9,062 results match your criteria cells modifies

Amyloid β and Amyloid Precursor Protein Synergistically Suppress Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel in Cortical Neurons.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 3;13:660319. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Physiology, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa, Japan.

Intracellular amyloid β (Aβ) injection suppresses the large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium (BK) channel in cortical pyramidal cells from wild-type (WT) mice. In 3xTg Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice, intraneuronal Aβ is genetically programed to accumulate, which suppresses the BK channel. However, the mode of BK channel suppression remained unclarified. Read More

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The role of sirtuin 1 on the induction of trained immunity.

Cell Immunol 2021 Jun 12;366:104393. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases (RCI), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Department for Genomics & Immunoregulation, Life and Medical Sciences Institute (LIMES), University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been described to modify immune responses by modulation of gene transcription. As transcriptional reprogramming is the molecular substrate of trained immunity, a de facto innate immune memory, we investigated the role of SIRT1 in the induction of trained immunity. We identified various SIRT1 genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms affecting innate and adaptive cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in response to various stimuli on the one hand, and in vitro induction of trained immunity on the other hand. Read More

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Fatty acid synthesis in prostate cancer: vulnerability or epiphenomenon?

Cancer Res 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

Tumor metabolism supports the energetic and biosynthetic needs of rapidly proliferating cancer cells and modifies intra- and intercellular signaling to enhance cancer cell invasion, metastasis, and immune evasion. Prostate cancer exhibits unique metabolism with high rates of de novo fatty acid synthesis driven by activation of the androgen receptor (AR). Increasing evidence suggests that activation of this pathway is functionally important to promote prostate cancer aggressiveness. Read More

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Differential responses of neurons, astrocytes, and microglia to G-quadruplex stabilization.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jun 17;13. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Neurology, The University of Texas McGovern Medical School at Houston, TX 77030, USA.

The G-quadruplex (G4-DNA or G4) is a secondary DNA structure formed by DNA sequences containing multiple runs of guanines. While it is now firmly established that stabilized G4s lead to enhanced genomic instability in cancer cells, whether and how G4s contribute to genomic instability in brain cells is still not clear. We previously showed that, in cultured primary neurons, small-molecule G4 stabilizers promote formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and downregulate the gene. Read More

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TCF1 in T cell immunity: a broadened frontier.

Nat Rev Immunol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Discovery and Innovation, Hackensack University Medical Center, Nutley, NJ, USA.

TCF1 and its homologue LEF1 are historically known as effector transcription factors downstream of the WNT signalling pathway and are essential for early T cell development. Recent advances bring TCF1 into the spotlight for its versatile, context-dependent functions in regulating mature T cell responses. In the cytotoxic T cell lineages, TCF1 is required for the self-renewal of stem-like CD8 T cells generated in response to viral or tumour antigens, and for preserving heightened responses to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Read More

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Human tRNAs with inosine 34 are essential to efficiently translate eukarya-specific low-complexity proteins.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute for Research in Biomedicine, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Barcelona, Catalonia 08028, Spain.

The modification of adenosine to inosine at the wobble position (I34) of tRNA anticodons is an abundant and essential feature of eukaryotic tRNAs. The expansion of inosine-containing tRNAs in eukaryotes followed the transformation of the homodimeric bacterial enzyme TadA, which generates I34 in tRNAArg and tRNALeu, into the heterodimeric eukaryotic enzyme ADAT, which modifies up to eight different tRNAs. The emergence of ADAT and its larger set of substrates, strongly influenced the tRNA composition and codon usage of eukaryotic genomes. Read More

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NPY Released From GABA Neurons of the Dentate Gyrus Specially Reduces Contextual Fear Without Affecting Cued or Trace Fear.

Front Synaptic Neurosci 2021 26;13:635726. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Pharmacology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Disproportionate, maladapted, and generalized fear are essential hallmarks of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which develops upon severe trauma in a subset of exposed individuals. Among the brain areas that are processing fear memories, the hippocampal formation exerts a central role linking emotional-affective with cognitive aspects. In the hippocampus, neuronal excitability is constrained by multiple GABAergic interneurons with highly specialized functions and an extensive repertoire of co-released neuromodulators. Read More

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Post-stroke Delivery of Valproic Acid Promotes Functional Recovery and Differentially Modifies Responses of Peri-Infarct Microglia.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 28;14:639145. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

The specific role of peri-infarct microglia and the timing of its morphological changes following ischemic stroke are not well understood. Valproic acid (VPA) can protect against ischemic damage and promote recovery. In this study, we first determined whether a single dose of VPA after stroke could decrease infarction area or improve functional recovery. Read More

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CMV exposure drives long-term CD57+ CD4 memory T cell inflation following allogeneic stem cell transplant.

Blood 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States.

Donor and recipient cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus correlate with transplant related mortality that is associated with reduced survival following allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT). Prior epidemiologic studies have suggested that CMV seronegative recipients (R-) receiving a CMV seropositive graft (D+) experience inferior outcomes compared to other serostatus combinations, an observation that appears independent of viral reactivation. We therefore investigated the hypothesis that prior donor CMV exposure irreversibly modifies immunologic function after SCT. Read More

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Impaired Binding to Junctophilin2 and Nanostructural Alteration in CPVT Mutation.

Circ Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Inserm UMR-S 1180, FRANCE.

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a rare disease, manifested by syncope or sudden death in children or young adults under stress conditions. Mutations in the Ca release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR2) gene account for about 60% of the identified mutations. Recently, we found and described a mutation in RyR2 N-terminal domain, RyR2. Read More

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Methamphetamine Compromises the Adaptive B Cell-Mediated Immunity to Antigenic Challenge in C57BL/6 Mice.

Front Toxicol 2021 Mar 15;3. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Long Island University, Brookville, NY, United States.

Methamphetamine (METH) is a substance of abuse that causes dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immunity in users. B cells are involved in the humoral component of the adaptive immunity by producing and secreting antibodies (Abs). METH modifies Ab production, although limited information on the impact of this psychostimulant on antigen (Ag)-specific humoral immune responses is available. Read More

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Cellular and physiological circadian mechanisms drive diurnal cell proliferation and expansion of white adipose tissue.

Nat Commun 2021 06 9;12(1):3482. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Hyperplastic expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT) relies in part on the proliferation of adipocyte precursor cells residing in the stromal vascular cell fraction (SVF) of WAT. This study reveals a circadian clock- and feeding-induced diurnal pattern of cell proliferation in the SVF of visceral and subcutaneous WAT in vivo, with higher proliferation of visceral adipocyte progenitor cells subsequent to feeding in lean mice. Fasting or loss of rhythmic feeding eliminates this diurnal proliferation, while high fat feeding or genetic disruption of the molecular circadian clock modifies the temporal expression of proliferation genes and impinges on diurnal SVF proliferation in eWAT. Read More

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Emergence of uniform tilt and π-stacking in triangular liquid crystalline honeycombs.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Chemistry, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Kurt-Mothes-Str. 2, 06120 Halle, Germany.

The synclinic tilted organization of specifically designed polyphilic oligo(p-phenylene ethynylene) rods in cylindrical shells around triangular prismatic cells on the <5 nm scale leads to a new kind of liquid crystalline honeycomb composed of helical shells with alternating helix sense. Core fluorination at the outer ring modifies the core-core interactions, thus resulting in triangular arrays with face-to-face π-stacking along the honeycomb. Read More

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Multiparametric biophysical profiling of red blood cells in malaria infection.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 8;4(1):697. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Canary Center for Early Cancer Detection, Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Biophysical separation promises label-free, less-invasive methods to manipulate the diverse properties of live cells, such as density, magnetic susceptibility, and morphological characteristics. However, some cellular changes are so minute that they are undetectable by current methods. We developed a multiparametric cell-separation approach to profile cells with simultaneously changing density and magnetic susceptibility. Read More

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A novel lncRNA ARST represses glioma progression by inhibiting ALDOA-mediated actin cytoskeleton integrity.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 7;40(1):187. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Science, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Glioma is one of the most aggressive malignant brain tumors that is characterized with inevitably infiltrative growth and poor prognosis. ARST is a novel lncRNA whose expression level is significantly decreased in the patients with glioblastoma multiforme. However, the exact mechanisms of ARST in gliomagenesis are largely unknown. Read More

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cAMP Bursts Control T Cell Directionality by Actomyosin Cytoskeleton Remodeling.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:633099. Epub 2021 May 20.

Université de Paris, Institut Cochin, INSERM, CNRS, Paris, France.

T lymphocyte migration is an essential step to mounting an efficient immune response. The rapid and random motility of these cells which favors their sentinel role is conditioned by chemokines as well as by the physical environment. Morphological changes, underlaid by dynamic actin cytoskeleton remodeling, are observed throughout migration but especially when the cell modifies its trajectory. Read More

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Farnesol induces protection against murine CNS inflammatory demyelination and modifies gut microbiome.

Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 10:108766. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biology, Eastern Washington University, Cheney, WA, United States; Department of Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State University, Spokane, WA, United States. Electronic address:

Farnesol is a 15‑carbon organic isoprenol synthesized by plants and mammals with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. We sought to determine whether farnesol treatment would result in protection against murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a well-established model of multiple sclerosis (MS). We compared disease progression and severity in C57BL/6 mice treated orally with 100 mg/kg/day farnesol solubilized in corn oil to corn-oil treated and untreated EAE mice. Read More

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Dibutyl phthalate disrupts conserved circadian rhythm in Drosophila and human cells.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 15;783:147038. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Functional Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Institute of Translational Medicine and Biotechnology, I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

People are constantly exposed to phthalates, due to their common use in the production of plastics, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and skin care products. The ability of phthalates to disrupt endocrine signaling, leading to developmental, reproductive and metabolic defects, has been studied, yet how phthalates interfere with these biological functions is still unclear. To uncover DBP interacting molecular pathways, we raised Drosophila melanogaster on food containing dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at various concentrations. Read More

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The thermal regime modifies the response of aquatic keystone species Daphnia to microplastics: Evidence from population fitness, accumulation, histopathological analysis and candidate gene expression.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 17;783:147154. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, School of Biological Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

The water bodies are greatly influenced by chemical contamination and global increasing temperature. As an emerging pollutant, microplastics are widely distributed in the freshwater environment, raising concerns regarding their potential toxicity to organisms. Especially for zooplankton filter feeders, many of microplastics are in similar size as their food. Read More

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Modification of small ubiquitin-related modifier 2 (SUMO2) by phosphoubiquitin in HEK293T cells.

Proteomics 2021 Jun 4:e2000234. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham Medical School, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK.

Additional complexity in the post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin is achieved by ubiquitin phosphorylation, for example within PINK1-parkin mediated mitophagy. We performed a preliminary proteomic analysis to identify proteins differentially modified by ubiquitin in HEK293T, compared to phosphomimetic ubiquitin (Ser65Asp), and identified small ubiquitin-related modifier 2 (SUMO2) as a candidate. By transfecting SUMO2 and its C-terminal-GG deletion mutant, along with phosphomimetic ubiquitin, we confirm that ubiquitin modifies SUMO2, rather than vice versa. Read More

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Porcupine inhibitor LGK‑974 inhibits Wnt/β‑catenin signaling and modifies tumor‑associated macrophages resulting in inhibition of the malignant behaviors of non‑small cell lung cancer cells.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Aug 3;24(2). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou 563003, P.R. China.

Tumor‑associated macrophages (TAMs) are critical components of the tumor microenvironment that are tightly associated with malignancies in human cancers, including lung cancer. LGK‑974, a small molecular inhibitor of Wnt secretion, was reported to block Wnt/β‑catenin signaling and exert anti‑inflammatory effects by suppressing pro‑inflammatory gene expression in cancer cells. Although it was reported that Wnt/β‑catenin was critical in regulating TAMs, it is still largely unknown whether LGK‑974 regulates tumor malignancies by regulating TAMs. Read More

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A metal ion orients SARS-CoV-2 mRNA to ensure accurate 2'-O methylation of its first nucleotide.

Nat Commun 2021 06 2;12(1):3287. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Greehey Children's Cancer Research Institute, University of Texas Health at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

The SARS-CoV-2 nsp16/nsp10 enzyme complex modifies the 2'-OH of the first transcribed nucleotide of the viral mRNA by covalently attaching a methyl group to it. The 2'-O methylation of the first nucleotide converts the status of mRNA cap from Cap-0 to Cap-1, and thus, helps the virus evade immune surveillance in host cells. Here, we report two structures of nsp16/nsp10 representing pre- and post-release states of the RNA product (Cap-1). Read More

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Pro-resolving lipid mediator lipoxin A attenuates neuro-inflammation by modulating T cell responses and modifies the spinal cord lipidome.

Cell Rep 2021 Jun;35(9):109201

MS Center Amsterdam, Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Center for Experimental Therapeutics and Reperfusion Injury, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

The chronic neuro-inflammatory character of multiple sclerosis (MS) suggests that the natural process to resolve inflammation is impaired. This protective process is orchestrated by specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), but to date, the role of SPMs in MS remains largely unknown. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that treatment with the SPM lipoxin A (LXA) ameliorates clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and inhibits CD4 and CD8 T cell infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS). Read More

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Environmental Salinity Modifies Mucus Exudation and Energy Use in European Sea Bass Juveniles.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 28;11(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, University of Barcelona (UB), 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

The European sea bass () is a euryhaline marine teleost that can often be found in brackish and freshwater or even in hypersaline environments. Here, we exposed sea bass juveniles to sustained salinity challenges for 15 days, simulating one hypoosmotic (3‰), one isosmotic (12‰) and one hyperosmotic (50‰) environment, in addition to control (35‰). We analyzed parameters of skin mucus exudation and mucus biomarkers, as a minimally invasive tool, and plasma biomarkers. Read More

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Stages of Gut Development as a Useful Tool to Prevent Gut Alterations in Piglets.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 14;11(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via dell'Università 6, 26900 Lodi, Italy.

During the prenatal, neonatal, and weaning periods, the porcine gastrointestinal tract undergoes several morpho-functional, changes together with substantial modification of the microbial ecosystem. Modifications of the overall structure of the small intestine also occur, as well as a rapid increase of the volume, mainly in the last period of gestation: intestinal villi, starting from jejunum, appears shortly before the sixth week of gestation, and towards the end of the third month, epithelial cells diversify into enterocytes, goblet cells, endocrine, and Paneth cells. Moreover, in the neonatal period, colostrum induces an increase in intestinal weight, absorptive area, and brush border enzyme activities: intestine doubles its weight and increases the length by 30% within three days of birth. Read More

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Obesity and Androgen Receptor Signaling: Associations and Potential Crosstalk in Breast Cancer Cells.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 6;13(9). Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Biological Sciences, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Tunja 150003, Colombia.

Obesity is an increasing health challenge and is recognized as a breast cancer risk factor. Although obesity-related breast cancer mechanisms are not fully understood, this association has been linked to impaired hormone secretion by the dysfunctional obese adipose tissue (hyperplasic and hypertrophic adipocytes). Among these hormones, altered production of androgens and adipokines is observed, and both, are independently associated with breast cancer development. Read More

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Rapamycin Alternatively Modifies Mitochondrial Dynamics in Dendritic Cells to Reduce Kidney Ischemic Reperfusion Injury.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 20;22(10). Epub 2021 May 20.

Transplant Research Institute, James D. Eason Transplant Institute, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique immune cells that can link innate and adaptive immune responses and Immunometabolism greatly impacts their phenotype. Rapamycin is a macrolide compound that has immunosuppressant functions and is used to prevent graft loss in kidney transplantation. The current study evaluated the therapeutic potential of rapamycin treated DCs to protect kidneys in a mouse model of acute kidney injury (AKI). Read More

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The Influence of an Adrenergic Antagonist Guanethidine on the Distribution Pattern and Chemical Coding of Caudal Mesenteric Ganglion Perikarya and Their Axons Supplying the Porcine Bladder.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 5;22(9). Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Human Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Warszawska 30, 10-082 Olsztyn, Poland.

This study was aimed at disclosing the influence of intravesically instilled guanethidine (GUA) on the distribution, relative frequency and chemical coding of both the urinary bladder intramural sympathetic nerve fibers and their parent cell bodies in the caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG) in juvenile female pigs. GUA instillation led to a profound decrease in the number of perivascular nerve terminals. Furthermore, the chemical profile of the perivascular innervation within the treated bladder also distinctly changed, as most of axons became somatostatin-immunoreactive (SOM-IR), while in the control animals they were found to be neuropeptide Y (NPY)-positive. Read More

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Differential Effects of Angiotensin-II Compared to Phenylephrine on Arterial Stiffness and Hemodynamics: A Placebo-Controlled Study in Healthy Humans.

Cells 2021 May 5;10(5). Epub 2021 May 5.

Medizinische Klinik I, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, 23538 Lübeck, Germany.

The α-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (PE) and Angiotensin II (Ang II) are both potent vasoconstrictors at peripheral resistance arteries. PE has pure vasoconstrictive properties. Ang II, additionally, modulates central nervous blood pressure (BP) control via sympathetic baroreflex resetting. Read More

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Cryptic genetic variation in a heat shock protein modifies the outcome of a mutation affecting epidermal stem cell development in C. elegans.

Nat Commun 2021 05 31;12(1):3263. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.

A fundamental question in medical genetics is how the genetic background modifies the phenotypic outcome of mutations. We address this question by focusing on the seam cells, which display stem cell properties in the epidermis of Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate that a putative null mutation in the GATA transcription factor egl-18, which is involved in seam cell fate maintenance, is more tolerated in the CB4856 isolate from Hawaii than the lab reference strain N2 from Bristol. Read More

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