77,440 results match your criteria cellular memory

Personalized combination nano-immunotherapy for robust induction and tumor infiltration of CD8 T cells.

Biomaterials 2021 Apr 27;274:120844. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA; Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA. Electronic address:

Identification of tumor-specific mutations, called neoantigens, offers new exciting opportunities for personalized cancer immunotherapy. However, it remains challenging to achieve robust induction of neoantigen-specific T cells and drive their infiltration into the tumor microenvironment (TME). Here, we have developed a novel polyethyleneimine (PEI)-based personalized vaccine platform carrying neoantigen peptides and CpG adjuvants in a compact nanoparticle (NP) for their spatio-temporally concerted delivery. Read More

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Antitumor effects of iPSC-based cancer vaccine in pancreatic cancer.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University, 265 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and cancer cells share cellular similarities and transcriptomic profiles. Here, we show that an iPSC-based cancer vaccine, comprised of autologous iPSCs and CpG, stimulated cytotoxic antitumor CD8 T cell effector and memory responses, induced cancer-specific humoral immune responses, reduced immunosuppressive CD4 T regulatory cells, and prevented tumor formation in 75% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) mice. We demonstrate that shared gene expression profiles of "iPSC-cancer signature genes" and others are overexpressed in mouse and human iPSC lines, PDAC cells, and multiple human solid tumor types compared with normal tissues. Read More

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Rapid progression is associated with lymphoid follicle dysfunction in SIV-infected infant rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 7;17(5):e1009575. Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

HIV-infected infants are at an increased risk of progressing rapidly to AIDS in the first weeks of life. Here, we evaluated immunological and virological parameters in 25 SIV-infected infant rhesus macaques to understand the factors influencing a rapid disease outcome. Infant macaques were infected with SIVmac251 and monitored for 10 to 17 weeks post-infection. Read More

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CD200R1 and CD200R1L expression is regulated during B cell development in swine and modulates the Ig production in response to the TLR7 ligand imiquimoid.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251187. Epub 2021 May 7.

Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Madrid, Spain.

The CD200R family comprises a group of paired receptors that can modulate the activation of immune cells. They are expressed both on myeloid cells and lymphocyte subsets. Here we report that the expression of these receptors on porcine B cells is tightly regulated, being mainly expressed on mature cells. Read More

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A biochemical mechanism for time-encoding memory formation within individual synapses of Purkinje cells.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251172. Epub 2021 May 7.

Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Within the classical eye-blink conditioning, Purkinje cells within the cerebellum are known to suppress their tonic firing rates for a well defined time period in response to the conditional stimulus after training. The temporal profile of the drop in tonic firing rate, i.e. Read More

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Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is not pathogenic in lupus nephritis.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Leukocyte Signalling Laboratory, Department of Immunology and Pathology, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) is an autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibodies that form immune complexes with self-antigens, which deposit in various tissues, leading to inflammation and disease. The etiology of disease is complex and still not completely elucidated. Dysregulated inflammation is an important disease feature, and the mainstay of lupus treatment still utilizes nonspecific anti-inflammatory drugs. Read More

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Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and tissue resident memory cells in colorectal cancer based on microsatellite instability and BRAF status.

World J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr;12(4):238-248

Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2000, NSW, Australia.

Background: Recent studies in non-colorectal malignancy have associated T resident memory (T) cells with improved patient survival. It is unknown if T plays a role in colorectal cancer (CRC).

Aim: To examine the potential role of T cells in providing immunogenicity in CRC stratified by microsatellite instability (MSI) and BRAF status. Read More

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Suppression of the Immune Response by Syngeneic Splenocytes Adoptively Transferred to Sublethally Irradiated Mice.

Acta Naturae 2021 Jan-Mar;13(1):116-126

Core Facility Centre, Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119334 Russia.

The peripheral T-cell pool consists of several, functionally distinct populations of CD8 T cells. CD44 and CD62L are among the major surface markers that allow us to define T-cell populations. The expression of these molecules depends on the functional status of a T lymphocyte. Read More

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Single-Cell Profiling of Kidney Transplant Recipients With Immunosuppressive Treatment Reveals the Dynamic Immune Characteristics.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:639942. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Organ Transplantation, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Kidney transplantation is currently the first choice of treatment for various types of end-stage renal failure, but there are major limitations in the application of immunosuppressive protocols after kidney transplantation. When the dose of immunosuppressant is too low, graft rejection occurs easily, while a dose that is too high can lead to graft loss. Therefore, it is very important to explore the immune status of patients receiving immunosuppressive agents after kidney transplantation. Read More

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Circulating Adaptive Immune Cells Expressing the Gut Homing Marker α4β7 Integrin Are Decreased in COVID-19.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:639329. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Medicine 1 and Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie (DZI), University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Infection with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a wide range of symptoms including gastrointestinal manifestations, and intestinal epithelial cells are a target of the virus. However, it is unknown how the intestinal immune system contributes to systemic immune responses in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: We characterized peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with active COVID-19 and convalescent patients as well as healthy controls by flow cytometry. Read More

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Single-Cell TCR Sequencing Reveals the Dynamics of T Cell Repertoire Profiling During Infection.

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:637500. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

T cell responses play critical roles in host adaptive immunity against . However, the dynamics and diversity of the T cell immune repertoire in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative pneumonia (PCP) remains unclear. In this study, single-cell RNA and single-cell T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing were applied to cells sorted from lung tissues of mice infected with . Read More

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A single-cell map of intratumoral changes during anti-PD1 treatment of patients with breast cancer.

Nat Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Laboratory for Translational Genetics, Department of Human Genetics, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Immune-checkpoint blockade (ICB) combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves pathological complete response in breast cancer. To understand why only a subset of tumors respond to ICB, patients with hormone receptor-positive or triple-negative breast cancer were treated with anti-PD1 before surgery. Paired pre- versus on-treatment biopsies from treatment-naive patients receiving anti-PD1 (n = 29) or patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy before anti-PD1 (n = 11) were subjected to single-cell transcriptome, T cell receptor and proteome profiling. Read More

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Glutamate and microglia activation as a driver of dendritic apoptosis: a core pathophysiological mechanism to understand schizophrenia.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 May 6;11(1):271. Epub 2021 May 6.

Barcelona Clínic Schizophrenia Unit (BCSU). Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clínic of Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Schizophrenia disorder remains an unsolved puzzle. However, the integration of recent findings from genetics, molecular biology, neuroimaging, animal models and translational clinical research offers evidence that the synaptic overpruning hypothesis of schizophrenia needs to be reassessed. During a critical period of neurodevelopment and owing to an imbalance of excitatory glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, a regionally-located glutamate storm might occur, triggering excessive dendritic pruning with the activation of local dendritic apoptosis machinery. Read More

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Innate allorecognition in transplantation.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Successful allogeneic transplantation has been made possible by suppressing activation of the adaptive immune system. Current immunosuppressive therapy prevents rejection by targeting T and B cells. Despite this effective treatment, it is the innate immune system, which includes dendritic cells, monocytes, natural killer cells, that is responsible for the initiation of the adaptive immune response. Read More

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Pseudoginsenoside-F11 ameliorates okadiac acid-induced learning and memory impairment in rats via modulating protein phosphatase 2A.

Mech Ageing Dev 2021 May 3:111496. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, PR China. Electronic address:

We have reported that pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11) can significantly improve the cognitive impairments in several Alzheimer's disease (AD) models, but the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the effects of PF11 on AD, in particular the underlying mechanisms related with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), were investigated in a rat model induced by okadaic acid (OA), a selective inhibitor of PP2A. The results showed that PF11 treatment dose-dependently improved the learning and memory impairments in OA-induced AD rats. Read More

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Toll-like receptor 4 signaling is critical for the adaptive cellular stress response effects induced by intermittent fasting in the mouse brain.

Neuroscience 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

Among different kinds of dietary energy restriction, intermittent fasting (IF) has been considered a dietary regimen which causes a mild stress to the organism. IF can stimulate proteins and signaling pathways related to cell stress that can culminate in the increase of the body resistance to severe stress conditions. Energy intake reduction induced by IF can induce modulation of receptors, kinases, and phosphatases, which in turn can modulate the activation of transcription factors such as NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and cAMP response element-binding (CREB) which regulate the transcription of genes related to the translation of proteins such as growth factors: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), chaperone proteins: heat shock proteins (HSP), and so on. Read More

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MiR-216a-5p ameliorates learning-memory deficits and neuroinflammatory response of Alzheimer's disease mice via regulation of HMGB1/NF-κB signaling.

Peng Shao

Brain Res 2021 May 3:147511. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yantaishan Hospital, Yantai 264001, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The objective of this study was to explore whether miR-216a-5p could affect the learning-memory ability and inflammatory response of Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice via regulation of the HMGB1/NF-κB pathway.

Methods: Mice were divided into the normal (wild-type C57BL/6 mice), AD (APP/PS1 double-transgenic mice), AD + miR-216a-5p, and AD + vector groups. The Morris water maze test was used to examine learning and memory ability. Read More

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Traumatic Brain Injury: Mechanistic Insight on Pathophysiology and Potential Therapeutic Targets.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, India.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes brain damage, which involves primary and secondary injury mechanisms. Primary injury causes local brain damage, while secondary damage begins with inflammatory activity followed by disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), peripheral blood cells infiltration, brain edema, and the discharge of numerous immune mediators including chemotactic factors and interleukins. TBI alters molecular signaling, cell structures, and functions. Read More

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CNS inflammation after natalizumab therapy for multiple sclerosis: A retrospective histopathological and CSF cohort study.

Brain Pathol 2021 May 6:e12969. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Neuropathology, University Medical Center, Göttingen, Germany.

Natalizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the α4 subunit of the integrins α4ß1 and α4ß7, has been approved for the treatment of active relapsing-remitting MS. Although natalizumab is a highly beneficial drug that effectively reduces the risk of sustained disability progression and the rate of clinical relapses, some patients do not respond to it, and some are at higher risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The histopathological effects after natalizumab therapy are still unknown. Read More

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Comprehensive analysis of N6-methyladenosine -related long non-coding RNAs and immune cell infiltration in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):1708-1724

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

We aimed to illustrate the influence of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and immune cell infiltration in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The relationship of lncRNAs and m6A was identified through gene expression analysis using PERL and R packages. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes gene expression enrichment analysis was performed via gene set enrichment analysis. Read More

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December 2021

Rac-maninoff and Rho-vel: The symphony of Rho-GTPase signaling at excitatory synapses.

Small GTPases 2021 May 6:1-34. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Synaptic connections between neurons are essential for every facet of human cognition and are thus regulated with extreme precision. Rho-family GTPases, molecular switches that cycle between an active GTP-bound state and an inactive GDP-bound state, comprise a critical feature of synaptic regulation. Rho-GTPases are exquisitely controlled by an extensive suite of activators (GEFs) and inhibitors (GAPs and GDIs) and interact with many different signalling pathways to fulfill their roles in orchestrating the development, maintenance, and plasticity of excitatory synapses of the central nervous system. Read More

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Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human dental follicle modulate the aberrant immune response in atopic dermatitis.

Immunotherapy 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Pediatric Allergy & Immunology, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory cutaneous disorder. The advancements in the understanding of AD immunological pathogenesis have caused the development of therapies that suppress the dysregulated immune response. We aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of dental stem cells (dental follicle-mesenchymal stem cells [DF-MSCs]) on AD patients. Read More

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Spatial cytotoxic and memory T cells in tumor predict superior survival outcomes in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

Cancer Med 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Although the association between tumor-infiltrating CD3 T and CD8 T cells and superior survival in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) has been observed, the different spatial localization of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) possesses heterogeneous effects. We performed localized measurements in 260 HGSOC from 2 independent cohorts represented in tissue microarray format to determine the localized expression pattern and clinical significance of CD3 T, CD8 T, and CD45RO cells in HGSOC. Different density of spatial localization of CD3 T, CD8 T, and CD45RO cells exhibited heterogeneous association with OS. Read More

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Oral Administration of Gintonin Protects the Brains of Mice against A-Induced Alzheimer Disease Pathology: Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 16;2021:6635552. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Life Science and Applied Life Science (BK21 FOUR), College of Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea.

The study was aimed at analyzing the protective effects of gintonin in an amyloid beta- (A-) induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. For the development of the A-induced AD mouse model, the amyloid- (A) peptide was stereotaxically injected into the brains of mice. Subsequently, gintonin was administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day/per oral (p. Read More

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The Architecture of Circulating Immune Cells Is Dysregulated in People Living With HIV on Long Term Antiretroviral Treatment and Relates With Markers of the HIV-1 Reservoir, Cytomegalovirus, and Microbial Translocation.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:661990. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Long-term changes in the immune system of successfully treated people living with HIV (PLHIV) remain incompletely understood. In this study, we assessed 108 white blood cell (WBC) populations in a cohort of 211 PLHIV on stable antiretroviral therapy and in 56 HIV-uninfected controls using flow cytometry. We show that marked differences exist in T cell maturation and differentiation between PLHIV and HIV-uninfected controls: PLHIV had reduced percentages of CD4+ T cells and naïve T cells and increased percentages of CD8+ T cells, effector T cells, and T helper 17 (Th17) cells, together with increased Th17/regulatory T cell (Treg) ratios. Read More

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microRNA Fine-Tuning of the Germinal Center Response.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:660450. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Immunology, Ophthalmology and ENT, Universidad Complutense de Madrid School of Medicine, Madrid, Spain.

Germinal centers (GCs) are complex multicellular structures in which antigen-specific B cells undergo the molecular remodeling that enables the generation of high-affinity antibodies and the differentiation programs that lead to the generation of plasma-antibody-secreting cells and memory B cells. These reactions are tightly controlled by a variety of mechanisms, including the post-transcriptional control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs). Through the development of animal models with B cell-specific modified miRNA expression, we have contributed to the understanding of the role of miRNAs in the regulation of GC responses and in B cell neoplasia. Read More

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Development of Stable Chimeric IL-15 for Trans-Presentation by the Antigen Presenting Cells.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:646159. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Science, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, India.

IL-15 is one of the important biologics considered for vaccine adjuvant and treatment of cancer. However, a short half-life and poor bioavailability limit its therapeutic potential. Herein, we have structured IL-15 into a chimeric protein to improve its half-life enabling greater bioavailability for longer periods. Read More

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The human memory T cell compartment changes across tissues of the female reproductive tract.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Seattle, WA, USA.

Memory CD4 T cells in tissues fulfill numerous functions that are critical for local immune homeostasis and protection against pathogens. Previous studies have highlighted the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of circulating and tissue-resident memory CD4 T cells across different human tissues such as skin, lung, liver, and colon. Comparatively little is known in regard to memory CD4 T cells across tissues of the female reproductive tract (FRT). Read More

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Adenosine-related small molecules show utility of recall antigen assay to screen compounds for off-target effects on memory T cells.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9561. Epub 2021 May 5.

JSR Life Sciences, 1280 North Mathilda Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA, 94089, USA.

Extracellular adenosine suppresses T cell immunity in the tumor microenvironment and in vitro treatment of memory T cells with adenosine can suppress antigen-mediated memory T cell expansion. We describe utilizing the recall antigen assay platform to screen small molecule drug off-target effects on memory T cell expansion/function using a dosing regimen based on adenosine treatment. As a proof of principle, we show low dose GS-5734, a monophosphoramidate prodrug of an adenosine analog, does not alter memory T cell recall at lower doses whereas toxicity observed at high dose favors antigen-specific memory T cell survival/proliferation over non-specific CD8 T cells. Read More

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Nicotine Enhances Firing Activity of Layer 5 Pyramidal Neurons in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex through Inhibition of Kv7 Channels.

Biol Pharm Bull 2021 ;44(5):724-731

Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University.

Nicotine enhances attention, working memory and recognition. One of the brain regions associated with these effects of nicotine is the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, cellular mechanisms that induce the enhancing effects of nicotine remain unclear. Read More

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January 2021