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The Impact of Some Natural Phenolic Compounds on α-Glucosidase and Sorbitol Dehydrogenase Enzymes, and Anti-leukemia Cancer Potential, Spin Density Distributions, and in silico Studies.

J Oleo Sci 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Biochemistry graduate, Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch.

In this study, some phenolic compounds including 4-Hexylresorcinol, 5-Pentadecylresorcinol, 5-Tricosylresorcinol, Bilobol, and Urushiol were tested against α-glycosidase enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sorbitol dehydrogenase enzymes from sheep liver. These compounds determined good inhibition properties against α-glycosidase and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) enzymes. IC values were record in the range of 1. Read More

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The immunohistochemical detection of peroxiredoxin 1 and 2 in canine spontaneous vascular endothelial tumors.

J Vet Med Sci 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Joint Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University.

Peroxiredoxin (PRDX) is an antioxidant enzyme family with six isoforms (PRDX1-6). The main function of PRDXs is to decrease cellular oxidative stress by reducing reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide, to HO. Recently, it has been reported that PRDXs are overexpressed in various malignant tumors in humans, and are involved in the development, proliferation, and metastasis of tumors. Read More

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Calcium phosphate-adsorbable and acid-degradable carboxylated polyrotaxane consisting of β-cyclodextrins suppresses osteoclast resorptive activity.

Dent Mater J 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University.

Recently, the potential of β-cyclodextrin-thread acid-degradable polyrotaxane (AdPRX) has been emphasized as a therapeutic agent for cholesterol-related metabolic disorders. In this study, we investigated whether carboxymethyl carbamate-modified AdPRX (CMC-AdPRX) can be used for adsorption to calcium phosphate to treat bone diseases. We first synthesized CMC-AdPRX and used it to coat the calcium phosphate plate. Read More

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Activin A specifically suppresses the expression of annexin A5 mRNA and augments gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation of A1 expression in LβT2 gonadotrope cells.

Endocr J 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Okayama University of Science, Ehime 794-8555, Japan.

Recently, we reported that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates annexin A1 (Anxa1) and A5 (Anxa5) mRNA expression through the GnRH-receptor-mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in LβT2 cells. As LβT2 cells respond to activin, we examined the effect of activin A on Anxa1 and a5 expression in LβT2 cells. Activin A (0. Read More

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Granule cells constitute one of the major neuronal subtypes in the molecular layer of the posterior cerebellum.

eNeuro 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Center for Learning and Memory, Department of Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Stop C7000, Austin, Texas 78712, USA

The migration of neurons from their birthplace to their correct destination is one of the most crucial steps in brain development. Incomplete or incorrect migration yields ectopic neurons, which cause neurological deficits or are negligible at best. However, the granule cells (GCs) in the cerebellar cortex may challenge this traditional view of ectopic neurons. Read More

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eNeuro 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Escuela Nacional de Estudios Superiores, Unidad Juriquilla. UNAM

Brain aging is a natural process that involves structural and functional changes that lead to cognitive decline, even in healthy subjects. This detriment has been associated with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction due to a reduction in the brain levels of D-serine, the endogenous NMDAR co-agonist. However, it is not clear if D-serine supplementation could be used as an intervention to reduce or reverse age-related brain alterations. Read More

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Novel microenvironment-based classification of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with therapeutic implications.

Gut 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Division of Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, Tisch Cancer Institute, Liver Cancer Program, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA

Objective: The diversity of the tumour microenvironment (TME) of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) has not been comprehensively assessed. We aimed to generate a novel molecular iCCA classifier that incorporates elements of the stroma, tumour and immune microenvironment ('STIM' classification).

Design: We applied virtual deconvolution to transcriptomic data from ~900 iCCAs, enabling us to devise a novel classification by selecting for the most relevant TME components. Read More

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The Life Cycle of the Vaccinia Virus Genome.

Annu Rev Virol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA; email:

Poxviruses, of which vaccinia virus is the prototype, are a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. This physical and genetic autonomy from the host cell nucleus necessitates that these viruses encode most, if not all, of the proteins required for replication in the cytoplasm. In this review, we follow the life of the viral genome through space and time to address some of the unique challenges that arise from replicating a 195-kb DNA genome in the cytoplasm. Read More

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Deconvolution of malignant pleural effusions immune landscape unravels a novel macrophage signature associated with worse clinical outcome in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

J Immunother Cancer 2022 May;10(5)

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital-Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are still unable to provide clinical benefit to the large majority of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. A deeper characterization of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) is expected to shed light on the mechanisms of cancer immune evasion and resistance to immunotherapy. Here, we exploited malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) from lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients as a model system to decipher TIME in metastatic NSCLC. Read More

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Severe bone infection in a kidney transplanted young man.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 May 18;15(5). Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

We present a case of a young kidney transplanted man. He was admitted with lymphadenopathy, fluctuating fever and night sweats 2 months after a cat bite. After admission, he developed severe pain around his right hip. Read More

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The Lard Works in Mysterious Ways: Ceramides in Nutrition-Linked Chronic Disease.

Annu Rev Nutr 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Nutrition and Integrative Physiology, University of Utah College of Health, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA; email:

Diet influences onset, progression, and severity of several chronic diseases, including heart failure, diabetes, steatohepatitis, and a subset of cancers. The prevalence and clinical burden of these obesity-linked diseases has risen over the past two decades. These metabolic disorders are driven by ectopic lipid deposition in tissues not suited for fat storage, leading to lipotoxic disruption of cell function and survival. Read More

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Characterization of aspartyl aminopeptidase from Schistosoma japonicum.

Acta Trop 2022 May 15:106519. Epub 2022 May 15.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention (Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research); National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China (NHC) Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology; World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases; National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Shanghai 200025, China.. Electronic address:

The tegument of schistosomes is the interface between the worm and the host environment. Some molecules distributed on the tegument participate in host-parasite interactions. Aspartyl aminopeptidase (AAP), identified on the tegument of Schistosoma japonicum (S. Read More

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Limited cross-variant immunity from SARS-CoV-2 Omicron without vaccination.

Nature 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron are globally relevant variants of concern (VOCs). While individuals infected with Delta are at risk to develop severe lung disease, infection with Omicron often causes milder symptoms, especially in vaccinated individuals. The question arises whether widespread Omicron infections could lead to future cross-variant protection, accelerating the end of the pandemic. Read More

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Agonism of GPR120 Prevented High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis of Retinal Endothelial Cells through Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome.

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Xi'an Aier Ancient City Eye Hospital, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Purpose: GPR120 has been reported to ameliorate inflammation in diabetes and diabetic complications. In this study, GW9508, the GPR120 agonist, was utilized in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) exposed to high glucose (HG) to investigate the involvement of GPR120 in cellular viability and apoptosis as well as the association with the NLRP3 inflammasome.

Methods: The expression of GPR120 in HRMECs cultured under HG was firstly detected by Western blotting. Read More

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Histochemical examination of blood vessels in murine femora with intermittent PTH administration.

J Oral Biosci 2022 May 15. Epub 2022 May 15.

Developmental Biology of Hard Tissue, Faculty of Dental Medicine. Electronic address:

Objective: To verify the biological effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on the blood vessels in the bone, this study aimed to investigate histological alterations in endomucin-positive blood vessels and perivascular cells in murine femora after intermittent PTH administration. For comparison with blood vessels in the bone, we examined the distribution of endomucin-positive blood vessels and surrounding αSMA-immunoreactive perivascular cells in the liver, kidney, and aorta with or without PTH administration.

Methods: Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice received hPTH [1-34] or vehicle for two weeks. Read More

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A Biomimetic High Throughput Model of Cancer Cell Spheroid Dissemination onto Aligned Fibrillar Collagen.

SLAS Technol 2022 May 15. Epub 2022 May 15.

School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, D04 V1W8, Ireland; Conway Institute of Biomolecular & Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, D04 V1W8, Ireland. Electronic address:

Cell dissemination during tumor development is a characteristic of cancer metastasis. Dissemination from three-dimensional spheroid models on extracellular matrices designed to mimic tissue-specific physiological microenvironments may allow us to better elucidate the mechanism behind cancer metastasis and the response to therapeutic agents. The orientation of fibrillar collagen plays a key role in cellular processes and mediates metastasis through contact-guidance. Read More

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The loop of phenotype: Dynamic reciprocity links tenocyte morphology to tendon tissue homeostasis.

Acta Biomater 2022 May 15. Epub 2022 May 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands; Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) are engaged in dynamic reciprocity to maintain tissue homeostasis: cells deposit ECM, which in turn presents the signals that define cell identity. This loop of phenotype is obvious for biochemical signals, such as collagens, which are produced by and presented to cells, but the role of biomechanical signals is also increasingly recognised. In addition, cell shape goes hand in hand with cell function and tissue homeostasis. Read More

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NB-3 expression in endothelial cells contributes to the maintenance of blood brain barrier integrity in a mouse high-altitude cerebral edema model.

Exp Neurol 2022 May 15:114116. Epub 2022 May 15.

Beijing Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing 100850, China; Co-Innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, China; College of Life Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, China. Electronic address:

NB-3, a member of the contactin/F3 subgroup in the immunoglobulin superfamily, plays an important role in neural development and injury recovery. The blood brain barrier (BBB) is typically involved in the pathophysiology of neural disorders, such as hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Our previous research found that NB-3 protects against brain damage in a mouse stroke model. Read More

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Structure-based peptide ligand design for improved epidermal growth factor receptor targeted gene delivery.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2022 May 15. Epub 2022 May 15.

University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Macromolecular Cancer Therapeutics (MMCT), Rudolf-Holaubek-Platz 2, 1090, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

The epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR allows targeted delivery of macromolecular drugs to tumors. Its ligand, epidermal growth factor, binds EGFR with high affinity but acts mitogenic. Non-mitogenic peptides are utilized as targeting ligands, like the dodecapeptide GE11, although its low binding affinity warrants improvement. Read More

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Histopathological evaluation of chronic rheumatic mitral valve stenosis: the association with clinical presentation, pathogenesis and management at a National Cardiac Institute, Tanzania.

Cardiovasc Pathol 2022 May 15:107434. Epub 2022 May 15.

Amsterdam Heart Center, department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Centre, Netherlands.

Aims: The histopathology of mitral valve (MV) tissues have been reported in necropsy and retrospective studies. We prospectively studied the histopathological changes in rheumatic mitral stenosis using advanced techniques and corroborated these with clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and management.

Methods: From January 2020 to February 2021, surgically excised rheumatic stenotic MV from 54 Tanzanian patients were studied. Read More

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Synthesis of macromolecular Astragalus polysaccharide-nano selenium complex and the inhibitory effects on HepG2 cells.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 May 15. Epub 2022 May 15.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China. Electronic address:

In the present study, the previously obtained macromolecuar-weight Astragalus polysaccharide (average molecular weight of 1.61 × 10 Da) was used as a stabilizer and dispersing agent for nano-composites preparation by modifying selenium nanoparticles, and then the anti-hepatoma activity on HepG2 cells was investigated as well. Results showed that the nano-composites were obtained under polysaccharide concentration of 2 mg/mL and selenium/polysaccharide mass ratio of 1:15, and exhibited symmetrical spheroid with an average diameter of 62. Read More

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The association of decreased HLA-G immune cell frequencies with critical COVID-19 patients.

Microb Pathog 2022 May 15:105550. Epub 2022 May 15.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). Immune dysregulation causes inflammation and massive production of inflammatory mediators that worsen the patients' status. Here, regulatory immune cells may ameliorate inflammation and improve the severity of the disease. Read More

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Anfibatide alleviates inflammation and apoptosis via inhibiting NF-kappaB/NLRP3 axis in ischemic stroke.

Eur J Pharmacol 2022 May 15:175032. Epub 2022 May 15.

Anhui Academy of Medical Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230061, China. Electronic address:

Recent evidence suggests that Nod-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a key mediator of inflammatory response and can induce the activation of apoptosis signaling pathways in ischemic stroke. In this research, we assessed the effects of anfibatide (ANF) on inflammatory and apoptosis in cerebral ischemic injury and the potential mechanisms. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was established on male Sprague-Dawley rats to induce cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo. Read More

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Fasting induces a highly resilient deep quiescent state in muscle stem cells via ketone body signaling.

Cell Metab 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Paul F. Glenn Laboratories for the Biology of Aging, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Center for Tissue Regeneration, Repair, and Restoration, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Healthcare System, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA; Neurology Service, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA. Electronic address:

Short-term fasting is beneficial for the regeneration of multiple tissue types. However, the effects of fasting on muscle regeneration are largely unknown. Here, we report that fasting slows muscle repair both immediately after the conclusion of fasting as well as after multiple days of refeeding. Read More

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Conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells regulates oxidative stress and angiogenesis of retinal pigment epithelial cells.

Ophthalmic Res 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Introduction: Retinal homeostasis is essential to avoid retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) damage resulting in photoreceptor death and blindness. Mesenchymal stem cells-based cell therapy could contribute to the maintenance of the retinal homeostasis. We have explored the effect of human uterine cervical stem cells (hUCESCs) conditioned medium (hUCESC-CM) on RPE cells under oxidative stress condition. Read More

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T cell transcription factor expression evolves over time in granulomas from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cynomolgus macaques.

Cell Rep 2022 May;39(7):110826

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is a global health concern, yearly resulting in 10 million new cases of active TB. Immunologic investigation of lung granulomas is essential for understanding host control of bacterial replication. Here, we identify and compare the pathological, cellular, and functional differences in granulomas at 4, 12, and 20 weeks post-infection in Chinese cynomolgus macaques. Read More

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Loss of T cell tolerance in the skin following immunopathology is linked to failed restoration of the dermal niche by recruited macrophages.

Cell Rep 2022 May;39(7):110819

Department of Haematology, University College London (UCL) Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6DD, UK; Institute for Immunity and Transplantation, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London NW3 2PF, UK. Electronic address:

T cell pathology in the skin leads to monocyte influx, but we have little understanding of the fate of recruited cells within the diseased niche, or the long-term impact on cutaneous immune homeostasis. By combining a murine model of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) with analysis of patient samples, we demonstrate that pathology initiates dermis-specific macrophage differentiation and show that aGVHD-primed macrophages continue to dominate the dermal compartment at the relative expense of quiescent MHCII cells. Exposure of the altered dermal niche to topical haptens after disease resolution results in hyper-activation of regulatory T cells (Treg), but local breakdown in tolerance. Read More

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Human photoreceptors switch from autonomous axon extension to cell-mediated process pulling during synaptic marker redistribution.

Cell Rep 2022 May;39(7):110827

Department of Neuroscience, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA; McPherson Eye Research Institute, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Electronic address:

Photoreceptors (PRs) are the primary visual sensory cells, and their loss leads to blindness that is currently incurable. Although cell replacement therapy holds promise, success is hindered by our limited understanding of PR axon growth during development and regeneration. Here, we generate retinal organoids from human pluripotent stem cells to study the mechanisms of PR process extension. Read More

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Toll-9 interacts with Toll-1 to mediate a feedback loop during apoptosis-induced proliferation in Drosophila.

Cell Rep 2022 May;39(7):110817

Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Electronic address:

Drosophila Toll-1 and all mammalian Toll-like receptors regulate innate immunity. However, the functions of the remaining eight Toll-related proteins in Drosophila are not fully understood. Here, we show that Drosophila Toll-9 is necessary and sufficient for a special form of compensatory proliferation after apoptotic cell loss (undead apoptosis-induced proliferation [AiP]). Read More

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WEE1 inhibition enhances the antitumor immune response to PD-L1 blockade by the concomitant activation of STING and STAT1 pathways in SCLC.

Cell Rep 2022 May;39(7):110814

Department of Medicine, Thoracic Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Mortimer B. Zuckerman Research Center, Office: Z1701, 417 E 68th St, New York, NY 10065, USA; Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Small cell lung cancers (SCLCs) have high mutational burden but are relatively unresponsive to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Using SCLC models, we demonstrate that inhibition of WEE1, a G2/M checkpoint regulator induced by DNA damage, activates the STING-TBK1-IRF3 pathway, which increases type I interferons (IFN-α and IFN-β) and pro-inflammatory chemokines (CXCL10 and CCL5), facilitating an immune response via CD8 cytotoxic T cell infiltration. We further show that WEE1 inhibition concomitantly activates the STAT1 pathway, increasing IFN-γ and PD-L1 expression. Read More

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