469,249 results match your criteria cells studied

The effect of femtosecond laser irradiation on the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus: An in vitro study.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 Jun 4;221:112240. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Laser Institute for Research and Applications LIRA, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt. Electronic address:

We investigated the effect of femtosecond laser irradiation on the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus. In order to improve laser-based antimicrobial therapy and develop a clinically viable modality, various laser parameters such as laser light wavelength, laser power, exposure time, and energy density were studied. The INSPIRE HF100 laser system (Spectra Physics) provided the femtosecond laser light, which was pumped by a mode-locked femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser MAI TAI HP (Spectra Physics). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Knockdown of CDK5 down-regulates PD-L1 via the ubiquitination-proteasome pathway and improves antitumor immunity in lung adenocarcinoma.

Transl Oncol 2021 Jun 12;14(9):101148. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Shanghai Lung Cancer Center, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 241 Huaihai West Road, Shanghai 200030, PR China. Electronic address:

Although immunotherapy (anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies) has been approved for clinical treatment of lung cancer, only a small proportion of patients respond to monotherapy. Hence, understanding the regulatory mechanism of PD-L1 is particularly important to identify optimal combinations. In this study, we found that inhibition of CDK5 induced by shRNA or CDK5 inhibitor leads to reduced expression of PD-L1 protein in human lung adenocarcinoma cells, while the mRNA level is not substantially altered. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

BIO-LGCA: A cellular automaton modelling class for analysing collective cell migration.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jun 15;17(6):e1009066. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Centre for Information Services and High Performance Computing, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Collective dynamics in multicellular systems such as biological organs and tissues plays a key role in biological development, regeneration, and pathological conditions. Collective tissue dynamics-understood as population behaviour arising from the interplay of the constituting discrete cells-can be studied with on- and off-lattice agent-based models. However, classical on-lattice agent-based models, also known as cellular automata, fail to replicate key aspects of collective migration, which is a central instance of collective behaviour in multicellular systems. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Invasion and trafficking of hypervirulent group B streptococci in polarized enterocytes.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253242. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Human Pathology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus or GBS) is a commensal bacterium that can frequently behave as a pathogen, particularly in the neonatal period and in the elderly. The gut is a primary site of GBS colonization and a potential port of entry during neonatal infections caused by hypervirulent clonal complex 17 (CC17) strains. Here we studied the interactions between the prototypical CC17 BM110 strain and polarized enterocytes using the Caco-2 cell line. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Screening a Library of FDA-Approved and Bioactive Compounds for Antiviral Activity against SARS-CoV-2.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Public Health, Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has emerged as a major global health threat. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over 168 million cases and 3.4 million deaths to date, while the number of cases continues to rise. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Increased TIGIT expressing NK cells with dysfunctional phenotype in AML patients correlated with poor prognosis.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Allergy & Clinical Immunology; Sino-French Hoffmann Institute, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

AML is the most common blood cancer in adults with a high relapse and an overall poor survival rate. NK cells have been demonstrated to have the capacity to eradicate AML blast, and an impaired NK cell function is involved in AML development and progression. Immune checkpoints are involved in immune escape in various cancers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Inflammatory signaling regulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development and homeostasis.

J Exp Med 2021 Jul 15;218(7). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Columbia Stem Cell Initiative, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY.

Inflammation exerts multiple effects on the early hematopoietic compartment. Best studied is the role of proinflammatory cytokines in activating adult hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to dynamically replenish myeloid lineage cells in a process known as emergency myelopoiesis. However, it is increasingly appreciated that the same proinflammatory signaling pathways are used in diverse hematopoietic scenarios. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prognostic SLC family genes promote cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Experimental and Translational Non-coding RNA Research, Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China.

The solute carrier (SLC) superfamily genes encode more than 300 members that are responsible for the transmembrane transportation of many essential endogenous and exogenous compounds ranging from nutrients to drugs. SLCs are highly expressed in metabolic organs such as the liver, regulating the homeostasis of metabolites and the disposition of drugs. In contrast to their well-studied roles in physiological and pharmacological processes, little is known about the relationship between SLCs and cancer progression. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Osteopontin: another piece in the systemic lupus erythematosus immunopathology puzzle.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Departamento de Biología Molecular y Genómica, Instituto de Investigación en Reumatología y del Sistema Músculo Esquelético (IIRSME), Guadalajara; UDG-CA-703, Inmunología y Reumatología, Guadalajara, and Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Dr Juan I. Menchaca, División de Medicina Interna, Servicio de Reumatología, CONACyT PNPC, Guadalajara, Mexico.

Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphoglycoprotein involved in bone remodelling, wound healing, cell adhesion, tissue remodelling, and immune response that is distributed widely in normal adult tissues. OPN biological activity is regulated by thrombin and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cleavage, where the full-length (OPN-FL) protein and the cleaved OPN-N are associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). OPN overexpression has been associated with a predisposition to SLE and bad prognosis since OPN could mediate a sustained polyclonal B cell activation that besides to intracellular OPN (iOPN) form, promote the T follicular helper (TFH) cells and enhance anti-nuclear antibody production. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Influence of Low- and High-Negative-Pressure Liposuction and Different Harvesting Sites on the Viability and Yield of Adipocytes and Other Nucleated Cells.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

General Surgery Department, Hand Unit, Locarno's Regional Hospital, Via Ospedale 1, 6600, Locarno, Switzerland.

Background: The volume effect of fat grafting is highly dependent on the presence of viable adipocytes and other nucleated cells within the lipoaspirate. We suspected that one of the crucial factors influencing cell viability is the negative pressure applied during the fat graft harvesting and the suitability of various harvest sites when compared to others. Despite much discussion, there is no consensus on the optimal negative pressure or the best site for harvesting so we designed an experiment to test this. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reconstituting T cell receptor selection in-silico.

Genes Immun 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Population and Data Sciences, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Each T cell receptor (TCR) gene is created without regard for which substances (antigens) the receptor can recognize. T cell selection culls developing T cells when their TCRs (i) fail to recognize major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) that act as antigen presenting platforms or (ii) recognize with high affinity self-antigens derived from healthy cells and tissue. While T cell selection has been thoroughly studied, little is known about which TCRs are retained or removed by this process. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Higher cMET dependence of sacral compared to clival chordoma cells: contributing to a better understanding of cMET in chordoma.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12466. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Biomedical Research, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria.

Chordomas are rare slow growing, malignant bone tumors of the axial skeleton with no approved medical treatment. As the majority of chordomas express cMET and its ligand, HGF, and crosstalks between EGFR and MET-signaling exist, we aimed to explore cMET activity in chordoma cell lines and clinical samples. We investigated nine chordoma patients and four chordoma cell lines for cMET expression. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cytoplasmic expression of a model antigen with M Cell-Targeting moiety in lactic acid bacteria and implication of the mechanism as a mucosal vaccine via oral route.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Graduate School of International Agricultural Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang-gun 25354, Republic of Korea; Institute of Green-Bio Science & Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang-gun 25354, Republic of Korea; Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been widely studied as mucosal vaccine delivery carriers against many infectious diseases for heterologous expression of protein antigens. There are three antigen expression strategies for LAB: cytoplasmic expression (CE), cell surface display (SD), and extracellular secretion (ES). Despite the generally higher protein expression level and many observations of antigen-specific immunogenicity in CE, its application as a mucosal vaccine has been overlooked relative to SD and ES because of the antigens enclosed by the LAB cell wall. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vitamin D and COVID-19 severity and related mortality: a prospective study in Italy.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 14;21(1):566. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases & Lab of Endocrine and Metabolic Research, IRCCS, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Via Magnasco 2, 20149, Milan, Italy.

Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to favor a poorer outcome of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We aimed to assess if 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD) levels are associated with interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels and with disease severity and mortality in COVID-19.

Methods: We prospectively studied 103 in-patients admitted to a Northern-Italian hospital (age 66. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of Perinatal Vitamin D Deficiency on Lung Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Injury Repair Potential.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

The Lundquist Institute, 117316, Pediatrics, Torrance, California, United States;

Stem cells, including resident lung mesenchymal stem cells (LMSCs), are critically important for injury repair. Compelling evidence links perinatal vitamin D (VD) deficiency to reactive airway disease; however, the effects of perinatal VD deficiency on LMSC function is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal VD deficiency alters LMSC proliferation, differentiation, and function, leading to an enhanced myogenic phenotype. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Imaging of Endocytic Trafficking and Extracellular Vesicles Released Under Neratinib Treatment in ERBB2 Breast Cancer Cells.

J Histochem Cytochem 2021 Jun 15:221554211026297. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

DIMES, Department of Experimental Medicine, Cellular Electron Microscopy Lab, Università di Genova, Genova, Italy.

Breast cancers (BCa) with ERBB2 amplification show rapid tumor growth, increased disease progression, and lower survival rate. Deregulated intracellular trafficking and extracellular vesicle (EVs) release are mechanisms that support cancer progression and resistance to treatments. Neratinib (NE) is a Food and Drug Administration-approved pan-ERBB inhibitor employed for the treatment of ERBB2 BCa that blocks signaling and causes survival inhibition. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A straightforward approach to antibodies recognising cancer specific glycopeptidic neoepitopes.

Chem Sci 2020 Apr 30;11(19):4999-5006. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Field of Drug Discovery Research, Faculty of Advanced Life Science, Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University N21 W11, Kita-ku Sapporo 001-0021 Japan

Aberrantly truncated immature -glycosylation in proteins occurs in essentially all types of epithelial cancer cells, which was demonstrated to be a common feature of most adenocarcinomas and strongly associated with cancer proliferation and metastasis. Although extensive efforts have been made toward the development of anticancer antibodies targeting MUC1, one of the most studied mucins having cancer-relevant immature -glycans, no anti-MUC1 antibody recognises carbohydrates and the proximal MUC1 peptide region, concurrently. Here we present a general strategy that allows for the creation of antibodies interacting specifically with glycopeptidic neoepitopes by using homogeneous synthetic MUC1 glycopeptides designed for the streamlined process of immunization, antibody screening, three-dimensional structure analysis, epitope mapping and biochemical analysis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Spectroscopic investigations under whole-cell conditions provide new insight into the metal hydride chemistry of [FeFe]-hydrogenase.

Chem Sci 2020 Apr 14;11(18):4608-4617. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Molecular Biomimetics, Dept. of Chemistry - Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University Lägerhyddsvägen 1 SE-75120 Uppsala Sweden

Hydrogenases are among the fastest H evolving catalysts known to date and have been extensively studied under conditions. Here, we report the first mechanistic investigation of an [FeFe]-hydrogenase under whole-cell conditions. Functional [FeFe]-hydrogenase from the green alga is generated in genetically modified cells by addition of a synthetic cofactor to the growth medium. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Synthesis, conformational analysis and assays of an anti-cancer vaccine that features an unnatural antigen based on an sp-iminosugar fragment.

Chem Sci 2020 Mar 27;11(15):3996-4006. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Departamento de Química, Universidad de La Rioja, Centro de Investigación en Síntesis Química E-26006 Logroño Spain

The Tn antigen (GalNAc-α-1--Thr/Ser) is a well-known tumor-associated carbohydrate determinant. The use of glycopeptides that incorporate this structure has become a significant and promising niche of research owing to their potential use as anticancer vaccines. Herein, the conformational preferences of a glycopeptide with an unnatural Tn antigen, characterized by a threonine decorated with an sp-iminosugar-type α-GalNAc mimic, have been studied both in solution, by combining NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, and in the solid state bound to an anti-mucin-1 (MUC1) antibody, by X-ray crystallography. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Alginate-based composites for environmental applications: A critical review.

Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 2018 Dec;49(4):318-356

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

Alginate-based composites have been extensively studied for applications in energy and environmental sectors due to their biocompatible, nontoxic, and cost-effective properties. This review is designed to provide an overview of the synthesis and application of alginate-based composites. In addition to an overview of current understanding of alginate biopolymer, gelation process, and cross-linking mechanisms, this work focuses on adsorption mechanisms and performance of different alginate-based composites for the removal of various pollutants including dyes, heavy metals, and antibiotics in water and wastewater. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2018

Anaplasma phagocytophilum AptA enhances the UPS, autophagy, and anti-apoptosis of host cells by PSMG3.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

International Research Center for Animal Health Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, Shihezi University, 832003 Shihezi, Xinjiang, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for prevention and control of high incidence zoonotic infectious diseases in Western China, College of Animal Science and Technology, Shihezi University, 832003 Shihezi, Xinjiang, China. Electronic address:

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium and a common tick-borne infectious pathogen that can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). Effector proteins play an important role in the pathogenic mechanism of A. phagocytophilum, but the specifics of the disease mechanism are unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transfusion-induced platelet antibodies and regulatory T cells in multiply transfused patients.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Jun 14:e23864. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR) remains a difficult problem in patients requiring long-term platelet supportive care. However, there are little data on the frequency of platelet antibodies in multiply transfused Chinese patients. Moreover, the relationship between peripheral regulatory T cells (Tregs) and PTR remains unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Genetic Titration of Membrane Composition in C. elegans Reveals its Importance for Multiple Cellular and Physiological Traits.

Genetics 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Dept.Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Univ. Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.

The composition and biophysical properties of cellular membranes must be tightly regulated to maintain the proper functions of myriad processes within cells. To better understand the importance of membrane homeostasis, we assembled a panel of five C. elegans strains that show a wide span of membrane composition and properties, ranging from excessively rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and rigid to excessively rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and fluid. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Self-Assembled Cationic Polypeptide Supramolecular Nanogels for Intracellular DNA Delivery.

Chemistry 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Westfalische Wilhelms-Universitat Munster, Organic Chemistry Institute, Corrensstrasse 40, 48149, Münster, GERMANY.

Supramolecular nanogels are an emerging class of polymer nanocarriers for intracellular delivery, owing to their straightforward preparation, biocompatibility, and capability to spontaneously encapsulate biologically active components such as DNA. A completely biodegradable three component cationic supramolecular nanogel was designed exploiting the multivalent host-guest interaction of cyclodextrin and adamantane attached to a polypeptide backbone. While cyclodextrin was conjugated to linear poly-L-lysine, adamantane was grafted to linear as well as star shaped poly-L-lysine. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

New prodrugs and analogs of the phenazine 5,10-dioxide natural products iodinin and myxin promote selective cytotoxicity towards human acute myeloid leukemia cells.

RSC Med Chem 2021 Apr 19;12(5):767-778. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Oslo PO Box 1068 Blindern N0316 Oslo Norway

Novel chemotherapeutic strategies for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment are called for. We have recently demonstrated that the phenazine 5,10-dioxide natural products iodinin () and myxin () exhibit potent and hypoxia-selective cell death on MOLM-13 human AML cells, and that the -oxide functionalities are pivotal for the cytotoxic activity. Very few structure-activity relationship studies dedicated to phenazine 5,10-dioxides exist on mammalian cell lines and the present work describes our efforts regarding lead optimizations of the natural compounds iodinin () and myxin (). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sex-Based Differences in Autologous Cell Therapy Trials in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: Subanalysis of the ACCRUE Database.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 26;8:664277. Epub 2021 May 26.

Regenerative Medicine Research, Texas Heart Institute, Houston, TX, United States.

Sex-based differences are under-studied in cardiovascular trials as women are commonly underrepresented in dual sex studies, even though major sex-based differences in epidemiology, pathophysiology, and outcomes of cardiovascular disease have been reported. We examined sex-based differences in patient characteristics, outcome, and BM-CD34+ frequency of the ACCRUE (Meta-Analysis of Cell-based CaRdiac studies) database involving patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) randomized to autologous cell-based or control treatment. We compared baseline characteristics and 1-year follow-up clinical data: composite major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (primary endpoint), and changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic (EDV), and end-systolic volumes (ESV) (secondary efficacy endpoint) in women and men ( = 1,252; 81. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection: A Mystery in Search of Better Model Systems.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 26;11:691210. Epub 2021 May 26.

Centre for Urological Biology, Department of Renal Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infectious diseases worldwide but are significantly understudied. Uropathogenic (UPEC) accounts for a significant proportion of UTI, but a large number of other species can infect the urinary tract, each of which will have unique host-pathogen interactions with the bladder environment. Given the substantial economic burden of UTI and its increasing antibiotic resistance, there is an urgent need to better understand UTI pathophysiology - especially its tendency to relapse and recur. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Current and Future Role of Medical Imaging in Guiding the Management of Patients With Relapsed and Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treated With CAR T-Cell Therapy.

Front Oncol 2021 28;11:664688. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York City, NY, United States.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells are a novel immunotherapy available for patients with refractory/relapsed non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In this indication, clinical trials have demonstrated that CAR T-cells achieve high rates of response, complete response, and long-term response (up to 80%, 60%, and 40%, respectively). Nonetheless, the majority of patients ultimately relapsed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Combination Strategies to Augment Immune Check Point Inhibitors Efficacy - Implications for Translational Research.

Front Oncol 2021 28;11:559161. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Medical Oncology, HealthCare Global Enterprises Limited, Bangalore, India.

Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy has revolutionized the field of cancer immunotherapy. Even though it has shown a durable response in some solid tumors, several patients do not respond to these agents, irrespective of predictive biomarker (PD-L1, MSI, TMB) status. Multiple preclinical, as well as early-phase clinical studies are ongoing for combining immune checkpoint inhibitors with anti-cancer and/or non-anti-cancer drugs for beneficial therapeutic interactions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Joint regression-classification deep learning framework for analyzing fluorescence lifetime images using NADH and FAD.

Biomed Opt Express 2021 May 14;12(5):2703-2719. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Laboratory for Optical and Computational Instrumentation, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53705, USA.

In this paper, we develop a deep neural network based joint classification-regression approach to identify microglia, a resident central nervous system macrophage, in the brain using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data. Microglia are responsible for several key aspects of brain development and neurodegenerative diseases. Accurate detection of microglia is key to understanding their role and function in the CNS, and has been studied extensively in recent years. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF