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Glial cell response to Epstein-Barr Virus infection: A plausible contribution to virus-associated inflammatory reactions in the brain.

Virology 2021 Apr 21;559:182-195. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Infection Bio-engineering Group, Discipline of Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, India. Electronic address:

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is clinically related to various neurological ailments. The manipulation of neural homeostasis through altered glial cells functions is enigmatic. We investigated EBV mediated nuances in glial cells through direct infection (group-1) or by supplementing them with EBV-infected lymphocytes (PBMCs) supernatant (group-3). Read More

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Cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effect of a novel diminazene aceturate derivative in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Apr 22;137:102-110. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for the Conservation and Utilization of Special Biological Resources of Western China, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China. Electronic address:

Diminazene aceturate (DA) has been used in the treatment of infections of trypanosomes in animals. Interestingly, its anti-inflammatory effect has recently gained increased interests. However, DA has been reported to have toxic side effects that limit its application. Read More

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The enantioselective study of the toxicity effects of chiral acetochlor in HepG2 cells.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 5;218:112261. Epub 2021 May 5.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. Electronic address:

Acetochlor is one of the most widely used chiral herbicides in the world, and it is usually produced and used as racemic form (Rac). The potential effects of acetochlor in human body are mainly induced by its residue in agriculture food. The direct target exposed is the liver in human body. Read More

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Biological effects of combustion-derived particles from different biomass sources on human bronchial epithelial cells.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 May 5:105190. Epub 2021 May 5.

Section of Pollution and Noise, Department of Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404, Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Combustion-derived particles (CDPs), in particular from traffic, are regarded as a central contributor for adverse health effects linked to air pollution. Recently, also biomass burning has been recognized as an important source for CDPs. Here, the effects of CDPs (PM) originating from burning of pellet, charcoal and wood on key processes associated to lung carcinogenesis were explored. Read More

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Optogenetic stimulation of entorhinal cortex reveals the implication of insulin signaling in adult rat's hippocampal neurogenesis.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 May 5:110344. Epub 2021 May 5.

Neuroscience Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a critical role in learning and memory. Projections originating from entorhinal cortex, known as the perforant pathway, provide the main input to the dentate gyrus and promote neurogenesis. However, neuromodulators and molecular changes mediating neurogenic effects of this pathway are not yet fully understood. Read More

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Kinetics of γH2AX and phospho-histone H3 following pulse treatment of TK6 cells provides insights into clastogenic activity.

Mutagenesis 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Litron Laboratories, Rochester, NY, USA.

The desire for in vitro genotoxicity assays to provide higher information content, especially regarding chemicals' predominant genotoxic mode of action, has led to the development of a novel multiplexed assay available under the tradename MultiFlow ®. We report here on an experimental design variation that provides further insight into clastogens' genotoxic activity. First, the standard MultiFlow DNA Damage Assay - p53, γH2AX, Phospho-histone H3 was used with human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells that were exposed for 24 continuous hr to each of 50 reference clastogens. Read More

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A belt for the cell: Cellulosic wall thickenings and their role in morphogenesis of the 3D puzzle cells in walnut shells.

J Exp Bot 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Biophysics, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, 1190 Vienna, Austria.

Walnut (Juglans regia) kernels are protected by a tough shell consisting of polylobate sclereids that interlock into a 3D puzzle. The shape transformations from isodiametric to lobed cells is well documented for 2D pavement cells, but not for 3D puzzle sclereids. Here, we tackle the morphogenesis of these cells by using a combination of different imaging techniques. Read More

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Exogenous abscisic acid confers salinity tolerance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during its life cycle.

J Phycol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

The Mina and Everard Goodman, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, 5290002, Israel.

The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) coordinates responses to environmental signals with developmental changes and is important for stress resilience and crop yield. However, fundamental questions remain about how this phytohormone affects microalgae growth and stress regulation throughout the different stages of their life cycle. In this study, the effects of ABA on the physiology of the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at its different stages of life cycle were investigated. Read More

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Virgin Coconut Oil-Induced Neuroprotection in Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged Rats is Mediated, in Part, Through Cholinergic, Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Pathways.

J Diet Suppl 2020 Oct 14:1-27. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Collaborative Drug Discovery Research (CDDR) Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Cawangan Selangor, Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

Neuroinflammation is associated with neuronal cell death and could lead to chronic neurodegeneration. This study investigated the neuroprotective potential of virgin coconut oil (VCO) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytotoxicity of neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. The findings were validated using Wistar rats, which were fed with 1-10 g/kg VCO for 31 days, exposed to LPS (0. Read More

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October 2020

Differential Expression of HIV Envelope Epitopes on the Surface of HIV-Infected Macrophages and CD4+ T cells.

Antiviral Res 2021 May 4:105085. Epub 2021 May 4.

Life Sciences Discipline, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

HIV-infected macrophages contribute to persistence of HIV reservoirs in people living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy. A potential strategy to eliminate reservoirs is the use of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against infected cells expressing the HIV envelope (Env) protein on their surface. Designing ADCC strategies requires knowledge of exposed Env epitopes on the cell surface and identifying antibodies capable of opsonising infected cells, yet little is known regarding the ability of HIV-infected macrophages to be targeted with such strategies. Read More

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SPP1 derived from silica-exposed macrophage exosomes triggers fibroblast transdifferentiation.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 May 4:115559. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Occupational Health and Environmental Health, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, Henan, China. Electronic address:

The occurrence and development of silicosis is related to the interaction of multiple cells through signal transmission caused by silica dust. Including inflammatory changes reduced by macrophages and phenotypic transdifferentiation reduced by lung fibroblasts. As a communication medium between cells, exosomes have become a hot research topic. Read More

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An effective method for establishing animal models of azoospermia and oligospermia.

Andrologia 2021 May 7:e14095. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The current study aims to develop a validated animal model to predict successful spermatogenesis retrieval in azoospermia and oligospermia men. Thirty-two mice were equally divided into 4 groups: control, scrotal hyperthermia (15 times), scrotal hyperthermia group (10 times), scrotal hyperthermia group (5 times). In the scrotal hyperthermia groups, their scrotum exposed to water at a temperature of 43°C for 20 min every other day. Read More

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Race-specific changes in endothelial inflammation and microRNA in response to an acute inflammatory stimulus.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Kinesiology, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United Statesgrid.164295.d.

Both aberrant vascular reactivity to acute cardiovascular stress and epigenetic mechanisms such as microRNA (miR) may underlie the increased propensity for African Americans (AA) to develop cardiovascular disease. This study assessed racial differences in acute induced endothelial inflammation and related miRs. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) derived from AA and Caucasian Americans (CA) were exposed to the influenza vaccine to determine changes in inflammatory markers, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and miR expression/release. Read More

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Modulation of olfactory signal detection in the olfactory epithelium: focus on the internal and external environment, and the emerging role of the immune system.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, UVSQ, 78350, Jouy-en-Josas, VIM, France.

Detection and discrimination of odorants by the olfactory system plays a pivotal role in animal survival. Olfactory-based behaviors must be adapted to an ever-changing environment. Part of these adaptations includes changes of odorant detection by olfactory sensory neurons localized in the olfactory epithelium. Read More

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Nephrotoxic antisense oligonucleotide SPC5001 induces kidney injury biomarkers in a proximal tubule-on-a-chip.

Arch Toxicol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

CVRM Safety, Clinical Pharmacology and Safety Sciences, R&D, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Pepparedsleden 1, 43150, Mölndal, Sweden.

Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are a promising therapeutic modality. However, failure to predict acute kidney injury induced by SPC5001 ASO observed in a clinical trial suggests the need for additional preclinical models to complement the preceding animal toxicity studies. To explore the utility of in vitro systems in this space, we evaluated the induction of nephrotoxicity and kidney injury biomarkers by SPC5001 in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (HRPTEC), cultured in 2D, and in a recently developed kidney proximal tubule-on-a-chip. Read More

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AQP2 as a target of lycopene protects against atrazine-induced renal ionic homeostasis disturbance.

Food Funct 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, P. R. China. and Key Laboratory of the Provincial Education Department of Heilongjiang for Common Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, P. R. China and Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Laboratory Animals and Comparative Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, P. R. China.

Atrazine (ATR), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant in water and soil, causes environmental nephrosis. To reveal the toxic effect of ATR on the kidney and the potential chemical nephroprotective effect of lycopene (LYC), Kun-Ming mice of specific pathogen-free (SPF) grade were treated with LYC (5 mg kg-1) and/or ATR (50 mg kg-1 or 200 mg kg-1) for 21 days. The degree of renal injury was evaluated by measuring the ion concentration, ATPase activities and the mRNA expressions/levels of associated ATPase subunits. Read More

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Beneficial effects of Coagulase-negative Staphylococci on Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization.

Exp Dermatol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Dermatology, Division of Dermatooncology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Our skin is constantly exposed to a large number of pathogens while at the same time undergoing selective colonization by commensal microorganisms such as coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Staphylococcus aureus, however, is a facultative pathogen that is usually absent from healthy skin but frequently colonizes the inflamed skin of atopic dermatitis patients, where it further promotes inflammation. Enhanced S. Read More

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Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 regulates the malignant phenotype of cholangiocarcinoma cells.

Hepatology 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences "Mario Serio", University of Florence, Italy.

Background & Aims: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is characterized by high resistance to chemotherapy and poor prognosis. Several oncogenic pathways converge on activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5), whose role in CCA has not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ERK5 in the biology of CCA. Read More

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The effect of nanoparticles of cobalt-chromium on human aortic endothelial cells in vitro.

J Appl Toxicol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Despite advances in stent technology for vascular interventions, in-stent restenosis (ISR) remains a main complication. The corrosion of cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy coronary stents has been identified to be associated with ISR, whereas its role in ISR has not been elucidated. In the current work, CoCr nanoparticles, simulated corrosion products of CoCr alloy, were used to investigate their effect on the endothelial cells. Read More

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Sea Cucumber-Derived Peptides Alleviate Oxidative Stress in Neuroblastoma Cells and Improve Survival in Exposed to Neurotoxic Paraquat.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 19;2021:8842926. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Cambridge Infinitus Research Centre, Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, West Cambridge Site, Philippa Fawcett Drive, Cambridge CB3 0AS, UK.

Oxidative stress results when the production of oxidants outweighs the capacity of the antioxidant defence mechanisms. This can lead to pathological conditions including cancer and neurodegeneration. Consequently, there is considerable interest in compounds with antioxidant activity, including those from natural sources. Read More

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Acute Toxicity and DNA Instability Induced by Exposure to Low Doses of Triclosan and Phthalate DEHP, and Their Combinations, .

Front Genet 2021 20;12:649845. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biosciences, Institute of Health and Society, Federal University of São Paulo, Santos, Brazil.

Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent widely used in personal care products (PCP) and the di-(2-ethyl hydroxy-phthalate) (DEHP) is a chemical compound derived from phthalic acid, used in medical devices and plastic products with polyvinyl chloride (PVCs). As result of their extensive use, TCS and DEHP have been found in the environment and previous studies demonstrated the association between their exposure and toxic effects, mostly in aquatic organisms, but there is a shortage in the literature concerning the exposure of TCS and DEHP in human cells. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of exposure to TCS and DEHP, as well as their combinations, on biomarkers related to acute toxicity and DNA instability, in HepG2 cells, by use of cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMNCyt) assay. Read More

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Electrospray Mediated Localized and Targeted Chemotherapy in a Mouse Model of Lung Cancer.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:643492. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University Hospital Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

An advanced stage, centrally localized invasive tumor is a major cause of sudden death in lung cancer patients. Currently, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, laser ablation, or surgical resection if possible are the available state-of-the-art treatments but none of these guarantee remedy or long-term relief and are often associated with fatal complications. Allowing localized chemotherapy, by direct and confined drug delivery only at the tumor site, could be a promising option for preoperative down staging or palliative therapy. Read More

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A Combination of Atorvastatin and Aspirin Enhances the Pro-Regenerative Interactions of Marrow Stromal Cells and Stroke-Derived Monocytes .

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:589418. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurology, Institute for Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease, McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Houston, TX, United States.

Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) are being tested in clinical trials for stroke patients. MSCs appear to promote recovery through secretomes that promote modulation of immune cells, including myeloid phagocytes. Many stroke patients have comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes for which they are prescribed medications that might affect the function of MSCs and monocytes (Mo) when they are administered in stroke patients. Read More

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Vascular Senescence: A Potential Bridge Between Physiological Aging and Neurogenic Decline.

Front Neurosci 2021 20;15:666881. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Departamento de Biología Celular, Biología Funcional y Antropología Física, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain.

The adult mammalian brain contains distinct neurogenic niches harboring populations of neural stem cells (NSCs) with the capacity to sustain the generation of specific subtypes of neurons during the lifetime. However, their ability to produce new progeny declines with age. The microenvironment of these specialized niches provides multiple cellular and molecular signals that condition NSC behavior and potential. Read More

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Effects of CXCL12 isoforms in a pancreatic pre-tumour cellular model: Microarray analysis.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;27(15):1616-1629

Department of Specialistic Clinical and Odontostomatological Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona 60126, Italy.

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of death among cancers, it is characterized by poor prognosis and strong chemoresistance. In the PDAC microenvironment, stromal cells release different extracellular components, including CXCL12. The CXCL12 is a chemokine promoting the communication between tumour and stromal cells. Read More

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Lycium barbarum mitigates radiation injury via regulation of the immune function, gut microbiota, and related metabolites.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 3;139:111654. Epub 2021 May 3.

Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China; Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Previous studies have suggested that Lycium barbarum (L. barbarum) has a radioprotective function, although more in-depth investigation is still required. We investigated the radioprotective efficacy of extract of the fruits of L. Read More

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Identification of juvenile hormone-induced posttranslational modifications of methoprene tolerant and Krüppel homolog 1 in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

J Proteomics 2021 May 3:104257. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, S-225 Agricultural Science Center North Lexington, KY 40546-0091, United States. Electronic address:

Recent studies reported that JH regulated phosphorylation status of the JH-receptor complex contributes to its transcription activity in Aedes aegypti. However, phosphorylation sites of these proteins have not yet been identified. In this study, we found that the fusion of an EGFP tag to Ae. Read More

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Physiological processes and lipidome dynamics in the soft coral Sinularia heterospiculata under experimental bleaching.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2021 May 3:110609. Epub 2021 May 3.

A.V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russian Federation.

Coral polyps host intracellular symbiotic dinoflagellates (SD). The loss of SD (referred as bleaching) under stressful environmental conditions is the main reason of coral reef destruction, and therefore, intensively studied over the world. Lipids are the structural base of biomembranes and energy reserve of corals and are directly involved in the coral bleaching. Read More

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Arsenic exposure in drinking water reduces Lgr5 and secretory cell marker gene expression in mouse intestines.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 May 3:115561. Epub 2021 May 3.

Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. Electronic address:

Arsenic is a global health concern that causes toxicity through ingestion of contaminated water and food. In vitro studies suggest that arsenic reduces stem and progenitor cell differentiation. Thus, this study determined if arsenic disrupted intestinal stem cell (ISC) differentiation, thereby altering the number, location, and/or function of intestinal epithelial cells. Read More

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DEP-induced ZEB2 promotes nasal polyp formation via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Obstructive Upper airway Research (OUaR) Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul, Korea; Ischemic/hypoxic disease institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea;; Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are associated with the prevalence and exacerbation of allergic respiratory diseases, including allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. However, DEP-induced mechanistic pathways promoting upper airway disease and their clinical implications remain unclear OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the mechanisms by which DEP exposure contributes to nasal polyposis using human-derived epithelial cells and a murine nasal polyp (NP) model.

Methods: Gene set enrichment and weighted gene co-expression network analyses were performed. Read More

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