43,161 results match your criteria cells decline


Metformin Transport Rates Between Plasma and Red Blood Cells in Humans.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Computational Systems Biology Group, Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.

Background: Metformin has been used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes for over 60 years; however, its mechanism of pharmacological action is not fully clear. Different hypotheses exist regarding metformin distribution and redistribution mechanisms between plasma and erythrocytes/red blood cells (RBCs).

Objective: We aimed to test the hypothesis that the metformin distribution between plasma and RBC occurs via concentration difference-driven passive transport and estimated transport rate coefficient values based on metformin concentration time series in plasma and RBCs from in vivo studies. Read More

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Naïve T Cell Quiescence in Immune Aging.

Adv Geriatr Med Res 2021 26;3(3). Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94304, USA.

Naïve T cells are critical for protection against emerging viral and bacterial infections. However, the ability of these cells to elicit effective long-term immune responses declines with age and contributes to increased disease susceptibility in older individuals. This decline has been linked with the breakdown of cellular quiescence that causes partial differentiation of naïve T cells with age, but the underlying mediators of this breakdown are unclear. Read More

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Chronic Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease Progression: Role of Nrf2.

Kidney Int Rep 2021 Jul 4;6(7):1775-1787. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Children's Mercy Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA.

Despite recent advances in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD), morbidity and mortality rates in these patients remain high. Although pressure-mediated injury is a well-recognized mechanism of disease progression in CKD, emerging data indicate that an intermediate phenotype involving chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia, senescence, and mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the etiology, progression, and pathophysiology of CKD. A variety of factors promote chronic inflammation in CKD, including oxidative stress and the adoption of a proinflammatory phenotype by resident kidney cells. Read More

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Germline Stem and Progenitor Cell Aging in .

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 8;9:699671. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Cell Biology, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States.

Like many animals and humans, reproduction in the nematode declines with age. This decline is the cumulative result of age-related changes in several steps of germline function, many of which are highly accessible for experimental investigation in this short-lived model organism. Here we review recent work showing that a very early and major contributing step to reproductive decline is the depletion of the germline stem and progenitor cell pool. Read More

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Gasotransmitter CO Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Fibroblast Senescence via Induction of Stress Granule Formation.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 29;2021:9926284. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Chronic Disease Research Center, Medical College, Dalian University, Dalian, 116622 Liaoning, China.

Cellular senescence is recognized as a phenomenon wherein a proliferative cell undergoes a permanent growth arrest. The accumulation of senescent cells over time can become harmful and result in diseases and physiological decline. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) is considered as a critical marker and mediator of cellular senescence. Read More

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Degradation of Premature-miR-181b by the Translin/Trax RNase Increases Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Stiffness.

Hypertension 2021 Jul 26:HYPERTENSIONAHA12016690. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (M.N., L.S., S.D.).

Large artery stiffness is a major risk factor underlying cardiovascular disease. However, the molecular mechanisms driving this pathological process are poorly understood. Previous studies indicate that the age-associated decline of miR-181b levels can accelerate aortic stiffening by activating TGF-β (transforming growth factor β) signaling. Read More

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The relevance of the endocrine condition in microglia morphology and dendrite complexity of doublecortin-associated neurons in young adult and middle-aged female rats exposed to acute stress.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology, Division of Neurosciences, National Institute of Psychiatry, Mexico City, Mexico.

Menopause, natural or surgical, might facilitate the onset of psychiatric pathologies. Some reports suggest that their severity could increase if the decline of ovarian hormones occurs abruptly and before natural endocrine senescence. Therefore, we compared the effects of ovariectomy on microglia's morphological alterations, the complexity of newborn neurons, and the animal's ability to cope with stress. Read More

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Redox Imbalance and Mitochondrial Release of Apoptogenic Factors at the Forefront of the Antitumor Action of Mango Peel Extract.

Molecules 2021 Jul 17;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), Laboratory of Biochemistry, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy.

Today, an improved understanding of cancer cell response to cellular stress has become more necessary. Indeed, targeting the intracellular pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance triggering the tumor commitment to cell demise could represent an advantageous strategy to develop cancer-tailored therapies. In this scenario, the present study shows how the peel extract of mango-a tropical fruit rich in phytochemicals with nutraceutical properties-can affect the cell viability of three colon cancer cell lines (HT29, Caco-2 and HCT116), inducing an imbalance of cellular redox responses. Read More

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Current Trends in Neurodegeneration: Cross Talks between Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Inflammation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 11;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Department of Medical Disciplines, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, 410073 Oradea, Romania.

The human body is highly complex and comprises a variety of living cells and extracellular material, which forms tissues, organs, and organ systems. Human cells tend to turn over readily to maintain homeostasis in tissues. However, postmitotic nerve cells exceptionally have an ability to regenerate and be sustained for the entire life of an individual, to safeguard the physiological functioning of the central nervous system. Read More

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Epigenetic Effects Promoted by Neonicotinoid Thiacloprid Exposure.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 6;9:691060. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

EHESP, Inserm, Institut de Recherche en Santé, Environnement et Travail - UMR_S 1085, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes, France.

Background: Neonicotinoids, a widely used class of insecticide, have attracted much attention because of their widespread use that has resulted in the decline of the bee population. Accumulating evidence suggests potential animal and human exposure to neonicotinoids, which is a cause of public concern.

Objectives: In this study, we examined the effects of a neonicotinoid, , on the male reproductive system. Read More

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Qing-Luo-Yin Alleviated Monocytes/Macrophages-Mediated Inflammation in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis by Disrupting Their Interaction with (Pre)-Adipocytes Through PPAR-γ Signaling.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 16;15:3105-3118. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College (Yijishan Hospital), Wuhu, 241000, People's Republic of China.

Background: The Chinese herbal formula Qing-Luo-Yin (QLY) has been successfully used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment for decades. It exhibits notable immune and metabolism regulatory properties. Thereby, we investigated its effects on the interplay between (pre)-adipocytes and monocytes/macrophages under adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) circumstances. Read More

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Estradiol correlates with the accumulation of Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Pre-term birth: A possible explanation of immune suppression in pre-term babies.

J Reprod Immunol 2021 Jul 19;147:103350. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, India. Electronic address:

Synergistic interplay of immune endocrine interaction is prerequisite for an effective maternal fetal tolerance. Pre-term birth (PTB) may be a consequence of altered immune-endocrine crosstalk during third trimester resulting in early breakdown of this tolerance. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogenous population of immature immune cells are increased in pregnant women and healthy newborns, but their role in PTB still remains obscure. Read More

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Macrophage phenotype and function are dependent upon the composition and biomechanics of the local cardiac tissue microenvironment.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 05 17;13(13):16938-16956. Epub 2021 May 17.

McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.

Macrophage accumulation and nitrosative stress are known mechanisms underlying age-related cardiovascular pathology and functional decline. The cardiac muscle microenvironment is known to change with age, yet the direct effects of these changes have yet to be studied in-depth. The present study sought to better elucidate the role that biochemical and biomechanical alterations in cardiac tissue have in the altered phenotype and functionality of cardiac resident macrophages observed with increasing age. Read More

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Potential of nafimidone derivatives against co-morbidities of epilepsy: In vitro, in vivo, and in silico investigations.

Drug Dev Res 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Nafimidone is known for its clinical antiepileptic effects and alcohol derivatives of nafimidone were reported be potent anticonvulsants. These compounds are structurally similar to miconazole, which is known to inhibit cholinesterases, protect neurons, and ameliorate cognitive decline. Herein, we aimed to reveal the potential of three nafimidone alcohol esters (5 g, 5i, and 5 k), which were previously reported for their anticonvulsant effects, against co-morbidities of epilepsy such as inflammatory and neuropathic pain, cognitive and behavioral deficits, and neuron death, and understand their roles in related pathways such as γ-butyric acid type A (GABA ) receptor and cholinesterases using in vitro, in vivo and in silico methods. Read More

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Oligodendrocytes in the aging brain.

Neuronal Signal 2021 Sep 6;5(3):NS20210008. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry Centre for Neuroscience, Surgery and Trauma, Blizard Institute, 4 Newark Street, Whitechapel E1 2AT, London.

More than half of the human brain volume is made up of white matter: regions where axons are coated in myelin, which primarily functions to increase the conduction speed of axon potentials. White matter volume significantly decreases with age, correlating with cognitive decline. Much research in the field of non-pathological brain aging mechanisms has taken a neuron-centric approach, with relatively little attention paid to other neural cells. Read More

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September 2021

Dissecting the Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Cause or Solution.

Front Pharmacol 2021 5;12:692551. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Laboratory of Cell Therapies and Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Children and Adults University Hospital of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is one of the most aggressive forms of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, characterized by chronic and progressive fibrosis subverting the lung's architecture, pulmonary functional decline, progressive respiratory failure, and high mortality (median survival 3 years after diagnosis). Among the mechanisms associated with disease onset and progression, it has been hypothesized that IPF lungs might be affected either by a regenerative deficit of the alveolar epithelium or by a dysregulation of repair mechanisms in response to alveolar and vascular damage. This latter might be related to the progressive dysfunction and exhaustion of the resident stem cells together with a process of cellular and tissue senescence. Read More

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Lipidomic Profiling of Algae with Microarray MALDI-MS toward Ecotoxicological Monitoring of Herbicide Exposure.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, United States.

Misuse of agrochemicals has a long-lasting negative impact on aquatic systems. Mismanagement of herbicides in agri-food sectors is often linked to a simultaneous decline in the health of downstream waterways. However, monitoring the herbicide levels in these areas is a laborious task, and modern analytical approaches, such as solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, are low-throughput and require significant sample preparation. Read More

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Visual deprivation induces transient upregulation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the subcortical white matter of mouse visual cortex.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Dec 28;11:29-41. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Biosciences, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577, Japan.

Sensory experience influences proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Enhanced sensorimotor experience promoted the lineage progression of OPCs and myelination in the gray matter and white matter (WM) of sensorimotor cortex. In the visual cortex, reduced experience reportedly delayed the maturation of myelination in the gray matter, but whether and how such experience alters the subcortical WM is unclear. Read More

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December 2021

Combined Treatment With Pembrolizumab and Allogenic BK Virus-Specific T Cells in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: A Case Report.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 Jul 20;8(5). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

From the Department of Neurology (R.W., T.K., B.H., M.D.), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich; Medical Department III for Hematology and Oncology (S.H., M.V.), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich; Institute for Transfusion Medicine (B.E.-V.), Hannover Medical School; Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (B.M.-K.), Hannover Medical School; Department of Neuroradiology (J.S.K.), Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich; Unilabs A/S (A.P.), Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Experimental Neuroimmunology (T.K.), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich; and Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy) (T.K., B.H.), Germany.

Objective: We report a combination of BK virus-specific T cells and pembrolizumab as a treatment option in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML).

Results: A 57-year-old male patient diagnosed with PML presented a fast-progressing right hemiparesis, aphasia, and cognitive deficits. Brain MRI showed a severe leukoencephalopathy with diffusion restriction. Read More

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Memantine improves memory and hippocampal proliferation in adult male rats.

Folia Neuropathol 2021 ;59(2):143-151

Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

Neurogenesis occurs during the embryological development of the brain. However, it is universally accepted that in all adult mammalian brains, there are two sites of high-density cell division: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline agent which results in cognitive deterioration and memory impairment, whereas memantine (MEM) is an NMDA receptor antagonist which is approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's dementia. Read More

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January 2021

Downregulated expression of organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp) 2b1 in the small intestine of rats with acute kidney injury.

Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2021 Jun 15;40:100411. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido, 061-0293, Japan. Electronic address:

The expression of transporters on the apical and basal membranes of renal tubular cells is modulated under acute kidney injury (AKI). However, little is known about alterations in non-renal transporters in the tissues other than the kidney under AKI situation. This study aimed to assess the modulation of organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp) 1a2 and Oatp2b1 expression/function in the small intestine of rats with drug-induced AKI. Read More

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Harnessing the mitochondrial integrity for neuroprotection: Therapeutic role of piperine against experimental ischemic stroke.

Neurochem Int 2021 Jul 18;149:105138. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, India. Electronic address:

Ischemic stroke (IS) is a rapidly increasing global burden and is associated with severe neurological decline and mortality. There is urgent requirement of the efforts, aimed to identify therapeutic strategies that are effective in clinic to promote significant recovery from IS. Studies have shown that mitochondria mediated neuroprotection can be a competent target against ischemic damage. Read More

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Myeloid cell interferon responses correlate with clearance of SARS-CoV-2.

Res Sq 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

The emergence of mutant SARS-CoV-2 strains associated with an increased risk of COVID-19-related death necessitates better understanding of the early viral dynamics, host responses and immunopathology. While studies have reported immune profiling using single cell RNA sequencing in terminal human COVID-19 patients, performing longitudinal immune cell dynamics in humans is challenging. Macaques are a suitable model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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Regulatory T cell activation, proliferation, and reprogramming induced by extracellular vesicles.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from heart stromal/progenitor cells modulate innate immunity, with salutary effects in a variety of cardiac disease models. Little is known, however, about the effects of these EVs on adaptive immunity.

Methods: Ex vivo differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells was conducted to assess the effect of EVs on cytokine production and proliferation of Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (T) cells. Read More

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EVOO Polyphenols Relieve Synergistically Autophagy Dysregulation in a Cellular Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 5;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University of Firenze, 50134 Firenze, Italy.

(1) Background: Autophagy, the major cytoplasmic process of substrate turnover, declines with age, contributing to proteostasis decline, accumulation of harmful protein aggregates, damaged mitochondria and to ROS production. Accordingly, abnormalities in the autophagic flux may contribute to many different pathophysiological conditions associated with ageing, including neurodegeneration. Recent data have shown that extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols stimulate cell defenses against plaque-induced neurodegeneration, mainly, through autophagy induction. Read More

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Impacts of microplastics on reproductive performance of male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) pre-fed on Amphora coffeaeformis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, 71516, Egypt.

This study examines the potential defending effects of the diatom, Amphora coffeaeformis, as a feed additive versus the deleterious effects (mainly on gonads) caused by microplastics (MPs) in Nile tilapia, Oreochromes niloticus. Groups of male tilapia were pre-fed diets with four different supplementation levels of A. coffeaeformis (0%, 2. Read More

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Gold(III) to Ruthenium(III) Metal Exchange in Dithiocarbamato Complexes Tunes Their Biological Mode of Action for Cytotoxicity in Cancer Cells.

Molecules 2021 Jul 3;26(13). Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, Via F. Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova, Italy.

Malignant tumors have affected the human being since the pharaoh period, but in the last century the incidence of this disease has increased due to a large number of risk factors, including deleterious lifestyle habits (i.e., smoking) and the higher longevity. Read More

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Gut bacterial gene changes following pegaspargase treatment in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Jul 19:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University/IWK Health Centre, Halifax, Canada.

Treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with pegaspargase exploits ALL cells dependency on asparagine. Pegaspargase depletes asparagine, consequentially affecting aspartate, glutamine and glutamate. The gut as a confounding source of these amino acids (AAs) and the role of gut microbiome metabolism of AAs has not been examined. Read More

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Response and tolerance ability of to cadmium pollution stress.

Environ Technol 2021 Jul 18:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

College of Safety and Environment Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, People's Republic of China.

Cadmium, which is widely used in electroplating industry, chemical industry, electronic industry and nuclear industry, is harmful to human health and ecological environment. The effects of Cd at different initial concentrations on biomass, antioxidant enzyme activity and ultrastructure of were analysed in the present study. The results showed that maintained a slow-growth trend at 3. Read More

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Novel Cell Culture Paradigm Prolongs Mouse Corneal Epithelial Cell Proliferative Activity and .

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 30;9:675998. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Eye Institute & Affiliated Xiamen Eye Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

It has been a long-standing challenge to obtain from cell cultures adequate amounts of mouse corneal epithelial cells (mCEC) to perform transplantation surgery. This limitation is attributable to the passage dependent declines in their proliferative activity. We describe here development of a novel 6C medium that contains six different modulators of different signaling pathways, which control proliferative mCEC activity. Read More

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