323,081 results match your criteria cells induction

Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of pomalidomide derivatives useful for sickle cell disease treatment.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jun 10;114:105077. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Araraquara 14800-903, Brazil. Electronic address:

Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) induction constitutes a valuable and validated approach to treat the symptoms of sickle cell disease (SCD). Here, we synthesized pomalidomide-nitric oxide (NO) donor derivatives (3a-f) and evaluated their suitability as novel HbF inducers. All compounds demonstrated different capacities of releasing NO, ranging 0. Read More

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A PGE-MEF2A axis enables context-dependent control of inflammatory gene expression.

Immunity 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy; San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy (SR-Tiget), Milan, Italy; Genomics of the Innate Immune System Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Tight control of inflammatory gene expression by antagonistic environmental cues is key to ensure immune protection while preventing tissue damage. Prostaglandin E (PGE) modulates macrophage activation during homeostasis and disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely characterized. Here we dissected the genomic properties of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced genes whose expression is antagonized by PGE. Read More

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Global analysis of a cancer model with drug resistance due to Lamarckian induction and microvesicle transfer.

J Theor Biol 2021 Jun 12:110812. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Bolyai Institute, University of Szeged, Szeged H-6720, Hungary.

Development of resistance to chemotherapy in cancer patients strongly effects the outcome of the treatment. Due to chemotherapeutic agents, resistance can emerge by Darwinian evolution. Besides this, acquired drug resistance may arise via changes in gene expression. Read More

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Autophagy activity in cholangiocarcinoma is associated with anatomical localization of the tumor.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253065. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

The presence of autophagy has been indicated in cholangiocarcinoma (CC), which disease has poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Recently, CC has been classified by anatomical localization as intrahepatic (iCC), perihilar (pCC) and distal (dCC), showing different clinical and molecular characteristics. Thus, our aim was to compare autophagy activity in CC samples resected from different anatomical locations. Read More

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Dihydroartemisinin alleviates hepatic fibrosis through inducing ferroptosis in hepatic stellate cells.

Biofactors 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Targeting the elimination of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and blocking excessive deposition of extracellular matrix are recognized as an effective strategy for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis. As a newly discovered programmed cell death mode, the regulatory mechanism of ferroptosis in the clearance of activated HSCs has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we reported that the induction of ferroptosis in activated HSCs was required for dihydroartemisinin (DHA) to alleviate hepatic fibrosis. Read More

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Reducing phenotypic instabilities of a microbial population during continuous cultivation based on cell switching dynamics.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Terra research and teaching centre, Microbial Processes and Interactions (MiPI), Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, Gembloux, Belgium.

Predicting the fate of individual cells among a microbial population (i.e., growth, gene expression) remains a challenge, especially when this population is exposed to very dynamic environmental conditions, such as those encountered during continuous cultivation. Read More

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A broadly cross-reactive monoclonal antibody against hepatitis E virus capsid antigen.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

To generate a hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 (HEV-3)-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), the Escherichia coli-expressed carboxy-terminal part of its capsid protein was used to immunise BALB/c mice. The immunisation resulted in the induction of HEV-specific antibodies of high titre. The mAb G117-AA4 of IgG1 isotype was obtained showing a strong reactivity with the homologous E. Read More

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High dimensional mass cytometry identifies T cell and B cell signatures predicting reduced risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria.

JCI Insight 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Infectious Disease and Immune Defense, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Australia.

IFN-γ-driven responses to malaria have been shown to modulate the development and function of T follicular helper (TFH) cells and memory B cells (MBCs), with conflicting evidence in their involvement in the induction of antibody responses required to achieve clinical immunity and their association with disease outcomes. Using high-dimensional single cell mass cytometry, we identified distinct populations of TH1-polarized CD4+ T cells and MBCs expressing the TH1-defining transcription factor T-bet, associated with either increased or reduced risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria, demonstrating that inflammatory responses to malaria are not universally detrimental for infection. Furthermore, we found that whereas class-switched but not IgM+ MBCs were associated with reduced risk of symptomatic malaria, populations of TH1 cells with a stem central memory phenotype, TH17 cells and T regulatory cells were associated with protection from asymptomatic infection, suggesting that activation of cell mediated immunity might be also required to control persistent P. Read More

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Dual effects of interleukin 10 on natural killer cells and monocytes and the implications for adult-onset Still's disease.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Rheumatology and Applied Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan.

Objectives: We compared the serum levels of multiple cytokines in patients with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) and healthy controls to assess the effects of humoral factors on natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes.

Methods: We quantified the serum levels of 10 cytokines in the patients using bead-based multiplex immunoassays, along with interleukin (IL-)18 using ELISA. We then sorted NK cells and monocytes from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy volunteers, cultured them in the presence or absence of cytokines that were detected in some or all of the serum samples from the AOSD patients and their combinations in vitro, and analysed the culture supernatant. Read More

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Upregulation of antigen presentation function and inflammation in chondrocytes by induction of proteoglycan aggrecan peptides (P16-31 and P263-280).

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Immunology Division, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, and Skeletal Disorders Research Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objectives: A central hallmark of osteoarthritis (OA) is cartilage destruction. Chondrocytes not only control cartilage metabolism, but are capable of immunogenic responses. The role of chondrocytes in the pathogenesis of OA is still unclear. Read More

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Human Induced pluripotent stem cells-derived corneal endothelial-like cells promote corneal transparency in a rabbit model of bullous keratopathy.

Stem Cells Dev 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 74559, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China;

The corneal endothelium(CE) is vital for the cornea to maintain its transparency. However, CE dysfunction occurs due to aging, intraocular surgery, trauma, dystrophy, etc. Corneal transplantation is the only method to clinically treat CE dysfunction; however, this treatment strategy faces the disadvantages of a global cornea shortage, graft failure, and severe side effects. Read More

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Evaluating the effect of secretome of human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells on apoptosis induction and epithelial-mesenchymal transition inhibition in LNCaP prostate cancer cells based on 2D and 3D cell culture models.

Cell Biochem Funct 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer in men worldwide. Most cases of death from PCa are due to metastasis. Early stages of metastasis are mediated by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process through which cancer cells acquire motility and invasive characteristics. Read More

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Long-term effects of somatostatin analogues in rat GH-secreting pituitary tumor cell lines.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Laboratory of Geriatric and Oncologic Neuroendocrinology Research, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, IRCCS, Via Zucchi 18, 20095, Cusano Milanino, MI, Italy.

Purpose: First-generation somatostatin analogs, octreotide (OCT) and lanreotide, are the cornerstone for the medical treatment of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumors. A new multireceptor analog, such as pasireotide (PAS), showed better activity than OCT in long-term treatment of patients with acromegaly, but modulation of intracellular key processes is still unclear in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the antitumor activity of OCT and PAS in two GH-secreting pituitary tumor cell lines, GH3 and GH4C1, after a long-term incubation. Read More

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Tumor microenvironment-triggered cancer vaccines inducing dual immunogenic cell death for elevated antitumor and antimetastatic therapy.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022, China. and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China.

Cancer vaccines are made from tumor-specific antigens, which are then injected back into the body to activate immune responses for cancer immunotherapy. Despite the high specificity and therapeutic efficiency, the vaccine has huge challenges such as complex preparation process, expensiveness and limited durational effects. Herein, a strategy to develop in situ cancer vaccines by enhancing the immunomodulatory effects for immunogenic cell death (ICD) is presented. Read More

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Type I Interferon Transcriptional Network Regulates Expression of Coinhibitory Receptors in Human T cells.

Res Sq 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

While inhibition of T cell co-inhibitory receptors has revolutionized cancer therapy, the mechanisms governing their expression on human T cells have not been elucidated. Type 1 interferon (IFN-I) modulates T cell immunity in viral infection, autoimmunity, and cancer, and may facilitate induction of T cell exhaustion in chronic viral infection. Here we show that IFN-I regulates co-inhibitory receptor expression on human T cells, inducing PD-1/TIM-3/LAG-3 while surprisingly inhibiting TIGIT expression. Read More

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Induction of antigen-specific tolerance by nanobody-antigen adducts that target class-II major histocompatibility complexes.

Nat Biomed Eng 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

The association of autoimmune diseases with particular allellic products of the class-II major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) region implicates the presentation of the offending self-antigens to T cells. Because antigen-presenting cells are tolerogenic when they encounter an antigen under non-inflammatory conditions, the manipulation of antigen presentation may induce antigen-specific tolerance. Here, we show that, in mouse models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, the systemic administration of a single dose of nanobodies that recognize MHCII molecules and conjugated to the relevant self-antigen under non-inflammatory conditions confers long-lasting protection against these diseases. Read More

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A human isogenic iPSC-derived cell line panel identifies major regulators of aberrant astrocyte proliferation in Down syndrome.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 14;4(1):730. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Astrocytes exert adverse effects on the brains of individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Although a neurogenic-to-gliogenic shift in the fate-specification step has been reported, the mechanisms and key regulators underlying the accelerated proliferation of astrocyte precursor cells (APCs) in DS remain elusive. Here, we established a human isogenic cell line panel based on DS-specific induced pluripotent stem cells, the XIST-mediated transcriptional silencing system in trisomic chromosome 21, and genome/chromosome-editing technologies to eliminate phenotypic fluctuations caused by genetic variation. Read More

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Structural specificities of cell surface β-glucan polysaccharides determine commensal yeast mediated immuno-modulatory activities.

Nat Commun 2021 06 14;12(1):3611. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Department of Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Republic of Korea.

Yeast is an integral part of mammalian microbiome, and like commensal bacteria, has the potential of being harnessed to influence immunity in clinical settings. However, functional specificities of yeast-derived immunoregulatory molecules remain elusive. Here we find that while under steady state, β-1,3-glucan-containing polysaccharides potentiate pro-inflammatory properties, a relatively less abundant class of cell surface polysaccharides, dubbed mannan/β-1,6-glucan-containing polysaccharides (MGCP), is capable of exerting potent anti-inflammatory effects to the immune system. Read More

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Thermal proteome profiling reveals GPX4 as the target of the autophagy inducer conophylline.

Mol Pharmacol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Pharmaceutical Frontier Research Laboratories, Japan Tobacco Inc., Japan.

Conophylline (CNP) is a vinca alkaloid extracted from the Tabernaemontana divaricata plant. It has been reported that CNP induces autophagy in a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent manner, thereby inhibits protein aggregation. However, the mode of action of CNP in inducing autophagy remains unknown. Read More

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CD4 T-cell exhaustion: Does it exist and what are its roles in cancer?

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Duke Medical Center

In chronic infections and in cancer, persistent antigen stimulation under suboptimal conditions can lead to the induction of T-cell exhaustion. Exhausted T-cells are characterized by an increased expression of inhibitory markers and a progressive and hierarchical loss of function. While cancer-induced exhaustion in CD8 T-cells has been well-characterized and identified as a therapeutic target (i. Read More

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Caveolin-1 mediates soft scaffold-enhanced adipogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Jun 14;12(1):347. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Cellular and Molecular Engineering, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) can differentiate into adipocytes upon stimulation and are considered an appropriate cell source for adipose tissue engineering. In addition to biochemical cues, the stiffness of a substrate that cells attach to has also been shown to affect hBMSC differentiation potential. Of note, most current studies are conducted on monolayer cultures which do not directly inform adipose tissue engineering, where 3-dimensional (3D) scaffolds are often used to create proper tissue architecture. Read More

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Novel Benzyloxyphenyl Pyrimidine-5-Carbonitrile Derivatives as Potential Apoptotic Antiproliferative Agents.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519. Egypt.

Background: Pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile had a broad spectrum of biological activities such as antiviral, antioxidant and anticancer activity. Among similar compounds, monastrol being the most prominent due to cell-permeant inhibitor of mitosis therefore, we investigated the new Pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile as a cytotoxic agent for p53 pathway.

Objective: Several new benzyloxyphenyl pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile derivatives were designed, synthesized, characterized, and their cytotoxicity was evaluated. Read More

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Effect of Perinatal Vitamin D Deficiency on Lung Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Injury Repair Potential.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

The Lundquist Institute, 117316, Pediatrics, Torrance, California, United States;

Stem cells, including resident lung mesenchymal stem cells (LMSCs), are critically important for injury repair. Compelling evidence links perinatal vitamin D (VD) deficiency to reactive airway disease; however, the effects of perinatal VD deficiency on LMSC function is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal VD deficiency alters LMSC proliferation, differentiation, and function, leading to an enhanced myogenic phenotype. Read More

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DNA binding ability and cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis inducing properties of a benzochromene derivative against K562 human leukemia cells.

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2021 Jun 15:1-22. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

Chromene and its derivatives are generally spread in nature. Heterocylic-based compounds like chromenes have displayed pharmacological activities. Chromene derivatives are critical due to some biological features such as anticancer activity. Read More

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Vitamin D alleviates hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury of human trophoblast HTR-8 cells by activating autophagy.

Placenta 2021 May 30;111:10-18. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050000, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Attenuation of trophoblast cell dysfunction would be beneficial for retarding pre-eclampsia (PE). Vitamin D has been reported to improve trophoblast cell function in early PE, but the mechanism involved is not fully elucidated. This study is aimed to investigate whether vitamin D alleviates trophoblast cell dysfunction via regulating autophagy. Read More

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Cowpea mosaic virus stimulates antitumor immunity through recognition by multiple MYD88-dependent toll-like receptors.

Biomaterials 2021 May 25;275:120914. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, 03755, United States; Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical System, Lebanon, NH, 03756, United States. Electronic address:

Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), a non-enveloped plant virus, and empty CPMV (eCPMV), a virus-like particle (VLP) composed of CPMV capsid without nucleic acids, are potent in situ cancer vaccines when administered intratumorally (I.T.). Read More

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From triazolophthalazines to triazoloquinazolines: A bioisosterism-guided approach toward the identification of novel PCAF inhibitors with potential anticancer activity.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 Jun 5;42:116266. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo, Egypt; Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Horus University - Egypt, International Coastal Road, 34518 New Damietta, Egypt. Electronic address:

Inhibition of PCAF bromodomain has been validated as a promising strategy for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we report the bioisosteric modification of the first reported potent PCAF bromodomain inhibitor, L-45 to its triazoloquinazoline bioisosteres. Accordingly, three new series of triazoloquinazoline derivatives were designed, synthesized, and assessed for their anticancer activity against a panel of four human cancer cells. Read More

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Disruption of postnatal neurogenesis and adult-stage suppression of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal dentate gyrus after developmental exposure to sterigmatocystin in rats.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan; Cooperative Division of Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan; Institute of Global Innovation Research, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

Exposure to sterigmatocystin (STC) raises concerns on developmental neurological disorders. The present study investigated the effects of maternal oral STC exposure on postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis of offspring in rats. Dams were exposed to STC (1. Read More

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Yeast Synthetic Minimal Biosensors for Evaluating Protein Production.

ACS Synth Biol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

ARC Centre of Excellence in Synthetic Biology, Department of Molecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a highly conserved cellular response in eukaryotic cells to counteract endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, typically triggered by unfolded protein accumulation. In addition to its relevance to human diseases like cancer, the induction of the UPR has a significant impact on the recombinant protein production in eukaryotic cell factories, including the industrial workhorse. Being able to accurately detect and measure this ER stress response in single cells, enables the rapid optimization of protein production conditions and high-throughput strain selection strategies. Read More

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Upregulation of RNA cap methyltransferase RNMT drives ribosome biogenesis during T cell activation.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK.

The m7G cap is ubiquitous on RNAPII-transcribed RNA and has fundamental roles in eukaryotic gene expression, however its in vivo role in mammals has remained unknown. Here, we identified the m7G cap methyltransferase, RNMT, as a key mediator of T cell activation, which specifically regulates ribosome production. During T cell activation, induction of mRNA expression and ribosome biogenesis drives metabolic reprogramming, rapid proliferation and differentiation generating effector populations. Read More

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