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Georgian Med News 2021 Mar(312):125-132

Tbilisi State Medical University, Departments of Pharmaceutical Technology and Medical Pharmacology, Georgia.

In the present article is considered antihypertensive and cardioprotective action of epoxieicosatrienoic acids (EETs) analogues and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors. Being epoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism EETs provide a wide spectrum of biological activity in different organs implicated in the regulation of arterial pressure, including vascular endothelium (VE), heart and kidney. EETs are acting as autocrine or paracrine agents producing vasodilation, reduction in salt and fluid retention. Read More

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Toxic effects of polystyrene nanoplastics on microalgae Chlorella vulgaris: Changes in biomass, photosynthetic pigments and morphology.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 30;280:130725. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2, Canada.

Presence of nanoplastics within aqueous media has raised concerns about their adverse impacts on aquatic organisms. This study evaluated toxic effects of amino-functionalized polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NH) with diameters of 90 (PS-NH-90), 200 (PS-NH-200) and 300 (PS-NH-300) nm on green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. A dose-dependent toxicity response by PS-NH-90 and/or PS-NH-200 on biomass and photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll a) end-points of C. Read More

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Pancreaticoduodenectomy for hepatic portal lymph node metastasis after hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma: A clinical case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 27;82:105921. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Center for Pathology and Cytology, Bach Mai Hospital, Viet Nam.

Introduction: In 2018, Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was predicted to be the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer. Extra-hepatic metastasis due to HCC is a poor prognostic factor, depending on the stage of the disease.

Presentation Of Case: We report a case of a 52-years old male who had undergone Segment 5 (S5) hepatectomy for HCC of 4. Read More

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Ischiorectal fossa metastasis from colon cancer: Case report of a rare entity and review of literature.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 27;82:105912. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Surgery, King Fahad Specialist Hospital-Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction And Importance: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers both nationally and internationally. It commonly metastases to local lymph nodes, liver and lungs, with few reported cases of rare sites of metastasis such as adrenal glands, breast and skin.

Case Presentation: We report a 55-year-old-female admitted as case of large bowel obstruction and unintentional weight loss. Read More

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Gene Therapy for Bone Healing: Lessons Learned and New Approaches.

Transl Res 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Rehabilitation Medicine Research Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; Musculoskeletal Gene Therapy Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; IBE, MERLN Institute for Technology-Inspired Regenerative Medicine, Maastricht University, Maastricht, NL.

Although gene therapy has its conceptual origins in the treatment of Mendelian disorders, it has potential applications in regenerative medicine, including bone healing. Research into the use of gene therapy for bone healing began in the 1990s. During this period, the highly osteogenic proteins bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and -7 were cloned, produced in their recombinant forms and approved for clinical use. Read More

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Biological effect of PM on airway epithelium-focus on obstructive lung diseases.

Clin Immunol 2021 May 5:108754. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Diseases and Allergy, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

Recently, a continuous increase in environmental pollution has been observed. Despite wide-scale efforts to reduce air pollutant emissions, the problem is still relevant. Exposure to elevated levels of airborne particles increased the incidence of respiratory diseases. Read More

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Substrate-driven differences in tryptophan catabolism by gut microbiota and Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor activation.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 May 8:e2100092. Epub 2021 May 8.

Food Quality and Design Group, Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, Wageningen, 6700 AA, the Netherlands.

Scope: This study aims to investigate the effect of tryptophan sources on tryptophan catabolism by gut microbiota and the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) activation.

Methods And Results: Four substrates (free tryptophan, soybean protein, single and clustered soybean cells) containing an equimolar amount of tryptophan, but with a different bioaccessibility were studied using in vitro batch fermentation. Tryptophan catabolites were identified by LC-MS/MS. Read More

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Biallelic mutations in RNF220 cause laminopathies featuring leukodystrophy, ataxia and deafness.

Brain 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Genetics and Rare Diseases Research Division, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, 00146 Rome, Italy.

Leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of rare inherited disorders that involve preferentially the white matter of the central nervous system (CNS). These conditions are characterized by a primary glial cell and myelin sheath pathology of variable etiology, which causes secondary axonal degeneration, generally emerging with disease progression. Whole exome sequencing performed in 5 large consanguineous nuclear families allowed to identify homozygosity for two recurrent missense variants affecting highly conserved residues of RNF220 as the causative event underlying a novel form of leukodystrophy with ataxia and sensorineural deafness. Read More

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Mechanical and in vitro biological properties of uniform and graded Cobalt-chrome lattice structures in orthopedic implants.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Movement Analysis Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.

Human bones are biological examples of functionally graded lattice capable to withstand large in vivo loading and allowing optimal stress distribution. Disruption of bone integrity may require biocompatible implants capable to restore the original bone structure and properties. This study aimed at comparing mechanical properties and biological behavior in vitro of uniform (POR-FIX) and graded (POR-VAR) Cobalt-chrome alloy lattice structures manufactured via Selective Laser Melting. Read More

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Prediction of treatment response from the microenvironment of tumor immunity in cervical cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy.

Med Mol Morphol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, S1 W16, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8543, Japan.

To supplement clinical decision-making in the management of cervical cancer, various prognostic factors, including tumor immune microenvironments, were examined in patients with cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the expression of CD8, FoxP3, HLA-1, PD-L1, and XRCC4 in 100 cases of cervical cancer. The observed tumor immune microenvironments were also classified into three types: inflamed, excluded, and cold type. Read More

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Cellsnp-lite: an efficient tool for genotyping single cells.

Bioinformatics 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Biomedical Sciences, LKS Faculty of Medicine.

Summary: Single-cell sequencing is an increasingly used technology and has promising applications in basic research and clinical translations. However, genotyping methods developed for bulk sequencing data have not been well adapted for single-cell data, in terms of both computational parallelization and simplified user interface. Here we introduce a software, cellsnp-lite, implemented in C/C ++ and based on well-supported package htslib, for genotyping in single-cell sequencing data for both droplet and well based platforms. Read More

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[Mechanism of hepatocyte mitochondrial NDUFA13 deficiency-induced liver fibrogenesis: the role of abnormal hepatic stellate cell activation].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Apr;41(4):529-535

Pediatrics Research Institute, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University; National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders; China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Child Infection and Immunity, Chongqing 400014, China.

Objective: To investigate the role of hepatocyte mitochondrial NDUFA13 loss in the liver fibrogenesis in mice and explore the possible mechanisms.

Objective: We used liver-specific NDUFA13 heterozygous knockout mouse models (NDUFA13; Alb-Cre) established previously by intercrossing NDUFA13 and Alb-Cre mice, with their littermate control NDUFA13 mice as the control (=8). The mice were euthanized at the age of 4 weeks and 2 years, and the liver tissues were collected for HE and Masson staining to observe the pathological changes and fibrosis phenotypes. Read More

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Caspase-3, a primary target for natural and synthetic compounds for cancer therapy.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Pharmacy College Saifai, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences Saifai, Etawah, U.P., 206130, India.

Caspases, a group of protease enzymes (cysteine proteases) exist as inactive zymogens in the cells and execute apoptosis (programmed cell death). Caspase-3, an executioner caspase plays an imperative role in apoptosis and becomes a primary target for cancer treatment. A number of analogues of quinazoline, quinazolinone, indoloquinazolines, quinone, naphthoquinones, pyrroloiminoquinones, styrylquinolines, tetheredtetrahydroquinoline, fluoroquinolone, thiosemicarbazones, benzotriazole, pyrimidines, chalcone and carbazoles have been reported till date, representing caspase-3 mediated apoptosis for cancer therapy. Read More

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An RNAi screening of clinically relevant transcription factors regulating human adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism.

Endocrinology 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Lipid laboratory, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SE-14186, Sweden.

Objective: Healthy hyperplasic (many but smaller fat cells) white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion is mediated by recruitment, proliferation and/or differentiation of new fat cells. This process (adipogenesis) is controlled by transcriptional programs mostly identified in rodents. A systemic investigation of adipogenic human transcription factors (TFs) that are relevant for metabolic conditions has not been revealed previously. Read More

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Applicability of pan-TRK immunohistochemistry for identification of NTRK fusions in lung carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9785. Epub 2021 May 7.

Diagnostic and Research Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz, Neue Stiftingtalstrasse 6, 8010, Graz, Austria.

In the last two decades, various therapies have been introduced for lung carcinoma patients, including tyrosine-kinase inhibitors for different mutations. While some of them are specific to specific tumor types, others, like NTRK1-3 fusions, are found in various solid tumors. The occurrence of an NTRK1,2 or 3 fusion acts as a biomarker for efficient treatment with NTRK inhibitors, irrespectively of the tumor type. Read More

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A combined microfluidic deep learning approach for lung cancer cell high throughput screening toward automatic cancer screening applications.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9804. Epub 2021 May 7.

Nanobiotechnology Department, Faculty of Biosciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in both men and women worldwide. The high mortality rate in lung cancer is in part due to late-stage diagnostics as well as spread of cancer-cells to organs and tissues by metastasis. Automated lung cancer detection and its sub-types classification from cell's images play a crucial role toward an early-stage cancer prognosis and more individualized therapy. Read More

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The transcriptome of wild-type and immortalized corneal epithelial cells.

Sci Data 2021 May 7;8(1):126. Epub 2021 May 7.

Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate, 020-8551, Japan.

Cellular immortalization enables indefinite expansion of cultured cells. However, the process of cell immortalization sometimes changes the original nature of primary cells. In this study, we performed expression profiling of poly A-tailed RNA from primary and immortalized corneal epithelial cells expressing Simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40) or the combination of mutant cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), cyclin D1, and telomere reverse transcriptase (TERT). Read More

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Real-World Effectiveness of Mepolizumab in Severe Eosinophilic Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Clin Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Mepolizumab is a human monoclonal antibody against interleukin 5 (IL-5) used to treat severe eosinophilic asthma. Several studies have evaluated the effectiveness of mepolizumab in the real world. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis in the context of heterogeneity among patients, clinicians, and treatment regimens to study the effectiveness of mepolizumab in the real world. Read More

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Dual RNAseq highlights the kinetics of skin microbiome and fish host responsiveness to bacterial infection.

Anim Microbiome 2021 May 7;3(1):35. Epub 2021 May 7.

Ifremer, IRD, Institut Louis-Malardé, Univ Polynésie Française, EIO, F-98719 Taravao, Tahiti, Polynésie Française.

Background: Tenacibaculum maritimum is a fish pathogen known for causing serious damage to a broad range of wild and farmed marine fish populations worldwide. The recently sequenced genome of T. maritimum strain NCIMB 2154 provided unprecedented information on the possible molecular mechanisms involved in the virulence of this species. Read More

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Light and electron microscopy imaging unveils new aspects of the antiviral capacity of silver nanoparticles in bunyavirus-infected cells.

Virus Res 2021 May 4:198444. Epub 2021 May 4.

Cell Structure Laboratory, National Center for Biotechnology, CNB-CSIC, campus UAM, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Drug repurposing is an important source of new antivirals because many compounds used to treat a variety of pathologies also hamper viral infections. Habitually, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used to treat bacterial and fungal infections and their antiviral properties have been also reported. In this work, we have studied the antiviral capacity of AgNPs in cells infected with Bunyamwera virus (BUNV), the prototype of the Bunyavirales order. Read More

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Molecular mechanism of apelin-13 regulation of colonic motility in rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 4:174149. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 430060, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Electronic address:

Apelin is a novel neuropeptide identified as the endogenous ligand for the apelin receptor. Apelin and its receptor are widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract. Studies have reported that apelin-13 is involved in modulating gastrointestinal motility; however, the evidence is insufficient and the relevant mechanism is still not fully clear. Read More

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Two timescales control the creation of large protein aggregates in cells.

Biophys J 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Laboratoire PhysicoChimie Curie, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, CNRS UMR 168, Paris, France; Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Protein aggregation is of particular interest due to its connection with many diseases and disorders. Many factors can alter the dynamics and result of this process, one of them being the diffusivity of the monomers and aggregates in the system. Here, we study experimentally and theoretically an aggregation process in cells, and we identify two distinct physical timescales that set the number and size of aggregates. Read More

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Bioelectrical approaches to cancer as a problem of the scaling of the cellular self.

Michael Levin

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Allen Discovery Center at Tufts University, 200 Boston Ave., Suite 4600, Medford, MA, 02155, USA. Electronic address:

One lens with which to understand the complex phenomenon of cancer is that of developmental biology. Cancer is the inevitable consequence of a breakdown of the communication that enables individual cells to join into computational networks that work towards large-scale, morphogenetic goals instead of more primitive, unicellular objectives. This perspective suggests that cancer may be a physiological disorder, not necessarily due to problems with the genetically-specified protein hardware. Read More

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Genome-wide DNA methylation and RNA-seq analyses identify genes and pathways associated with doxorubicin resistance in a canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0250013. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Doxorubicin resistance is a major challenge in the successful treatment of canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (cDLBCL). In the present study, MethylCap-seq and RNA-seq were performed to characterize the genome-wide DNA methylation and differential gene expression patterns respectively in CLBL-1 8.0, a doxorubicin-resistant cDLBCL cell line, and in CLBL-1 as control, to investigate the underlying mechanisms of doxorubicin resistance in cDLBCL. Read More

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Cytological features of a complete hydatidiform mole in a cervicovaginal smear: A case report.

Diagn Cytopathol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Histopathology, The Indus Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Exfoliated trophoblastic cells can be seen in a cervicovaginal smear in cases of normal pregnancy or gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) and can mimic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or malignancy. Although they appear highly anaplastic, cytological features such as high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, irregular nuclear contours and scanty basophilic cytoplasm admixed with cytologically benign squamoid and endocervical cells can aid in differentiating them from malignant cells. We present a case of a 37-year-old woman with abnormal uterine bleeding for 3-months. Read More

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Detection of cancer metastasis: past, present and future.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Moffitt Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.

The clinical importance of metastatic spread of cancer has been recognized for centuries, and melanoma has loomed large in historical descriptions of metastases, as well as the numerous mechanistic theories espoused. The "fatal black tumor" described by Hippocrates in 5000 BC that was later termed "melanose" by Rene Laennec in 1804 was recognized to have the propensity to metastasize by William Norris in 1820. And while the prognosis of melanoma was uniformly acknowledged to be dire, Samuel Cooper described surgical removal as having the potential to improve prognosis. Read More

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Formulation and Characterization of Microcapsules Encapsulating PC12 Cells as a Prospective Treatment Approach for Parkinson's Disease.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2021 May 7;22(4):149. Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for Drug Delivery Research, Vaccine Nanotechnology Laboratory, Mercer University College of Pharmacy, Atlanta, Georgia, 30341, USA.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurological disorder, associated with decreased dopamine levels in the brain. The goal of this study was to assess the potential of a regenerative medicine-based cell therapy approach to increase dopamine levels. In this study, we used rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells that can produce, store, and secrete dopamine. Read More

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Current understanding on molecular drug targets and emerging treatment strategy for novel coronavirus-19.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Neuroscience Division, Department of Pharmacology, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga, 142001, Punjab, India.

SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped positive-sense RNA virus, contain crown-like spikes on its surface, exceptional of large RNA genome, and a special replication machinery. Common symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 include cough, common cold, fever, sore throat, and a variety of severe acute respiratory disease (SARD) such as pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 infects epithelial cells, T-cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells and also influences the production and implantation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Read More

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SHAPE Directed Discovery of New Functions in Large RNAs.

Kevin M Weeks

Acc Chem Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3290, United States.

ConspectusRNA lies upstream of nearly all biology and functions as the central conduit of information exchange in all cells. RNA molecules encode information both in their primary sequences and in complex structures that form when an RNA folds back on itself. From the time of discovery of mRNA in the late 1950s until quite recently, we had only a rudimentary understanding of RNA structure across vast regions of most messenger and noncoding RNAs. Read More

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Detection of mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli in slaughterhouse wastewater collected from Dawen river.

Vet Med Sci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, China.

Background: Low levels of mcr-1 were detected in Escherichia coli from wastewater samples across the world; hence, further monitoring and management of accumulation of mcr-1-positive bacteria in wastewater are urgently recommended.

Objectives: In this study, we have reported the detection of E. coli strains carrying the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in slaughterhouse wastewater discharged into Dawen river. Read More

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