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Red mark syndrome of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; Walbaum, 1792): Histopathological scoring and correlation with gross lesions.

J Fish Dis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Veterinary Pathology Unit, DI4A, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.

Red mark syndrome (RMS) is a skin disorder affecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The present work aimed to correlate the gross skin lesions affecting 46 fish sampled from farms surveyed for RMS with their microscopic features, identifying histological parameters that may be suggestive of disease progression. Skin lesions were grossly included in one of three categories (types I, II and III) according to the progressive degree of severity. Read More

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MiR-205 suppressed the malignant behaviors of breast cancer cells by targeting CLDN11 via modulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 May 8;13. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Shaoxing People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.

Some Aberrant expression of miRNAs plays an important role in the occurrence and distant metastasis of breast cancer. This study aimed to identify crucial miRNA signatures for breast cancer using microarray data from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including ductal carcinoma and invasive duct carcinoma. In this study, we founded that miR-205 was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer, and the low expression of miR-205 was significantly associated with the TNM stage of breast cancer. Read More

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An autoantigen profile of human A549 lung cells reveals viral and host etiologic molecular attributes of autoimmunity in COVID-19.

J Autoimmun 2021 Apr 27;120:102644. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA; Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA. Electronic address:

We aim to establish a comprehensive COVID-19 autoantigen atlas in order to understand autoimmune diseases caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Based on the unique affinity between dermatan sulfate and autoantigens, we identified 348 proteins from human lung A549 cells, of which 198 are known targets of autoantibodies. Comparison with current COVID data identified 291 proteins that are altered at protein or transcript level in SARS-CoV-2 infection, with 191 being known autoantigens. Read More

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1,2,3-Triazole tethered 1,2,4‑trioxane trimer induces apoptosis in metastatic cancer cells and inhibits their proliferation, migration and invasion.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 29;112:104952. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Chemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, India. Electronic address:

Artemisinin (ART) has been in use against different cancer cells and its derivatives and conjugates are more cytotoxic to iron-rich cancer cells. It is desirable to develop easily achievable synthetic 1,2,4-trioxanes having the same pharmacophore as that of ART. To explore more efficient compounds, a 1,2,3-triazole tethered 1,2,4‑trioxane trimer (4T) was synthesized and the anti-cancer effects of ART and 4T on MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 cells were investigated concerning regulation of osteopontin (OPN) expression, which is associated with cancer progression and malignancy. Read More

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Transcriptome aberration in mice uterus associated with steroid hormone response and inflammation induced by dioxybenzone and its metabolites.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 4;286:117294. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Benzophenone-type UV filters have been implicated in multiple adverse reproductive outcomes, yet the underlying processes and molecular targets on the female reproductive tract remain largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the effect of dioxybenzone, one of the widely used congeners, and its demethylated (M1) and hydroxylated (M2) metabolites on transcriptome profiles of ICR mice uterus and identified potential cellular targets in human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) separated from normal endometrium tissues. Dioxybenzone, M1 and M2 (20 mg/kg bw/d) significantly induced transcriptome aberration with the induction of 683, 802, and 878 differentially expressed genes mainly involved in cancer, reproductive system disease and inflammatory disease. Read More

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Integration of environmental metabolomics and physiological approach for evaluation of saline pollution to rice plant.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 27;286:117214. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Henan Province Engineering Research Center for Biomass Value-added Products, School of Forestry, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, 450002, China.

Salinisation of soil is associated with urban pollution, industrial development and rising sea level. Understanding how high salinity is managed at the plant cellular level is vital to increase sustainable farming output. Previous studies focus on plant stress responses under salinity tolerance. Read More

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Benzophenone-3 induced abnormal development of enteric nervous system in zebrafish through MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.

Chemosphere 2021 May 5;280:130670. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China. Electronic address:

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disease characterized by the absence of enteric neurons, which is derived from the failure of the proliferation, differentiation or migration of the enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs). HSCR is associated with multiple risk factors, including polygenic inheritance factors and environmental factors. Genetic studies have been extensively performed, whereas studies related to environmental factors remain insufficient. Read More

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The expression of NTAL and its protein interactors is associated with clinical outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 May 7:100091. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School , University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil;; Department of Internal Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Medical School and Center for Cell Based Therapy, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil;. Electronic address:

Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL) membrane protein depletion from lipid rafts by alkylphospholipids or downregulation by shRNA-knockdown decreases cell viability through regulation of the Akt/PI3K pathway in mantle cell lymphoma and acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Here, we confirmed that the knockdown of NTAL in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines was associated with decreased cell proliferation and survival. Similarly, a xenograft model using AML cells transduced with NTAL-shRNA and transplanted into NSG immunodeficient mice led to a 1. Read More

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Histopathological features of systemic sclerosis-associated myopathy: A scoping review.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 May 7:102851. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Rheumatology, Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM), CHUM Research Center, Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Scleromyositis (SM) is an emerging subset of myositis associated with features of systemic sclerosis (SSc) but it is currently not recognized as a distinct histopathological subset by the European NeuroMuscular Center (ENMC). Our aim was to review studies reporting muscle biopsies from SSc patients with myositis and to identify unique histopathological features of SM.

Methods: A scoping review was conducted and included all studies reporting histopathological findings in SSc patients with myositis searching the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and EBM-Reviews. Read More

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Suppression of Cancer-associated bone loss through dynamic mechanical loading.

Bone 2021 May 7:115998. Epub 2021 May 7.

Stony Brook University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Patients afflicted with or being treated for cancer constitute a distinct and alarming subpopulation who exhibit elevated fracture risk and heightened susceptibility to developing secondary osteoporosis. Cancer cells uncouple the regulatory processes central for the adequate regulation of musculoskeletal tissue. Systemically taxing treatments to target tumors or disrupt the molecular elements driving tumor growth place considerable strain on recovery efforts. Read More

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Understanding the increased risk of infections in diabetes: innate and adaptive immune responses in type 1 diabetes.

Metabolism 2021 May 7:154795. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Internal Medicine (463), Radboud University Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500, HB, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Aims: Patients with diabetes have a higher incidence of infections with Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, yet factors contributing to this increased risk are largely unknown. We hypothesize that altered innate and adaptive immune responses during diabetes contribute to an increased susceptibility to infections.

Materials And Methods: We studied cytokine responses to ex vivo pathogenic stimulations in a cohort with type 1 diabetes (n = 243) and non-diabetic healthy control subjects (n = 56) using isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Read More

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LxCxD motif of the APC/C coactivator subunit FZR1 is critical for interaction with the retinoblastoma protein.

Exp Cell Res 2021 May 7:112632. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067, India. Electronic address:

Retinoblastoma protein (pRB) regulates cell cycle by utilizing different regions of its pocket domain for interacting with E2F family of transcription factors and with cellular and viral proteins containing an LxCxE motif. The LxCxE motif is present on FZR1, an adaptor protein of the multi-subunit E3 ligase complex anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). The APC/C complex regulates the timely degradation of multiple cell cycle proteins for mitotic exit and maintains G1 state. Read More

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Three-dimensional spheroid culture induces apical-basal polarity and the original characteristics of immortalized human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells.

Exp Cell Res 2021 May 7:112630. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Glial Cell Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601, Japan. Electronic address:

The proximal tubules, which are part of the kidney, maintain blood homeostasis by absorbing amino acids, glucose, water, and ions such as sodium (Na), potassium, and bicarbonate. Proximal tubule dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. Renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) are responsible for the main functions of the proximal tubules. Read More

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B cells modulate the expression of MHC-II on cardiac CCR2 macrophages.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA. Electronic address:

The uninjured murine heart contains a heterogeneous population of macrophages with disparate ontogenies and functions. These macrophages are often associated with blood vessels and can be subclassified based on the expression of CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II). The biological cues that modulate these macrophage pool subpopulations have not been completely identified. Read More

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Melatonin Postconditioning Ameliorates Anoxia/Reoxygenation Injury by Regulating Mitophagy and Mitochondrial Dynamics in a SIRT3-Dependent Manner.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 7:174157. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University-Beijing Institute of Heart Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is accompanied by excessive mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) and an imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics. Melatonin has been reported to alleviate I/R injury by regulating mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics. However, the underlying mechanism associated with this activity is not fully understood. Read More

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Nur77 Attenuates Inflammasome Activation by Inhibiting Caspase-1 Expression in Pulmonary Vascular Endothelial Cells.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Thomas Jefferson University, 6559, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States;

Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that help trigger and maintain the inflammatory response as part of the innate immune system. Recently, it has been increasingly recognized that aberrant inflammasome activation is critically involved endothelial dysfunction in a variety of human diseases, such as atherosclerosis, acute lung injury (ALI), and type 2 diabetes. The molecular mechanisms underlying endothelial inflammasome activation, however, are not completely elucidated. Read More

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Stabilization of Nrf2 leading to HO-1 activation protects against zinc oxide nanoparticles-induced endothelial cell death.

Nanotoxicology 2021 May 10:1-19. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute of Life Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

With the abundant production and wide application of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs), the potential health risks of ZnONPs have raised serious concerns. Oxidative stress is recognized as the most important outcome of the toxicity induced by ZnONPs. The Nrf2-Keap1 system and its downstream antioxidative genes are the fundamental protective mechanisms for redox hemeostasis. Read More

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Sequencing Ultrarare Targets with Compound Nucleic Acid Cytometry.

Anal Chem 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, United States.

Targeted sequencing enables sensitive and cost-effective analysis by focusing resources on molecules of interest. Existing methods, however, are limited in enrichment power and target capture length. Here, we present a novel method that uses compound nucleic acid cytometry to achieve million-fold enrichments of molecules >10 kbp in length using minimal prior target information. Read More

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Mitigation of endemic GI-tract pathogen-mediated inflammation through development of multimodal treatment regimen and its impact on SIV acquisition in rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 10;17(5):e1009565. Epub 2021 May 10.

Infectious Disease Resource, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, United States of America.

Here, we assessed the efficacy of a short-course multimodal therapy (enrofloxacin, azithromycin, fenbendazole, and paromomycin) to eliminate common macaque endemic pathogens (EPs) and evaluated its impact on gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, mucosal integrity, and local and systemic inflammation in sixteen clinically healthy macaques. Treatment combined with expanded practices resulted in successful maintenance of rhesus macaques (RM) free of common EPs, with no evidence of overt microbiota diversity loss or dysbiosis and instead resulted in a more defined luminal microbiota across study subjects. Creation of a GI pathogen free (GPF) status resulted in improved colonic mucosal barrier function (histologically, reduced colonic MPO+, and reduced pan-bacterial 16s rRNA in the MLN), reduced local and systemic innate and adaptive inflammation with reduction of colonic Mx1 and pSTAT1, decreased intermediate (CD14+CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (CD14-CD16+), reduced populations of peripheral dendritic cells, Ki-67+ and CD38+ CD4+ T cells, Ki-67+IgG+, and Ki-67+IgD+ B cells indicating lower levels of background inflammation in the distal descending colon, draining mesenteric lymph nodes, and systemically in peripheral blood, spleen, and axillary lymph nodes. Read More

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Host factor Rab11a is critical for efficient assembly of influenza A virus genomic segments.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 10;17(5):e1009517. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America.

It is well documented that influenza A viruses selectively package 8 distinct viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs) into each virion; however, the role of host factors in genome assembly is not completely understood. To evaluate the significance of cellular factors in genome assembly, we generated a reporter virus carrying a tetracysteine tag in the NP gene (NP-Tc virus) and assessed the dynamics of vRNP localization with cellular components by fluorescence microscopy. At early time points, vRNP complexes were preferentially exported to the MTOC; subsequently, vRNPs associated on vesicles positive for cellular factor Rab11a and formed distinct vRNP bundles that trafficked to the plasma membrane on microtubule networks. Read More

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Histoplasmosis of the Central Nervous System: A Case Series between 1990 and 2019 in French Guiana.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

2CIC INSERM 1424, Centre Hospitalier de Cayenne, Cayenne, French Guiana.

Disseminated histoplasmosis is the most frequent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness in French Guiana. Paradoxically, central nervous system (CNS) involvement has been scarcely described. We aimed to identify CNS histoplasmosis in our territory. Read More

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PAF enhances cancer stem cell properties via β-catenin signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Cell Cycle 2021 May 10:1-11. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Minimally Invasive Intervention, Shaanxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Xi'an, China.

Increasing proofs have declared that liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the main contributors to tumor initiation, metastasis, therapy resistance, and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CSCs regulation remain largely unclear. Recently, PCNA-associated factor (PAF) was identified to play a key role in maintaining breast cancer cell stemness, but its role in liver cancer stem cells has not been declared yet. Read More

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A protective variant of the autophagy receptor CALCOCO2/NDP52 in Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

Autophagy 2021 May 10:1-3. Epub 2021 May 10.

IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, which has been found associated with dysfunctional mitochondria. In order to advance our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying this disease, we analyzed mitophagy, a process fundamental for the elimination of damaged mitochondria through the autophagic process, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MS patients. Through a genetic analysis carried out on 203 MS patients and 1000 healthy controls, we identified a natural variant of CALCOCO2/NDP52, a well-known autophagic receptor, associated with and protective in MS. Read More

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RENEB Inter-Laboratory Comparison 2017: limits and pitfalls of ILCs.

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 May 10:1-52. Epub 2021 May 10.

Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, L´Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: In case of a mass-casualty radiological event, there would be a need for networking to overcome surge limitations and to quickly obtain homogeneous results (reported aberration frequencies or estimated doses) among biodosimetry laboratories. These results must be consistent within such network. Inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs) are widely accepted to achieve this homogeneity. Read More

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Compound heterozygous variants in progressive myoclonus epilepsy.

J Neurogenet 2021 May 10:1-10. Epub 2021 May 10.

NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program, Common Fund, Office of the Director, NIH and National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

KCTD7 is a member of the potassium channel tetramerization domain-containing protein family and has been associated with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME), characterized by myoclonus, epilepsy, and neurological deterioration. Here we report four affected individuals from two unrelated families in which we identified compound heterozygous single nucleotide variants through exome sequencing. RNAseq was used to detect a non-annotated splicing junction created by a synonymous variant in the second family. Read More

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Differently sized drug-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles elicit differential gene expression in MCF-7 cancer cells.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Centre for Nanotechnology & Advanced Biomaterials, SASTRA Deemed-to-be University, Thanjavur, 613401, India.

This study investigates the effects of different sized unmodified and chemo-responsive mesoporous silica nanocarriers on MCF-7 cancer cells. Unmodified and thiol-functionalized large and small-sized mesoporous MCM-41 silica nanoparticles prepared using templated sol-gel process were characterized for their physicochemical properties and and anticancer efficacy. Microarray analysis was carried out to assess their differential effect on gene expression. Read More

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Staphylococcus aureus ST228 and ST239 as models for expression studies of diverse markers during osteoblast infection and persistence.

Microbiologyopen 2021 Mar;10(2):e1178

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences (BIOMETEC), Medical Molecular Microbiology and Antibiotic Resistance laboratory (MMARLab, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

The ability of S. aureus to infect bone and osteoblasts is correlated with its incredible virulence armamentarium that can mediate the invasion/internalization process, cytotoxicity, membrane damage, and intracellular persistence. We comparatively analyzed the interaction, persistence, and modulation of expression of selected genes and cell viability in an ex vivo model using human MG-63 osteoblasts of two previously studied and well-characterized S. Read More

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Withania coagulans extract attenuates oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis of cerebellar purkinje neurons after ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR, Iran.

Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, consequences of oxidative stress (OS), and neuronal death in the susceptible brain areas including the cerebellum. Newly, remarkable attention has been paid to a natural diet with the capability to scavenge ROS. Withania coagulans root extract (WCE) is rich in components with antioxidants properties. Read More

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Cancer microenvironment and genomics: evolution in process.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Surgery, Neurosurgery and Pediatrics, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Tucson, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Cancer heterogeneity is a result of genetic mutations within the cancer cells. Their proliferation is not only driven by autocrine functions but also under the influence of cancer microenvironment, which consists of normal stromal cells such as infiltrating immune cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, endothelial cells, pericytes, vascular and lymphatic channels. The relationship between cancer cells and cancer microenvironment is a critical one and we are just on the verge to understand it on a molecular level. Read More

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Improved creatinine-based early detection of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg, Germany.

Objectives: This study aims to improve early detection of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) compared to classical clinical scores.

Methods: Data from 7633 patients who underwent cardiac surgery between 2008 and 2018 in our institution were analysed. CSA-AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Read More

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