37,419 results match your criteria cells spores

The molecular mechanism underlying pathogenicity inhibition by sanguinarine in Magnaporthe oryzae.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Fuzhou Institute of Oceanography, Minjiang University, Fuzhou, 350108, China.

Background: Sanguinarine (SAN) is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid that broadly targets a range of pathways in mammalian and fungal cells. In this study we set to explore the molecular mechanism how sanguinarine inhibits fungal development and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae with the hope that sanguinarine will bolster the development of anti-blast agents.

Results: We found that the fungus exhibited a significant reduction in the vegetative growth and hyphal melanization while the spores produced long germ tubes on the artificial hydrophobic surface characteristic of a defect in thigmotropic sensing when exposed to 4 μM, 8 μM and 0. Read More

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First report of stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis, and crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata var. avenae f. sp. avenae, on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) in Georgia, USA.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Georgia, 1355, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Griffin, Georgia, United States, 30223.

Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis, and crown rust, caused by P. coronata, are common rust diseases on cool-season grasses (Karakkat et al. 2018), for which long-distance spore dispersal was recorded in northern US (Harder and Haber 1992). Read More

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Extract of spores induces cell cycle arrest of hepatoma cell via endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):704-714

MOE Key Laboratory of Gene Function and Regulation, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Context: Zhao, Xu et Zhang (Ganodermataceae) has been used for the prevention or treatment of a variety of diseases, including cancer.

Objective: We investigated the antitumor activity and mechanism of an extract from against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Materials And Methods: A extract (GSE) was obtained from sporoderm-broken spores by supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. Read More

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December 2021

In vivo-wound healing studies of sodium thiosulfate gel in rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 4;140:111797. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Brig. S.K. Majumdar Marg, Delhi 110054, India. Electronic address:

Sodium Thiosulfate (STS) is already reported as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agent with antiseptic, antifungal properties. The search for an ideal antiseptic still continues, which is lethal to all types of bacteria and their spores and sustain the activity for a longer time without any harm to the host tissue. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of STS on curing of wounds in rats when compared to Betadine. Read More

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Spore-Associated Proteins Involved in c-di-GMP Synthesis and Degradation of .

J Bacteriol 2021 Jun 7:JB0013521. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology.

Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is an important bacterial regulatory signaling molecule affecting biofilm formation, toxin production, motility and virulence. The genome of , the causative agent of anthrax, is predicted to encode ten putative GGDEF/EAL/HD-GYP-domain containing proteins. Heterologous expression in hosts indicated that there are five active GGDEF domain-containing proteins and four active EAL or HD-GYP domain-containing proteins. Read More

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Clostridioides difficile spores stimulate inflammatory cytokine responses and induce cytotoxicity in macrophages.

Anaerobe 2021 May 31:102381. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, Tulsa, OK, USA; Oklahoma State University College of Osteopathic Medicine at Cherokee Nation, Tahlequah, OK, USA. Electronic address:

Clostridioides difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium, and the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. During C. difficile infection, spores germinate in the presence of bile acids into vegetative cells that subsequently colonize the large intestine and produce toxins. Read More

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Techniques for inactivating Toxoplasma gondii oocysts: a systematic review.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2021 28;30(2):e026420. Epub 2021 May 28.

Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL, Londrina, PR, Brasil.

The oocyst, a resistant form of Toxoplasma gondii, plays an important role in the transmission of this protozoan. The objective of this review was to report the methods capable of inactivating oocysts through a systematic review of the literature carried out in the Scientific Electronic Library Online, Web of Science, Science Direct, PubMed and Scopus databases. The keywords searched were (((effects OR infectivity OR resistance) AND Toxoplasma) AND oocyst). Read More

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Evaluation of Stable LifeAct-mRuby2- and LAMP1-NeonGreen Expressing A549 Cell Lines for Investigation of Interaction with Pulmonary Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 31;22(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

FH Gesundheit/Health University of Applied Sciences Tyrol, Innrain 98, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Inhaled spores can be internalized by alveolar type II cells. Cell lines stably expressing fluorescently labeled components of endocytic pathway enable investigations of intracellular organization during conidia internalization and measurement of the process kinetics. The goal of this report was to evaluate the methodological appliance of cell lines for studying fungal conidia internalization. Read More

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DisA Limits RecG Activities at Stalled or Reversed Replication Forks.

Cells 2021 May 31;10(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Microbial Biotechnology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, CNB-CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

The DNA damage checkpoint protein DisA and the branch migration translocase RecG are implicated in the preservation of genome integrity in reviving haploid spores. DisA synthesizes the essential cyclic 3', 5'-diadenosine monophosphate (c‑di-AMP) second messenger and such synthesis is suppressed upon replication perturbation. , c-di-AMP synthesis is suppressed when DisA binds DNA structures that mimic stalled or reversed forks (gapped forks or Holliday junctions [HJ]). Read More

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Isolation and Characterization of Nocardiae Associated with Foaming Coastal Marine Waters.

Pathogens 2021 May 10;10(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

Genecology Research Centre, School of Science, Technology and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, QLD 4558, Australia.

Nocardiosis is an infectious disease caused by species that occurs worldwide, albeit more prevalently in tropical/subtropical regions. It can appear as either acute, subacute or as a chronic infection mostly with those with a compromised/weakened immune system. Inhalation of spores and or mycelium fragments is the main transmission route for developing pulmonary nocardiosis. Read More

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A Mobile Device for Monitoring the Biological Purity of Air and Liquid Samples.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 20;21(10). Epub 2021 May 20.

Military Institute of Chemistry and Radiometry, 00-910 Warszawa, Poland.

A detector for identifying potential bacterial hazards in the air was designed and created in the Military Institute of Chemistry and Radiometry in the framework of the project FLORABO. The presence of fungi and bacteria in the air can affect the health of people in a given room. The need to control the amount of microorganisms, both in terms of quantity and quality, applies to both hospitals and offices. Read More

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Recombination in a sterile polyploid hybrid yeast upon meiotic Return-To-Growth.

Microbiol Res 2021 May 21;250:126789. Epub 2021 May 21.

Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, CNRS UMR3244, PSL Research University, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75248, Paris, Cedex 05, France; Meiogenix, 38 rue Servan, 75544, Paris, Cedex 11, France. Electronic address:

The sustainable future of food industry and consumer demands meet the need to generate out-performing new yeast variants. This is addressed by using the natural yeast diversity and breeding via sexual reproduction but the recovery of recombined spores in many industrial strains is limited. To circumvent this drawback, we examined whether or not the process of meiotic Return to Growth (RTG) that allows S. Read More

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Quality attributes optimization of orange juice subjected to multi-frequency thermosonication: Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spore inactivation and applied spectroscopy ROS characterization.

Food Chem 2021 May 15;361:130108. Epub 2021 May 15.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, PR China.

This is the first time to investigate the synergistic inactivation effect and mechanism of multifrequency ultrasound (MTUS) on A. acidoterrestris (AAT) vegetative cells and spores, nutrients and enzymes of orange juice. The optimized results of MTUS (using Box Behnken design- surface responsemethodology) and further comparison with different mode of ultrasound (mono-and multi-frequency) revealed that 20/40 kHz, 24 min and 64 °C were the best optimum results. Read More

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Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Patient With AIDS.

Ranjan K Singh

Cureus 2021 Apr 20;13(4):e14588. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Internal Medicine, Anti-Retroviral Therapy Centre, District Hospital, Khagaria, IND.

Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is caused by saprophytic fungi spp. Certain conditions predispose individuals to pulmonary aspergilloses, for example, neutropenia, prolonged steroid therapy, immunosuppressive drugs, and solid organ transplants. Individuals are infected with spores by inhalation. Read More

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Testing the adaptive value of sporulation in budding yeast using experimental evolution.

Evolution 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, UC Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106.

Saccharomyces yeast grow through mitotic cell division, converting resources into biomass. When cells experience starvation, sporulation is initiated and meiosis produces haploid cells inside a protective ascus. The protected spore state does not acquire resources and is partially protected from desiccation, heat, and caustic chemicals. Read More

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Plastid Transformation of Sporelings from the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2317:333-341

Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan.

We describe a simple and efficient plastid transformation method for the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha L. Use of rapidly proliferating cells such as sporelings, which are immature thalli developing from spores, as targets made plastid transformation by particle bombardment efficient. Selection on a sucrose-free medium and linearization of the transformation vector significantly improved the recovery rate of plastid transformants. Read More

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January 2021

Ultraviolet-C inactivation and hydrophobicity of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus velezensis spores isolated from extended shelf-life milk.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Jul 4;349:109231. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Consumer and Food Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. Electronic address:

Bacterial spores are important in food processing due to their ubiquity, resistance to high temperature and chemical inactivation. This work aims to study the effect of ultraviolet C (UVC) on the spores of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus velezensis at a molecular and individual level to guide in deciding on the right parameters that must be applied during the processing of liquid foods. The spores were treated with UVC using phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as a suspension medium and their lethality rate was determined for each sample. Read More

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Haustorium formation and a distinct biotrophic transcriptome characterize infection of Nicotiana benthamiana by the tree pathogen Phytophthora kernoviae.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Cell and Molecular Sciences, James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, UK.

Phytophthora species cause some of the most serious diseases of trees and threaten forests in many parts of the world. Despite the generation of genome sequence assemblies for over 10 tree-pathogenic Phytophthora species and improved detection methods, there are many gaps in our knowledge of how these pathogens interact with their hosts. To facilitate cell biology studies of the infection cycle we examined whether the tree pathogen Phytophthora kernoviae could infect the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Read More

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β-Glucan-stimulated neutrophil secretion of IL-1α is independent of GSDMD and mediated through extracellular vesicles.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(7):109139

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; Institute for Immunology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Neutrophils are an important source of interleukin (IL)-1β and other cytokines because they are recruited to sites of infection and inflammation in high numbers. Although secretion of processed, bioactive IL-1β by neutrophils is dependent on NLRP3 and Gasdermin D (GSDMD), IL-1α secretion by neutrophils has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrate that neutrophils produce IL-1α following injection of Aspergillus fumigatus spores that express cell-surface β-glucan. Read More

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Genetic Network Architecture and Environmental Cues Drive Spatial Organization of Phenotypic Division of Labor in Streptomyces coelicolor.

mBio 2021 May 18;12(3). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA

A number of bacteria are known to differentiate into cells with distinct phenotypic traits during processes such as biofilm formation or the development of reproductive structures. These cell types, by virtue of their specialized functions, embody a division of labor. However, how bacteria build spatial patterns of differentiated cells is not well understood. Read More

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Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Bacteria Isolated From Japanese Honey, and Their Potential for Conferring Macrolide and Lincosamide Resistance in the American Foulbrood Pathogen .

Front Microbiol 2021 29;12:667096. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Division of Bacterial and Parasitic Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Tsukuba, Japan.

American foulbrood (AFB) is the most serious bacterial disease of honey bee brood. Spores of the causative agent are ingested by bee larvae via brood foods and germinated cells proliferate in the larval midgut. In Japan, a macrolide antibiotic, tylosin, is used as the approved prophylactic for AFB. Read More

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Influence of essential oils on sporulation of Eimeria magna oocysts.

Ann Parasitol 2021 ;67(1):11-17

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, Dnipro, Ukraine.

We researched the influence of essential oils from 14 species of plants (Piper cubeba, Cananga odorata, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus sinensis, Eucalyptus globulus, Lavandula angustifolia, Picea abies, Citrus paradisi, Pterocarpus santalinus, Abies sibirica, Juniperus communis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum verum) on the process of sporulation of Eimeria magna Perard, 1925. In the experiment we used 0.5% emulsion of oil during 72 hours, oocysts of E. Read More

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Copro-PCR in the detection and confirmation of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in feces of stray and domiciled cats.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2021 10;30(2):e000621. Epub 2021 May 10.

Laboratório de Estudos da Relação Parasito-Hospedeiro, Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás - UFG, Goiânia, GO, Brasil.

Molecular methods such as Copro-PCR stand out in the diagnosis of T. gondii, because they are highly sensitive and specific, and can distinguish T. gondii from other morphologically similar coccids. Read More

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A Simple Antifungal assay for Testing Actinomycetes and Other Microbial Extracts.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2296:217-225

Bacteriology Department, Biomar Microbial Technologies S.A., León, Spain.

Antifungal assay in vitro is a useful tool for the characterization of biological activity of microbial extracts. Here we describe a simple in vitro test at two final extract concentrations that allows long-term storage of the plates containing dry extracts before using. The assay protocol is described for two fungal strains, a unicellular yeast, with clinical interest (Candida albicans), and a sporulated and phytopathogenic filamentous fungus (Botrytis cinerea). Read More

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January 2021

Analysis of tRNA processing under salt stress in spore outgrowth using RNA sequencing data.

F1000Res 2020 3;9:501. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Cerro de las Campanas S/N, Querétaro, Qro., 76010, Mexico.

In spore-forming bacteria, the molecular mechanisms of accumulation of transfer RNA (tRNA) during sporulation must be a priority as tRNAs play an essential role in protein synthesis during spore germination and outgrowth. However, tRNA processing has not been extensively studied in these conditions, and knowledge of these mechanisms is important to understand long-term stress survival.    To gain further insight into tRNA processing during spore germination and outgrowth, the expression of the single copy tRNA gene was analyzed in the presence and absence of 1. Read More

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A fluorescence-based yeast sensor for monitoring acetic acid.

Eng Life Sci 2021 May 18;21(5):303-313. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Institute of Genetics, Faculty of Biology Technische Universität Dresden Dresden Germany.

Accumulation of acetic acid indicates an imbalance of the process due to a disturbed composition of the microorganisms. Hence, monitoring the acetic acid concentration is an important parameter to control the biogas process. Here, we describe the generation and validation of a fluorescence-based whole cell sensor for the detection of acetic acid based on the yeast . Read More

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Modified filters with culture enhance removal of copper and iron contaminants in water.

Environ Technol 2021 May 21:1-9. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Nankai District, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Development of a cost-effective and broad-based practical approach to wastewater treatment is of utmost importance, especially in developing countries. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of using cells with sand filters for removal of heavy metals from contaminated water. This was done by designing three fungal-based sand filters (FSF) containing 30, 40, 50 spores/mL and sand filter (SF) without the fungus. Read More

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Bioelectricity production from sweat-activated germination of bacterial endospores.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 May 3;186:113293. Epub 2021 May 3.

Bioelectronics & Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 13902, USA; Center for Research in Advanced Sensing Technologies & Environmental Sustainability (CREATES), State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 13902, USA. Electronic address:

A microbial fuel cell is created that uses a bacterium's natural ability to revive from dormancy to provide on-demand power for next-generation wearable applications. In adverse conditions, Bacillus subtilis responds by becoming endospores that serve as a dormant biocatalyst embedded in a skin-mountable paper-based microbial fuel cell. When activated by nutrient-rich human sweat, the germinating bacteria produce enough electricity to operate small devices, such as the calculator that we operated to test our methodology. Read More

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Evidence for a syncytial origin of eukaryotes from ancestral state reconstruction.

Genome Biol Evol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute for Molecular Evolution, Heinrich - Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

Modern accounts of eukaryogenesis entail an endosymbiotic encounter between an archaeal host and a proteobacterial endosymbiont, with subsequent evolution giving rise to a unicell possessing a single nucleus and mitochondria. The mononucleate state of the last eukaryotic common ancestor, LECA, is seldom, if ever, questioned, even though cells harboring multiple (syncytia, coenocytes, polykaryons) are surprisingly common across eukaryotic supergroups. Here we present a survey of multinucleated forms. Read More

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Vertical diversity and association pattern of total, abundant and rare microbial communities in deep-sea sediments.

Mol Ecol 2021 Jun 16;30(12):2800-2816. Epub 2021 May 16.

College of Marine Life Sciences, Frontiers Science Center for Deep Ocean Multispheres and Earth System, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

Microbial abundance and community composition in marine sediments have been widely explored. However, high-resolution vertical changes of benthic microbial diversity and co-occurrence patterns are poorly described. The ecological contributions of abundant and rare species in sediments also remain largely unknown. Read More

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