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First report of fatal baylisascariasis-induced acute pancreatitis in a giant panda.

Parasitol Int 2021 May 10:102380. Epub 2021 May 10.

Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife, Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, Sich3uan Academy of Giant Panda, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

A wild adult male giant panda that was rescued from a nature reserve in Sichuan Province, China, has died. The panda had been in poor physical condition: it was wheezing and had increased serum amylase. A pathological examination was performed in order to determine the cause of death. Read More

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High-throughput fabrication of silk fibroin/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (SF/HPMC) manofibrous scaffolds for skin tissue engineering.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou 215123, China.

Silk fibroin (SF) is a natural macromolecule material with good biocompatibility, which can be used to prepare a variety of biological materials. In this study, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was applied to improve the properties of SF nanofibrous scaffolds (NFS) for skin tissue engineering applications. SF/HPMC NFS with varying weight ratios of SF: HPMC were prepared in batches by a modified free surface electrospinning. Read More

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Fabrication of dual layered biocompatible herbal biopatch from biological waste for skin - Tissue regenerative applications.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, K.P.R. Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore 641048, India.

A dual layered herbal biopolymeric patch (biopatch) with enhanced wound healing efficiency and skin mimicking functions was fabricated for skin-tissue regenerative applications. In this study, hoof keratin (KE) extracted from biological waste and gelatin (GE) was employed for KE-GE biosheet fabrication using a simple casting method. Further, the top layer of the fabricated KE-GE biosheet was coated with bioactive Matricaria recutita (Chamomile flower) extract (CH) with gelatin through an electrospraying method. Read More

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Targeting Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Signaling in Immune-Mediated Diseases: Beyond Multiple Sclerosis.

Drugs 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

San Diego VA Medical Center (SDVAMC), San Diego, CA, USA.

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid metabolite that exerts its actions by engaging 5 G-protein-coupled receptors (S1PR1-S1PR5). S1P receptors are involved in several cellular and physiological events, including lymphocyte/hematopoietic cell trafficking. An S1P gradient (low in tissues, high in blood), maintained by synthetic and degradative enzymes, regulates lymphocyte trafficking. Read More

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IL-34 reprograms glycolytic and osteoclastic RA macrophages via Syndecan-1 and M-CSFR.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA.

Objective: In RA, IL-34 serum levels are linked with increased disease severity. IL-34 binds to two receptors, M-CSFR and Syndecan-1 (SDC-1), which are co-expressed in RA macrophages (MФs). Expression of both IL-34 and SDC-1 is strikingly elevated in the RA synovium, yet their mechanism of action remains undefined. Read More

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[Research progress on anti-tumor effect of Chinese dragon's blood].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(8):2037-2044

Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine Beijing 100029, China.

As a traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese dragon's blood has multiple effects, such as activating blood to remove blood stasis, softening and dispelling stagnation, astringent and hemostasis, clearing swelling and relieving pain, regulating menstruation and rectifying the blood, so it is called "an effective medicine of promoting blood circulation". It has been widely used clinically to treat a variety of diseases. With the further research on Chinese dragon's blood, its anti-tumor medicinal value is gradually emerging. Read More

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Inhibition of exosome release augments neuroinflammation following intracerebral hemorrhage.

FASEB J 2021 Jun;35(6):e21617

Department of Neurology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a severe stroke subtype without effective pharmacological treatment. Following ICH, peripheral leukocytes infiltrate into the brain and contribute to neuroinflammation and brain edema. However, the intercellular machinery controlling the initiation and propagation of leukocyte infiltration remains elusive. Read More

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Development of a PCR Lateral Flow Assay for Rapid Detection of Bacillus anthracis, the Causative Agent of Anthrax.

Mol Biotechnol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Bioprocess Technology Division, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, 474002, India.

Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax is one of the most potent listed biological warfare agents. The conventional microbiological methods of its detection are labor intensive and time consuming, whereas molecular assays are fast, sensitive and specific. PCR is one of the most reliable diagnostic tools in molecular biology. Read More

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The Mitochondrial mitoNEET Ligand NL-1 Is Protective in a Murine Model of Transient Cerebral Ischemic Stroke.

Pharm Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, 1 Medical Center Drive, Morgantown, West Virginia, 26506, USA.

Purpose: Therapeutic strategies to treat ischemic stroke are limited due to the heterogeneity of cerebral ischemic injury and the mechanisms that contribute to the cell death. Since oxidative stress is one of the primary mechanisms that cause brain injury post-stroke, we hypothesized that therapeutic targets that modulate mitochondrial function could protect against reperfusion-injury after cerebral ischemia, with the focus here on a mitochondrial protein, mitoNEET, that modulates cellular bioenergetics.

Method: In this study, we evaluated the pharmacology of the mitoNEET ligand NL-1 in an in vivo therapeutic role for NL-1 in a C57Bl/6 murine model of ischemic stroke. Read More

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Role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 in Vascular Function.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 26;8:677661. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Wuxi School of Medicine, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels are widely expressed in systemic tissues and can be activated by many stimuli. TRPV4, a Ca-permeable cation channel, plays an important role in the vasculature and is implicated in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis processes such as blood pressure, vascular remodeling, and pulmonary hypertension and edema. Within the vasculature, TRPV4 channels are expressed in smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and perivascular nerves. Read More

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Lingual schwannoma in an adolescent boy: A case report.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 May 17;65:102216. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Oral cavity schwannoma is still considered a rare entity in the head and neck region. Schwannoma is a benign encapsulated nerve sheath tumour that originate from Schwann cells with an approximate incidence of 1% in the oral cavity. The tongue is the most common location among oral cavity tumours. Read More

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Neuroprotective Effects of Fingolimod Supplement on the Retina and Optic Nerve in the Mouse Model of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Front Neurosci 2021 26;15:663541. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Favorable effects exerted by long-term administration of fingolimod therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported, but sporadic side effects, such as reversible macular edema, also have been recorded. The present study aimed to determine whether fingolimod therapy is beneficial to the visual system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. A decrease in demyelination and axon loss in the optic nerve as well as cellular infiltration, especially the recruited macrophages, was observed in EAE with fingolimod treatment. Read More

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Contribution of Thrombospondin-1 and -2 to Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 16;2021:8876484. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Thrombospondin (TSP) proteins have been shown to impact T-cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is specifically upregulated in several inflammatory diseases and can effectively promote lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced inflammation. In contrast, thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) has been associated with activation of "anti-inflammatory" T-regulatory cells (Tregs). Read More

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Mitofusin-2 stabilizes adherens junctions and suppresses endothelial inflammation via modulation of β-catenin signaling.

Nat Commun 2021 May 12;12(1):2736. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Endothelial barrier integrity is ensured by the stability of the adherens junction (AJ) complexes comprised of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin as well as accessory proteins such as β-catenin and p120-catenin. Disruption of the endothelial barrier due to disassembly of AJs results in tissue edema and the influx of inflammatory cells. Using three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy, we observe that the mitochondrial protein Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) co-localizes at the plasma membrane with VE-cadherin and β-catenin in endothelial cells during homeostasis. Read More

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Mitochondrial fission and mitophagy are independent mechanisms regulating ischemia/reperfusion injury in primary neurons.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 12;12(5):475. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy are constitutive and complex systems that ensure a healthy mitochondrial network through the segregation and subsequent degradation of damaged mitochondria. Disruption of these systems can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and has been established as a central mechanism of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Emerging evidence suggests that mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy are integrated systems; however, the role of this relationship in the context of I/R injury remains unclear. Read More

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The f subunit of human ATP synthase is essential for normal mitochondrial morphology and permeability transition.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109111

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova 35121, Italy; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Institute of Neuroscience, Padova 35121, Italy; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy. Electronic address:

The f subunit is localized at the base of the ATP synthase peripheral stalk. Its function in the human enzyme is poorly characterized. Because full disruption of its ATP5J2 gene with the CRISPR-Cas9 strategy in the HAP1 human model has been shown to cause alterations in the amounts of other ATP synthase subunits, here we investigated the role of the f subunit in HeLa cells by regulating its levels through RNA interference. Read More

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Surgical Results of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation in One-Chamber Eyes.

J Glaucoma 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Japan (Tanito, Tsutsui), Division of Ophthalmology, Matsue Red Cross Hospital, Matsue, Japan (Manabe, Matsuoka).

Prcis: Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation in eyes with damaged iris-lens diaphragms ("one-chamber" eyes) resulted in mean intraocular pressure and antiglaucoma medications decreases of 66% and 59% (P<0.0001 for both), respectively, at the mean 23-month follow-up.

Purpose: To report the results of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) implantation with pars plana tube insertion to control intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucomatous eyes with damaged iris-lens diaphragms ("one-chamber" eyes). Read More

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Down-regulation of long non-coding RNA XIST aggravates sepsis-induced lung injury by regulating miR-16-5p.

Hum Cell 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou University People's Hospital, Medical College of Henan University, Weiwu Road No. 7, Zhengzhou, 450003, Henan Province, China.

This study aims to explain the role and related mechanisms of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) X inactive specific transcript (XIST) in sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI). The in vivo septic models and in vitro septic model were established. In animal models, the lung injury of the rats was evaluated after XIST was overexpressed. Read More

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Aggravation of airway inflammation in RSV-infected asthmatic mice following infection-induced alteration of gut microbiota.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai Children's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: This study aimed to confirm the relationship between asthma, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, and the gut environment by analyzing the alterations in the gut microbiota of RSV-infected asthmatic mice.

Methods: Twenty-four male BALB/c mice were randomly separated into a control group (CON), ovalbumin (OVA) group, and an OVA + RSV group, (n=8 mice/group). At the end of experiments, we evaluated the RSV-infected asthma model using Wright-Giemsa staining, histopathology and immunoglobulin E (IgE) level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Read More

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Recent advances in dead cell clearance during acute lung injury and repair.

Fac Rev 2021 30;10:33. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are clinical syndromes that cause significant mortality in clinical settings and morbidity among survivors accompanied by huge healthcare costs. Lung-resident cell dysfunction/death and neutrophil alveolitis accompanied by proteinous edema are the main pathological features of ALI/ARDS. While understanding of the mechanisms underlying ALI/ARDS pathogenesis is progressing and potential treatments such as statin therapy, nutritional strategies, and mesenchymal cell therapy are emerging, poor clinical outcomes in ALI/ARDS patients persist. Read More

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Rapidly Progressive Periorbital Oedema: A Case of Cutaneous Angiosarcoma.

Case Rep Oncol 2021 Jan-Apr;14(1):531-537. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Angiosarcoma is a rare form of malignant endothelial cell tumour characterised by rapidly infiltrating anaplastic cells of vascular or lymphatic origin. We report an uncommon case of cutaneous angiosarcoma (cAS) manifesting as rapidly progressive unilateral periorbital oedema. Due to the acute onset of disease, the patient was initially treated with antibiotics for presumed periorbital cellulitis. Read More

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Ulinastatin Exhibits Antinociception in Rat Models of Acute Somatic and Visceral Pain Through Inhibiting the Local and Central Inflammation.

J Pain Res 2021 4;14:1201-1214. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Clinical Medical College, (900 Hospital of the Joint Logistic Support Force), Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350025, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Ulinastatin, a broad-spectrum serine protease inhibitor, has been widely used to treat various diseases clinically. However, so far, the antinociceptive effect of ulinastatin remains less studied experimentally and the underlying mechanisms of ulinastatin for pain relief remain unclear. This study aimed to find evidence of the analgesic effect of ulinastatin on acute somatic and visceral pain. Read More

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Endothelial Exosome Plays a Functional Role during Rickettsial Infection.

mBio 2021 May 11;12(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA

Spotted fever group rickettsioses (SFRs) are devastating human infections. Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are the primary targets of rickettsial infection. Edema resulting from EC barrier dysfunction occurs in the brain and lungs in most cases of lethal SFR, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Read More

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Acute myeloid leukemia presenting as horizontal diplopia.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Dr. Greenberg is from Global Neurosciences Institute, One Medical Center, Blvd ACP 232, Upland, PA 19103, USA. Electronic address:

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) accounts for 16% of all leukemias in children. Prognosis in the pediatric population is better than that of older populations, with a younger age at diagnosis being a favorable prognostic factor [1]. Diplopia is a rare first presenting sign of AML. Read More

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Idiopathic myelitis presenting as Brown-Séquard syndrome: two case reports and a review of the literature.

Authors:
Xi Peng Liang Wang

J Med Case Rep 2021 May 12;15(1):233. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Background: Brown-Séquard syndrome often occurs in spinal cord injury, and few myelitis patients present with Brown-Séquard syndrome.

Case Presentation: A 33-year-old Han man was admitted with neck pain plus numbness in the right limbs for 2 days and weakness in the left limbs for 1 day. Examination was significant for left limbs with grade 4 muscle power, positive left Babinski sign, diminished vibration sensation in the left limbs and decreased pain below the right clavicle dermatome. Read More

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Mesenchymal stromal cells reduce evidence of lung injury in patients with ARDS.

JCI Insight 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America.

Background: Whether airspace biomarkers add value to plasma biomarkers in studying ARDS is not well understood. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an investigational therapy for ARDS, and airspace biomarkers may provide mechanistic evidence for MSCs' impact in patients with ARDS.

Methods: We carried out a nested cohort study within a phase 2a safety trial of treatment with allogeneic MSCs for moderate to severe ARDS. Read More

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A role for IL-33-activated ILC2s in eosinophilic vasculitis.

JCI Insight 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, Cochin Hospital, Paris, France.

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare but serious disease with poorly understood mechanisms. Here we report that patients with EGPA have elevated levels of TSLP, IL-25, and sST2, well characterized cytokine "alarmins" that activate or modulate type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Patients with active EGPA have a concurrent reduction in circulating ILC2s, suggesting a role for ILC2s in the pathogenesis of this disease. Read More

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Bisphenol A decreases expression of insulin-like factor 3 and induces histopathological changes in testes of rat.

Toxicol Ind Health 2021 May 11:7482337211014097. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical agent known to have detrimental reproductive and developmental effects. The tissue-specific impacts of BPA exposures and target tissues sensitiveness to BPA are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the short- and long-term dose-dependent toxic effects of BPA on rat testes. Read More

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Presentation of External Ear Rosai-Dorfman Disease With Laryngeal Involvement.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 May 11:1455613211016704. Epub 2021 May 11.

Bobby R. Alford Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare benign systemic histiocytic proliferation characterized by massive lymph node enlargement and sometimes associated with extranodal involvement. Even though it is considered to be benign, death can occur depending on the extent and location. Our case highlights a primary extranodal site of the right pinna with extension through the Eustachian tube to the subglottis. Read More

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A Novel in Vitro and in Silico System for Analysing Complex Mechanobiological Behaviour of Chondrocytes in 3D Hydrogel Constructs.

J Biomech Eng 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.

Physiological loading is essential for the maintenance of articular cartilage through regulation of tissue remodelling. To correctly understand the behaviour of chondrocytes in their native environment, cell stimulating devices/bioreactors have been developed to examine the effect of mechanical stimuli on chondrocytes. This study describes the design and validation of a novel system for analysing chondrocyte deformation patterns. Read More

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