457,522 results match your criteria cell responses


MicroRNA-based host response to toxicant exposure is influenced by the presence of gut microbial populations.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 20;797:149130. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Center for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA; Department of Plant, Soil, and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. Electronic address:

Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) and Bacteroides fragilis are known to interact with the host immune response through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an environmental toxicant and a high-affinity Ahr ligand has the potential to modify the effect of SFB and B. fragilis. Read More

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Comparative immunogenicity of decellularized wild type and alpha 1,3 galactosyltransferase knockout pig lungs.

Biomaterials 2021 Jul 15;276:121029. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA. Electronic address:

Decellularized pig lungs recellularized with human lung cells offer a novel approach for organ transplantation. However, the potential immunogenicity of decellularized pig lungs following exposure to human tissues has not been assessed. We found that exposure of native lungs from wildtype and transgenic pigs lacking alpha (1,3)-galactosyltransferase (α-gal KO) to sera from normal healthy human volunteers demonstrated similar robust IgM and IgG immunoreactivity, comparably decreased in decellularized lungs. Read More

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BAFF receptor polymorphisms and deficiency in humans.

Curr Opin Immunol 2021 Jul 23;71:103-110. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Dept. of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology and Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address:

The BAFF-receptor (BAFFR) is a member of the TNF-receptor family. It is expressed only by B cells and binds BAFF as single ligand, which activates key signaling pathways regulating essential cellular functions, including survival, protein synthesis, and metabolic fitness. In humans, BAFFR deficiency interrupts B cell development at the transition from immature to mature B cells and causes B lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and impaired humoral immune responses. Read More

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ACVR1 extends inflammatory responses in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived macrophages.

Bone 2021 Jul 23:116129. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA; Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA; The Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA; The Program in Craniofacial Biology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA. Electronic address:

Macrophages play crucial roles in many human disease processes. However, obtaining large numbers of primary cells for study is often difficult. We describe 2D and 3D methods for directing human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into macrophages (iMACs). Read More

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PRMT4 inhibitor TP-064 inhibits the pro-inflammatory macrophage lipopolysaccharide response in vitro and ex vivo and induces peritonitis-associated neutrophilia in vivo.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Jul 23:166212. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Division of BioTherapeutics, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333, CC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Previous in vitro studies have shown that protein arginine N-methyltransferase 4 (PRMT4) is a co-activator for an array of cellular activities, including NF-κB -regulated pro-inflammatory responses. Here we investigated the effect of PRMT4 inhibitor TP-064 treatment on macrophage inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of RAW 264. Read More

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Clickable amino acid derivative tuned self-assembly of antigen and adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy.

J Control Release 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Natural Product Synthesis and Drug Research, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China. Electronic address:

Amino acid-tuned self-assembly has become an attractive strategy for constructing various functional materials. Here, a series of dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO) functionalized amphiphilic amino acid derivatives are designed and screened as building blocks of functional supramolecular self-assembly nanoparticles for cancer immunotherapy. One top-performing supramolecular self-assembly material (named DA6C1) is identified through combinatorial screening, and spherical nanoparticles can be easily prepared by this material tuned multicomponent synergistic self-assembly of ovalbumin (OVA) and CpG oligonucleotide. Read More

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Attenuation of Sensory Transmission Through the Rat Trigeminal Ganglion by GABA Receptor Activation.

Neuroscience 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of British Columbia, 2405 Wesbrook Mall Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada. Electronic address:

While the trigeminal ganglion is often considered a passive conduit of sensory transmission, neurons and satellite glial cells within it can release neurotransmitters and express neuroreceptors. Some trigeminal ganglion neurons contain the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and express GABA receptors. There is behavioral evidence that increased GABA levels in the trigeminal ganglion decreases nociception, while a loss of GABA receptors results in hyperalgesia, although the neural mechanisms for this remain to be investigated. Read More

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Differential involvement of programmed cell death ligands in skin immune responses.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Japan. Electronic address:

Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is an immuno-regulatory receptor that can bind PD-L1 or PD-L2 expressed on stimulated antigen-presenting cells. In this study, isolated antigen-presenting cells (macrophages and dendritic cells) were cultured with interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, or IL-17A and expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 was compared by flow cytometry. Strong upregulation of PD-L1 expression was observed upon IFN-γ stimulation of both antigen-presenting cells, as well as in response to IL-17A stimulation of macrophages compared to unstimulated controls. Read More

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Recombinant bio-nanoparticles induce protection against pneumonic infection.

Infect Immun 2021 Jul 26:IAI0039621. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, 12208, USA.

To develop an effective (PA) outer-membrane-vesicles (OMVs) vaccine, we eliminated multiple virulence factors from a wild-type PA103 strain (PA103) to generate a recombinant strain, PA-m14. The PA-m14 strain was tailored with a pSMV83 plasmid encoding the fusion gene to produce OMVs. The recombinant OMVs enclosed increased amounts of PcrV-HitA bivalent antigen (PH) (termed OMV-PH) and exhibited reduced toxicity compared to the OMVs from PA103. Read More

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pre-erythrocytic vaccine antigens enhance sterile protection in mice induced by circumsporozoite protein.

Infect Immun 2021 Jul 26:IAI0016521. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Laboratory of Malaria Immunology and Vaccinology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Pre-erythrocytic vaccines prevent malaria by targeting parasites in the clinically silent sporozoite and liver stages and preventing progression to the virulent blood stages. The leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine RTS,S/AS01E (Mosquirix®) entered implementation programs in 2019 and targets the major sporozoite surface antigen called circumsporozoite protein or CSP. However, in phase III clinical trials, RTS,S conferred partial protection with limited durability, indicating a need to improve CSP-based vaccination. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of CD19-Directed CAR-T Cell Therapies in Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Aggressive B-Cell Lymphomas: Observations From the JULIET, ZUMA-1, and TRANSCEND Trials.

Am J Hematol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapies have improved the outcome for many patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive B-cell lymphomas. In 2017, axicabtagene ciloleucel and soon after tisagenlecleucel became the first approved CAR-T cell products for patients with high-grade B-cell lymphomas or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who are relapsed or refractory to ≥2 prior lines of therapy; lisocabtagene maraleucel was approved in 2021. Safety and efficacy outcomes from the pivotal trials of each CAR-T cell therapy have been reported. Read More

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Vascular and immunopathological role of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA) in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Immunology 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor/uncoupler inducing vascular pathology. Vascular pathology is an important factor for the development and progression of CNS pathology of MS, yet the role of ADMA in MS remains elusive. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are reported to have elevated blood levels of ADMA and mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of MS) generated by auto-immunization of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption by pertussis toxin also had increased blood ADMA levels in parallel with induction of clinical disease. Read More

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Acidification can directly affect olfaction in marine organisms.

J Exp Biol 2021 Jul 20;224(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Centro de Ciências do Mar do Algarve, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139, Faro, Portugal.

In the past decade, many studies have investigated the effects of low pH/high CO2 as a proxy for ocean acidification on olfactory-mediated behaviours of marine organisms. The effects of ocean acidification on the behaviour of fish vary from very large to none at all, and most of the maladaptive behaviours observed have been attributed to changes in acid-base regulation, leading to changes in ion distribution over neural membranes, and consequently affecting the functioning of gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated (GABAergic) neurotransmission. Here, we highlight a possible additional mechanism by which ocean acidification might directly affect olfaction in marine fish and invertebrates. Read More

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Bridging cell-scale simulations and radiologic images to explain short-time intratumoral oxygen fluctuations.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jul 26;17(7):e1009206. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Integrated Mathematical Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, United States of America.

Radiologic images provide a way to monitor tumor development and its response to therapies in a longitudinal and minimally invasive fashion. However, they operate on a macroscopic scale (average value per voxel) and are not able to capture microscopic scale (cell-level) phenomena. Nevertheless, to examine the causes of frequent fast fluctuations in tissue oxygenation, models simulating individual cells' behavior are needed. Read More

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Associations between Exposure to Organochlorine Chemicals and Endometriosis: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies and Integration of Epidemiological Evidence.

Environ Health Perspect 2021 Jul 26;129(7):76003. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Oniris, INRAE, UMR 1329 Laboratoire d'Étude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Nantes, France.

Background: Growing epidemiological evidence suggests that organochlorine chemicals (OCCs), including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo--dioxin (TCDD), may play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

Objectives: We aimed to systematically review the experimental evidence ( and ) on the associations between exposure to OCCs and endometriosis-related end points.

Methods: A systematic review protocol was developed following the National Toxicology Program /Office of Health Assessment and Translation (NTP/OHAT) framework and managed within a web-based interface. Read More

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3D Bioprinted Multicellular Vascular Models.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Jul 26:e2101141. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

3D bioprinting is an emerging additive manufacturing technique to fabricate constructs for human disease modeling. However, current cell-laden bioinks lack sufficient biocompatibility, printability, and structural stability needed to translate this technology to preclinical and clinical trials. Here, a new class of nanoengineered hydrogel-based cell-laden bioinks is introduced, that can be printed into 3D, anatomically accurate, multicellular blood vessels to recapitulate both the physical and chemical microenvironments of native human vasculature. Read More

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Micro-managing pattern formation: miRNA regulation of signaling systems in vertebrate development.

FEBS J 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Early embryogenesis requires the establishment of fields of progenitor cells with distinct molecular signatures. A balance of intrinsic and extrinsic cues determines the boundaries of embryonic territories and pushes progenitor cells towards different fates. This process involves multiple layers of regulation, including signaling systems, transcriptional networks, and post-transcriptional control. Read More

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cGAS-STING pathway: post-translational modifications and functions in sterile inflammatory diseases.

FEBS J 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, China.

Cytoplasmic microbial and host aberrant DNAs act as danger signals and trigger host immune responses. Upon recognition, the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) catalyzes the production of a second messenger 2'3'-cGAMP, which activates endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and ultimately leads to the induction of type I interferons and inflammatory genes that collectively initiate host immune defense against microbial invasion. Inappropriate activation or suppression of this signaling pathway has been implicated in the development of some autoimmune diseases, sterile inflammation and cancers. Read More

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Low oxygen-levels decrease adaptive immune responses and ameliorate experimental asthma in mice.

Allergy 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research, Graz, Austria.

Background: High altitude therapy has been used as add-on treatment for allergic asthma with considerable success. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In order to investigate the possible therapeutic effects of high altitude therapy on allergic asthma, we utilised a new in vivo mouse model. Read More

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"Unboxing Dendritic cells: Tales of Multi-faceted Biology and Function".

Immunology 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Often referred to as the bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) that constitute a unique, yet complex cell system. Among other antigen presenting cells, DCs display the unique property of inducing protective immune responses against invading microbes, or cancer cells, while safeguarding the proper homeostatic equilibrium of the immune system and maintaining self-tolerance. Unsurprisingly, DCs play a role in many diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy, infectious disease, and cancer. Read More

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Kidney organoid systems for studies of immune-mediated kidney diseases: challenges and opportunities.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Research Department Virus Immunology, Leibniz-Institute for Experimental Virology, Hamburg, Germany.

Acute and chronic kidney diseases are major contributors to morbidity and mortality in the global population. Many nephropathies are considered to be immune-mediated with dysregulated immune responses playing an important role in the pathogenesis. At present, targeted approaches for many kidney diseases are still lacking, as the underlying mechanisms remain insufficiently understood. Read More

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The role of morphology, shell composition and protein corona formation in Au/FeO composite nanoparticle mediated macrophage responses.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, 710069, China. and Shaanxi Provincial Engineering Research Center for Nano-Biomedical Detection, Xi'an, 710077, China.

The great interest in using nanoparticles (NPs) for biomedical applications is transversal to various materials despite the poorly understood correlation between their physicochemical properties and effects on the immune system. NPs, such as gold and Fe3O4, are generally regarded as safe, but the immunotoxicological profile of Au/Fe3O4 composite NPs with different physicochemical properties is not well documented. This study investigated the biological impact of Au/Fe3O4 composite NPs with different morphologies (spherical core-shell and flower-like) and shell composition in vitro to analyze their potential cytotoxic effects and inflammatory responses on RAW 264. Read More

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Could Immunonutrition Help in the Fight against COVID-19 in Cancer Patient?

Nutr Cancer 2021 Jul 26:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The rapid and widespread global pandemic of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has had unprecedented negative health and economic impacts. Immune responses play a key role in the development of COVID-19, including the disruption of immune balance and cytokine storms caused by excessive inflammatory responses. Due to the effects of cancer itself and treatment, patients often accompanied by immunosuppression appear to be a susceptible population for COVID-19. Read More

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Development of a 3D Bioartificial Shoulder Joint Implant Mimetic of Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

Tissue Eng Part A 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

University of Western Ontario, 6221, Department of Biochemistry, London, Ontario, Canada.

Post-surgical infections of the shoulder joint involving are difficult to diagnose and manage. Despite the devastating clinical complications and costly healthcare burden of joint infections, the scarcity of joint infection models was identified as an unmet need by the 2019 International Consensus on Orthopedic Infections. In this study, we have developed a novel 3D shoulder joint implant mimetic (S-JIM) that includes a surgical metal surface and supports a co-culture of and patient-derived shoulder capsule fibroblasts. Read More

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A rationally designed c-di-AMP FRET biosensor to monitor nucleotide dynamics.

J Bacteriol 2021 Jul 26:JB0008021. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

3'3'-cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is an important nucleotide second messenger found throughout the bacterial domain of life. C-di-AMP is essential in many bacteria and regulates a diverse array of effector proteins controlling pathogenesis, cell wall homeostasis, osmoregulation, and central metabolism. Despite the ubiquity and importance of c-di-AMP, methods to detect this signaling molecule are limited, particularly at single cell resolution. Read More

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Stimulating Fungi with Hydrocortisone.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Unconventional Computing Laboratory, UWE, Bristol, U.K.

Fungi cells can sense extracellular signals via reception, transduction, and response mechanisms, allowing them to communicate with their host and adapt to their environment. They feature effective regulatory protein expressions that enhance and regulate their response and adaptation to various triggers such as stress, hormones, physical stimuli such as light, and host factors. In our recent studies, we have shown that oyster fungi generate electrical potential impulses in the form of spike events in response to their exposure to environmental, mechanical, and chemical triggers, suggesting that the nature of stimuli may be deduced from the fungal electrical responses. Read More

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The optimization of pepsin processing time to balance the mechanical and biological properties of xenogeneic bone.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Orthopeadic Surgery, Hunan Engineering Research Center of Biomedical Metal and Ceramic Implants, Xiangya Hospital Central South University.

Xenogeneic bone showed great prospects to treat large bone defects due to its bionic composition and structure, but the immunogenicity limited its wide applications. Previously, we developed a pepsin treating method to eliminate the immunogenicity of xenogeneic bone. In this study, we further investigated the effect of pepsin processing time on the biological and mechanical properties. Read More

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Maintaining proteostasis under mechanical stress.

EMBO Rep 2021 Jul 26:e52507. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Institute of Biology II, Faculty of Biology, and Signalling Research Centres BIOSS and CIBSS, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Cell survival, tissue integrity and organismal health depend on the ability to maintain functional protein networks even under conditions that threaten protein integrity. Protection against such stress conditions involves the adaptation of folding and degradation machineries, which help to preserve the protein network by facilitating the refolding or disposal of damaged proteins. In multicellular organisms, cells are permanently exposed to stress resulting from mechanical forces. Read More

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The mitochondrial and chloroplast dual targeting of a multifunctional plant viral protein modulates chloroplast-to-nucleus communication, RNA silencing suppressor activity, encapsidation, pathogenesis and tissue tropism.

Plant J 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Molecular and Evolutionary Plant Virology. Institute for Plant Molecular and Cell Biology, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain.

Plant defense against melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) is triggered by the viral auxiliary replicase p29 that is targeted to mitochondrial membranes causing morphological alterations, oxidative burst, and necrosis. Here we show that MNSV coat protein (CP) was also targeted to mitochondria and mitochondrial-derived replication complexes (VRC), in close association with p29, in addition to chloroplasts. CP import resulted in the cleavage of the R/arm domain previously implicated in genome binding during encapsidation and RNA silencing suppression (RSS). Read More

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The BMP antagonist gremlin 1 contributes to the development of cortical excitatory neurons, motor balance and fear responses.

Development 2021 Jul 12;148(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is required for early forebrain development and cortical formation. How the endogenous modulators of BMP signaling regulate the structural and functional maturation of the developing brain remains unclear. Here, we show that expression of the BMP antagonist Grem1 marks committed layer V and VI glutamatergic neurons in the embryonic mouse brain. Read More

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