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Mapping the peripheral nervous system in the whole mouse via compressed sensing tractography.

J Neural Eng 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 2167 CIEMAS, Duke Box 3382, 101 Science Drive, Durham, North Carolina, 27708, UNITED STATES.

Objective: The peripheral nervous system (PNS) connects the central nervous system (CNS) with the rest of the body to regulate many physiological functions and is therapeutically targeted to treat diseases such as epilepsy, depression, intestinal dysmotility, chronic pain, and more. However, we still lack understanding of PNS innervation in most organs because the large span, diffuse nature, and small terminal nerve bundle fibers have precluded whole-organism, high resolution mapping of the PNS. We sought to produce a comprehensive peripheral nerve atlas for use in future interrogation of neural circuitry and selection of targets for neuromodulation. Read More

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Coding of plant immune signals by surface receptors.

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2021 May 9;62:102044. Epub 2021 May 9.

Gregor Mendel Institute (GMI), Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna BioCenter (VBC), Dr. Bohr-Gasse 3, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

The detection of molecular signals derived from other organisms is central to the evolutionary success of plants in the colonization of Earth. The sensory coding of these signals is critical for marshaling local and systemic immune responses that keep most invading organisms at bay. Plants detect immune signals inside and outside their cells using receptors. Read More

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Efficient generation of isogenic primary human myeloid cells using CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109105

J. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Innovative Genomics Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, San Francisco, CA 94129, USA; UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Genome engineering of primary human cells with CRISPR-Cas9 has revolutionized experimental and therapeutic approaches to cell biology, but human myeloid-lineage cells have remained largely genetically intractable. We present a method for the delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes by nucleofection directly into CD14 human monocytes purified from peripheral blood, leading to high rates of precise gene knockout. These cells can be efficiently differentiated into monocyte-derived macrophages or dendritic cells. Read More

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Virus-mediated inactivation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members promotes Gasdermin-E-dependent pyroptosis in barrier epithelial cells.

Immunity 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Gastroenterology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Program in Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Two sets of innate immune proteins detect pathogens. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) bind microbial products, whereas guard proteins detect virulence factor activities by the surveillance of homeostatic processes within cells. While PRRs are well known for their roles in many types of infections, the role of guard proteins in most infectious contexts remains less understood. Read More

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Phragmunis A suppresses glioblastoma through the regulation of MCL1-FBXW7 by blocking ELK1-SRF complex-dependent transcription.

Neurochem Int 2021 May 9:105051. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, 3002# Sungang Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518035, China. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumour. During screening work, we found a new compound named phragmunis A (PGA), which is derived from the fruitbody of Trogia venenata, exhibits a potential cytotoxic effect on patient-derived recurrent GBM cells and temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant cell lines. The present study was designed to investigate the potential molecular mechanism of the anti-glioma effects of PGA in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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Establishment of a Sandwich-ELISA for simultaneous quantification of bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein in serum and milk.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0251414. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Animal Sciences, Georg-August-University, Goettingen, Lower Saxony, Germany.

Bovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (boPAG) are expressed by trophoblast cells in the bovine placenta. The multigene family of boPAG belongs to the group of aspartic proteases. The accumulation and circulation in maternal blood and milk has made boPAG very useful and important for pregnancy diagnosis in cattle. Read More

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Piano-Stool Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Delayed Cytotoxic Activity: Origin of the Lag Time.

Inorg Chem 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Departament de Química Inorgànica i Orgànica, Facultat de Química, Secció de Química Inorgànica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, 1-11, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

We have recently reported a series of piano-stool ruthenium(II) complexes of the general formula [RuCl(η-arene)(P(1-pyrenyl)RR)] showing excellent cytotoxic activities (particularly when R = R = methyl). In the present study, new members of this family of compounds have been prepared with the objective to investigate the effect of the steric hindrance of a bulky phosphane ligand, namely diisopropyl(1-pyrenyl)phosphane (), on exchange reactions involving the coordinated halides (X = Cl, I). Two η-arene rings were used, i. Read More

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Cardiovascular disease risks in younger versus older adult B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors.

Cancer Med 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Public Health, Department of Family & Preventive Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Introduction: Young cancer survivors may be at increased risk of early-onset chronic health conditions. The aim of this population-based study is to estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among younger versus older B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) survivors compared with their respective general population cohorts.

Methods: B-NHL survivors diagnosed from 1997 to 2015 in the Utah Cancer Registry were matched with up to five cancer-free individuals on birth year, sex, and birth state, using the statewide Utah Population Database. Read More

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LncRNA NEAT1 Regulates Infantile Pneumonia by Sponging miR-146b.

Mol Biotechnol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Shangdong Provincial Western Hospital, No. 4 Duanxing West Road, Huaiyin District, Jinan, 252022, Shandong Province, China.

This study designed to investigate the potential role of lncRNA NEAT1/miR-146b in infantile pneumonia. In this study, 58 children with pneumonia and 58 healthy children collected for routine examination from December 2016 to January 2019. The lncRNA NEAT1 and miR-146b expression levels were detected by qPCR in both groups. Read More

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Non-functioning oxyphilic parathyroid carcinoma: a case report.

Surg Case Rep 2021 May 12;7(1):119. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pathology, Showa University Northern Yokohama Hospital, 35-1 Chigasakichuo, Tsuzuki-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa, Tokyo, 224-8503, Japan.

Background: Non-functioning parathyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy among endocrine tumors. We report a case in which non-functional oxyphilic parathyroid carcinoma was diagnosed from clinical symptoms and pathological diagnosis.

Case Presentation: The patient was a 42-year-old man with no medical or family history of note. Read More

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The spatiotemporal changes in dopamine, neuromelanin and iron characterizing Parkinson's disease.

Brain 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Sorbonne Université, Institut du Cerveau - Paris Brain Institute - ICM, INSERM, CNRS, 75013 Paris, France.

In Parkinson's disease, there is a progressive reduction in striatal dopaminergic function, and loss of neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons and increased iron deposition in the substantia nigra. We tested the hypothesis of a relationship between impairment of the dopaminergic system and changes in the iron metabolism. Based on imaging data of patients with prodromal and early clinical Parkinson's disease, we assessed the spatiotemporal ordering of such changes and relationships in the sensorimotor, associative and limbic territories of the nigrostriatal system. Read More

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Downregulated CMTM8 Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer Patients.

DNA Cell Biol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Surgery, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

This study aimed to examine the expression and clinical significance of chemokine-like factor-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing family member 8 (CMTM8) in gastric cancer (GC). The mRNA and protein expression of CMTM8 were detected by bioinformatics analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. Bioinformatics analysis found that there was a high mRNA expression of CMTM8 in GC tissues, but failed to identify a significant relationship with the clinicopathological features or prognosis of GC patients. Read More

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Identification of Key Genes and Pathways Associated with Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma (HSTCL) by Bioinformatics Analysis.

Clin Lab 2021 May;67(5)

Background: Prognosis of Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma (HSTCL) is very poor, while the molecular mechanism of this disease has rarely been investigated and remains mysterious. The aim of the study is to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of patients with HSTCL and normal controls, explore the pathogenesis, and provide guidance for the gene diagnosis and precise treatment of HSTCL.

Methods: The genetic chip data GSE57520 of HSTCL was searched from the GEO database, and the quality control and DEGs screening were performed through BART online tools. Read More

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CCL5-Deficiency Promotes HCC Progression by Affecting B-cell Recruitment.

J Dig Dis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Hepatic Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Abnormal expression of C-C chemokine motif ligand 5 (CCL5) occurs in many solid tumors. The mechanism by which CCL5 affects hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor progression is still unclear. Here, we aimed to evaluate the expression level of CCL5 in HCC, explore the function of CCL5 in regulating the immune microenvironment, and elaborate its regulatory mechanism involved in tumor immunity. Read More

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studies of deferasirox derivatives as potential organelle-targeting traceable anti-cancer therapeutics.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin, 105 E 24th street A5300, Austin, TX 78712-1224, USA.

We report here strategic functionalization of the FDA approved chelator deferasirox (1) in an effort to produce organelle-targeting iron chelators with enhanced activity against A549 lung cancer cells. Derivative 8 was found to have improved antiproliferative activity relative to 1. Fluorescent cell imaging revealed that compound 8 preferentially localises within the lysosome. Read More

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Melanopsin Signaling Pathway in HEK293 Cell Line with Stable Expression of Human Melanopsin: Possible Participation of Phospholipase C beta 4 and Diacylglycerol.

Photochem Photobiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, 30-387, Krakow, Poland.

Melanopsin, a member of the G-protein coupled receptors family, is involved in non-image-forming functions including circadian rhythm, sleep regulation, pupil response. In spite of significant research efforts, the signaling cascade involving melanopsin photoactivation remains poorly characterized. Here, we analyzed the effects of photoactivation of melanopsin on phospholipase C (PLC) and diacylglycerol. Read More

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Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 5 is Involved in the Proliferation of Trophoblast Cells by Regulating Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.

Mol Biotechnol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Cardiology, Hebei Medical University First Hospital, Donggang Road, Hebei, 050000, China.

Preeclampsia (PE) is a pathologic condition in pregnant women which accounts for the inhibition of proliferation, migration and invasion of trophoblast cells. This study aimed to investigate the regulation of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 5 (USP5) on the trophoblast cells in PE. Expressions of USP5 in the placentas of PE patients and healthy donors were examined by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Read More

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Active GTPase Pulldown Protocol.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2262:117-135

Institute of Molecular Cell Biology, Center for Molecular Biomedicine, University Hospital Jena, Jena, Germany.

Ras and its related small GTPases are important signalling nodes that regulate a wide variety of cellular functions. The active form of these proteins exists in a transient GTP bound state that mediates downstream signalling events. The dysregulation of these GTPases has been associated with the progression of multiple diseases, most prominently cancer and developmental syndromes known as Rasopathies. Read More

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January 2021

Validation of Isoform- and Mutation-Specific RAS Antibodies.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2262:91-103

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Validation of antibody specificity is essential for the accurate evaluation of protein expression. For antibodies that recognize the gene products of the RAS family of oncogenes (HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS), an important challenge is the determination of selectivity for the four nearly identical HRAS, KRAS4A, KRAS4B, and NRAS proteins. With increasing appreciation for the distinct roles of the different RAS proteins in normal and neoplastic cells, there is a need for well-validated antibodies to evaluate the function and expression of the different RAS isoforms. Read More

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January 2021

Absolute Quantitation of GTPase Protein Abundance.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2262:65-90

Division of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Ras proteins and other small molecular weight GTPases are molecular switches controlling a wide range of cellular functions. High homology and functional redundancy between closely related family members are commonly observed. Antibody-based methods are commonly used to characterize their protein expression. Read More

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January 2021

In situ evaluation of desensitizing toothpastes for protecting against erosive tooth wear and its characterization.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227 Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP, 05508-000, Brazil.

Objective: This five-phase, single-blind, crossover in situ trial evaluated the effects of desensitizing or anti-erosive toothpastes on dentin erosive wear and tubule occlusion.

Materials And Methods: Some characteristics such as relative dentin abrasivity (RDA), viscosity (V), cytotoxicity, and fluoride and calcium (Ca) availability of the toothpastes were also tested. Samples were positioned on removable intraoral appliances from 15 volunteers (n=4), according to the groups, C-control (0 ppm fluoride), F-sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP), A-MFP and arginine+calcium carbonate, CSP-calcium sodium phosphosilicate, and CS-MFP and calcium silicate+sodium phosphate. Read More

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Comprehensive analysis of a chemokine- and chemokine receptor family-based signature for patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021, China.

The clinical significance and comprehensive features of chemokines and their receptors in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) have not been clarified. We aimed to characterize the expression profiles of chemokine and chemokine receptor family members and construct a chemokine- and chemokine receptor-based prognosis signature. A total of 1511 patients with LUAD from seven independent cohorts were included in the study. Read More

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Emerging roles for the autophagy machinery in extracellular vesicle biogenesis and secretion.

FASEB Bioadv 2021 May 2;3(5):377-386. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Pathology and Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center University of California San Francisco San Francisco CA USA.

Autophagy classically functions to maintain cell health during stressful conditions by targeting cytosolic components for degradation and recycling via lysosomal pathways. However, accumulating evidence also supports roles for autophagy-related genes (ATGs) in non-degradative processes including cellular secretion. Here, we review emerging roles for the autophagy machinery in regulating extracellular vesicle loading and secretion and discuss how functional coupling of these pathways may impact normal physiology and disease. Read More

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Prioritization of Osteoporosis-Associated Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Using Epigenomics and Transcriptomics.

JBMR Plus 2021 May 19;5(5):e10481. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Tulane Center for Biomedical Informatics and Genomics, Deming Department of Medicine, School of Medicine Tulane University New Orleans LA USA.

Genetic risk factors for osteoporosis, a prevalent disease associated with aging, have been examined in many genome-wide association studies (GWASs). A major challenge is to prioritize transcription-regulatory GWAS-derived variants that are likely to be functional. Given the critical role of epigenetics in gene regulation, we have used an unusual epigenetics-based and transcription-based approach to identify some of the credible regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) relevant to osteoporosis from 38 reported bone mineral density (BMD) GWASs. Read More

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Ketone Body 3-Hydroxybutyrate Ameliorates Atherosclerosis via Receptor Gpr109a-Mediated Calcium Influx.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 05 1;8(9):2003410. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

School of Life Sciences Tsinghua University Beijing 100084 P. R. China.

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that can cause acute cardiovascular events. Activation of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome enhances atherogenesis, which links lipid metabolism to sterile inflammation. This study examines the impact of an endogenous metabolite, namely ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB), on a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Read More

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Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the EXO70 gene family in grape ( L).

PeerJ 2021 21;9:e11176. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China.

EXO70 is the pivotal protein subunit of exocyst, which has a very crucial role in enhancing the shielding effect of the cell wall, resisting abiotic and hormonal stresses. This experiment aims to identify family members of the gene family in grape and predict the characteristics of this gene family, so as to lay the foundation of further exploring the mechanism of resisting abiotic and hormone stresses of . Therefore, the 'Red Globe' tube plantlet were used as materials. Read More

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The direct mycobacterial growth inhibition assay (MGIA) for the early evaluation of TB vaccine candidates and assessment of protective immunity: a protocol for non-human primate cells.

F1000Res 2021 30;10:257. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Nuffield Department of Medicine, The Jenner Institute, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK.

The only currently available approach to early efficacy testing of tuberculosis (TB) vaccine candidates is preclinical challenge models. These typically include mice, guinea pigs and non-human primates (NHPs), which must be exposed to virulent in a 'challenge' experiment following vaccination in order to evaluate protective efficacy. This procedure results in disease development and is classified as 'Moderate' in severity under EU legislation and UK ASPA licensure. Read More

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Cell size, genome size, and maximum growth rate are near-independent dimensions of ecological variation across bacteria and archaea.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 16;11(9):3956-3976. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Molecular Sciences Macquarie University Sydney NSW Australia.

Among bacteria and archaea, maximum relative growth rate, cell diameter, and genome size are widely regarded as important influences on ecological strategy. Via the most extensive data compilation so far for these traits across all clades and habitats, we ask whether they are correlated and if so how. Overall, we found little correlation among them, indicating they should be considered as independent dimensions of ecological variation. Read More

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Overexpression of ZNF460 predicts worse survival and promotes metastasis through JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in patient with colon cancer.

J Cancer 2021 2;12(11):3198-3208. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Digestive Disease Center, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518107, China.

Zinc finger proteins (ZNFs) are a class of protein containing zinc finger domains, and they play an important role in tumor progression. However, as a member of the ZNFs family, the effect of ZNF460 in colon cancer remains unclear. In this study, we found that the expression of ZNF460 protein were markedly increased in clinical colon cancer tissues compared with para-cancer non-cancerous tissues by tissue immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot (WB). Read More

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Functional Recovery after Intramyocardial Injection of Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Assessed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Stem Cells Int 2021 22;2021:5556800. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery and Transplantology, John Paul II Hospital, Krakow, Poland.

Aims: A major clinical concern is the continuous increase in the number of patients diagnosed with advanced coronary artery disease, ischemic heart failure, and refractory angina, and one of the most promising treatment options for these conditions is stem cell-based therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the functional improvement following intramyocardial injection of adipose-derived stromal cells, using cardiac magnetic resonance.

Methods And Results: Thirteen patients with ischemic heart failure, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, refractory angina, and who have been disqualified from any form of direct revascularization were enrolled in the study with transthoracic autologous adipose-derived stromal cell implantation. Read More

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