycolate. However, an expensive inducer was used in previous studies that is not feasible for use in large-scale industrial fermentations. Read More

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Immunometabolism in systemic lupus erythematosus: Relevant pathogenetic mechanisms and potential clinical applications.

J Formos Med Assoc 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, 10630, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, 10630, Taiwan; School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei, 24205, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex, heterogeneous, systemic autoimmune disease involving a wide array of aberrant innate and adaptive immune responses. The immune microenvironment of SLE promotes the metabolic reprogramming of immune cells, leading to immune dyshomeostasis and triggering autoimmune inflammation. Different immune subsets switch from a resting state to a highly metabolic active state by alternating the redox-sensitive signaling pathway and the involved metabolic intermediates to amplify the inflammatory response, which is critical in SLE pathogenesis. Read More

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DNA methylation and gene expression integration in cardiovascular disease.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 Apr 9;13(1):75. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Genetics Research Group, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Dr Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The integration of different layers of omics information is an opportunity to tackle the complexity of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and to identify new predictive biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets. Our aim was to integrate DNA methylation and gene expression data in an effort to identify biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease risk in a community-based population. We accessed data from the Framingham Offspring Study, a cohort study with data on DNA methylation (Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip; Illumina) and gene expression (Human Exon 1. Read More

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Genome-wide analysis of long noncoding RNA expression profile in nasal mucosa with allergic rhinitis.

BMC Med Genomics 2021 Apr 9;14(1):100. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, 150 Jimo Road, Shanghai, 200120, People's Republic of China.

Background: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of human immune diseases. However, the expression profile and precise function of lncRNAs in allergic rhinitis (AR) remain unknown. In the present study, genome-wide analysis of lncRNA expression was performed in the nasal mucosa tissue and mRNA regulatory relationship was examined among patients with or without AR. Read More

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