344,473 results match your criteria cell processes

Drug-related demyelinating syndromes: understanding risk factors, pathophysiological mechanisms and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jul 21;55:103146. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Departamento de Radiologia e Oncologia, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Some drugs and medications can precipitate immune system deregulations, which might be confused with recurrent demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO), exacerbations of an existing disease, neoplastic lesions or other conditions. In this narrative review we describe some of the most relevant drugs and medications associated with iatrogenic demyelination. The anthelminthic agent levamisole is a frequent cocaine adulterant and can precipitate an exacerbated immune response attacking the central nervous system (CNS). Read More

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Bioelectrochemical process for simultaneous removal of copper, ammonium and organic matter using an algae-assisted triple-chamber microbial fuel cell.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 27;798:149327. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Resources and Environment Innovation Institute, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101, China. Electronic address:

Considering the adverse effect of heavy metals (such as Cu) on biological wastewater treatment processes, an algae-assisted triple-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was established to remove Cu, COD and nitrogen sequentially, and also generate electricity. About 86.2% of the Cu was removed in the first cathodic chamber, and the remaining Cu was largely eliminated by algal uptake, contributing to an overall Cu removal rate of 99. Read More

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TRP channels, the missing link for Ca tuning by a unicellular eukaryotic parasite?

Cell Calcium 2021 Jul 25;98:102449. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Sensing and responding to changes in the cellular environments are essential for the diverse family of Apicomplexan parasites, which undergo complex life cycles comprised of both extracellular and obligate intracellular stages. Despite evidence of paramount roles for Ca, the molecular players behind how parasites sense Ca and initiate Ca signaling cascades have remained enigmatic. In a recent publication, Marquez-Nogueras et al. Read More

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Morphology made for movement: formation of diverse stomatal guard cells.

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2021 Jul 28;63:102090. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Centre for Organismal Studies Heidelberg, Heidelberg University, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Stomata constantly open and close to optimize gas exchange. While the genetic programme guiding early development is well described, the formation of functional guard cells remains enigmatic. This review highlights recent findings on the developmental and morphogenetic processes shaping this essential and morphologically diverse cell type in Arabidopsis and grasses. Read More

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Molecular functions of autophagy adaptors upon ubiquitin-driven mitophagy.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2021 Jul 28:129972. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Ubiquitin Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506, Japan.

Background: Perturbations in organellar health can lead to an accumulation of unwanted and/or damaged organelles that are toxic to the cell and which can contribute to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Mitochondrial health is particularly critical given the indispensable role the organelle has not only in adenosine triphosphate production but also other metabolic processes. Byproducts of oxidative respiration, such as reactive oxygen species, however, can negatively impact mitochondrial fitness. Read More

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Sialic acid-conjugate modified doxorubicin nanoplatform for treating neutrophil-related inflammation.

J Control Release 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

College of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110016, PR China. Electronic address:

Neutrophils, the most abundant leukocytes in human peripheral blood, are important effector cells that mediate the inflammatory response. During neutrophil dysfunction, excessive activation and uncontrolled infiltration are the core processes in the progression of inflammation-related diseases, including severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), sepsis, etc. Herein, we used sialic acid-modified liposomal doxorubicin (DOX-SAL) to selectively target inflammatory neutrophils in the peripheral blood and deliver DOX intracellularly, inducing neutrophil apoptosis, blocking neutrophil migration, and inhibiting the inflammatory response. Read More

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Midkine: a multifaceted driver of atherosclerosis.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou 570100, Hainan, China. Electronic address:

Atherosclerosis constitutes the pathological basis of life-threatening events, including heart attack and stroke. Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor and forms a small protein family with pleiotrophin. Under inflammatory or hypoxic conditions, midkine expression is up-regulated. Read More

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Methodological approaches for the analysis of transmembrane domain interactions: A systematic review.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 Jul 28:183712. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Biotechnology and Biomedicine BioTecMed, University of Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, Spain. Electronic address:

The study of protein-protein interactions (PPI) has proven fundamental for the understanding of the most relevant cell processes. Any protein domain can participate in PPI, including transmembrane (TM) segments that can establish interactions with other TM domains (TMDs). However, the hydrophobic nature of TMDs and the environment they occupy complicates the study of intramembrane PPI, which demands the use of specific approaches and techniques. Read More

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Separase cleaves the kinetochore protein Meikin at the meiosis I/II transition.

Dev Cell 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 455 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:

To generate haploid gametes, germ cells undergo two consecutive meiotic divisions requiring key changes to the cell division machinery. Here, we demonstrate that the protease separase rewires key cell division processes at the meiosis I/II transition by cleaving the meiosis-specific protein Meikin. Separase proteolysis does not inactivate Meikin but instead alters its function to create a distinct activity state. Read More

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3D migration of human amniotic fluid stem cells involves mesenchymal and amoeboid modes and is regulated by mTORC1.

Stem Cells 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Institute of Medical Genetics, Center of Pathobiochemistry and Genetics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

3D cell migration is an integral part of many physiologic processes. Although being well studied in the context of adult tissue homeostasis and cancer development, remarkably little is known about the invasive behavior of human stem cells. Using two different kinds of invasion assays, this study aimed at investigating and characterizing the 3D migratory capacity of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs), a well-established fetal stem cell type. Read More

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The c.863A>G (p.Glu288Gly) variant of the CTSD gene is not associated with CLN10 disease.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Jul 31:e1777. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Translational Medical Research in Cognitive Development and Learning and Memory Disorders, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Cathepsin D is a lysosomal aspartic protease encoded by the CTSD gene. It plays important roles in many biological processes. Biallelic loss-of-function mutation of CTSD is considered a cause of CLN10 disease. Read More

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The role of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in eye diseases.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Eye Hospital, the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, China.

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common form of internal RNA modification in eukaryotes. The dynamic regulation of m6A modification mainly rely on three proteases, installed by m6A methyltransferase, removed by m6A demethylase and recognized by m6A reader protein, which regulates the metabolism of RNA, thereby regulating the processes of cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Recently, a number of studies have found that m6A aberrant methylation in some eye diseases. Read More

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Biocompatible Micron-Scale Silk Fibers Fabricated by Microfluidic Wet Spinning.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Jul 31:e2100898. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Chemical Process Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Forckenbeckstr. 51, Aachen, 52074, Germany.

For successful material deployment in tissue engineering, the material itself, its mechanical properties, and the microscopic geometry of the product are of particular interest. While silk is a widely applied protein-based tissue engineering material with strong mechanical properties, the size and shape of artificially spun silk fibers are limited by existing processes. This study adjusts a microfluidic spinneret to manufacture micron-sized wet-spun fibers with three different materials enabling diverse geometries for tissue engineering applications. Read More

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Morphological and histochemical features of the digestive tract of Leiarius marmoratus (Gill, 1870).

J Fish Biol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biological Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Bauru, SP, Brazil.

Leiarius marmoratus, a freshwater catfish from Pimelodidae family, shows great biological and commercial relevance, due its geographic distribution and adaptation to fish-farm. The knowledge of the morphological characteristics of the digestive tract is fundamental to the understanding of fish physiology and nutrition, helping in the planning of diets to provide better management and success in fish farming. Thus, this work described the morphology and histochemistry of the digestive tract of Leiarius marmoratus adults. Read More

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Sedimentary pyrite sulfur isotope compositions preserve signatures of the surface microbial mat environment in sediments underlying low-oxygen cyanobacterial mats.

Geobiology 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO, USA.

The sedimentary pyrite sulfur isotope (δ S) record is an archive of ancient microbial sulfur cycling and environmental conditions. Interpretations of pyrite δ S signatures in sediments deposited in microbial mat ecosystems are based on studies of modern microbial mat porewater sulfide δ S geochemistry. Pyrite δ S values often capture δ S signatures of porewater sulfide at the location of pyrite formation. Read More

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Multicolor 3D Confocal Imaging of Thick Tissue Sections.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2350:95-104

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

In multicellular organisms, most physiological and pathological processes involve an interplay between various cells and molecules that act both locally and systemically. To understand how these complex and dynamic processes occur in time and space, imaging techniques are key. Advances in tissue processing techniques and microscopy now allow us to probe these processes at a large scale and at the same time at a level of detail previously unachievable. Read More

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January 2021

Strategies for Multiplexed Biosensor Imaging to Study Intracellular Signaling Networks.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2350:1-20

Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Signal transduction processes are a necessary component of multicellular life, and their dysregulation is the basis for a host of syndromes and diseases. Thus, it is imperative that we discover the complex details of how signal transduction processes result in specific cellular outcomes. One of the primary mechanisms of regulation over signaling pathways is through spatiotemporal control. Read More

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January 2021

FLEP-seq: simultaneous detection of RNA polymerase II position, splicing status, polyadenylation site and poly(A) tail length at genome-wide scale by single-molecule nascent RNA sequencing.

Nat Protoc 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Design for Plant Cell Factory of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Institute of Plant and Food Science, School of Life Sciences, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, China.

Elongation, splicing and polyadenylation are fundamental steps of transcription, and studying their coordination requires simultaneous monitoring of these dynamic processes on one transcript. We recently developed a full-length nascent RNA sequencing method in the model plant Arabidopsis that simultaneously detects RNA polymerase II position, splicing status, polyadenylation site and poly(A) tail length at genome-wide scale. This method allows calculation of the kinetics of cotranscriptional splicing and detects polyadenylated transcripts with unspliced introns retained at specific positions posttranscriptionally. Read More

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AML1/ETO and its function as a regulator of gene transcription via epigenetic mechanisms.

Oncogene 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Freiburg Medical Center, Freiburg, Germany.

The chromosomal translocation t(8;21) and the resulting oncofusion gene AML1/ETO have long served as a prototypical genetic lesion to model and understand leukemogenesis. In this review, we describe the wide-ranging role of AML1/ETO in AML leukemogenesis, with a particular focus on the aberrant epigenetic regulation of gene transcription driven by this AML-defining mutation. We begin by analyzing how structural changes secondary to distinct genomic breakpoints and splice changes, as well as posttranscriptional modifications, influence AML1/ETO protein function. Read More

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Correlative multi-scale cryo-imaging unveils SARS-CoV-2 assembly and egress.

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 30;12(1):4629. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Since the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there have been intense structural studies on purified viral components and inactivated viruses. However, structural and ultrastructural evidence on how the SARS-CoV-2 infection progresses in the native cellular context is scarce, and there is a lack of comprehensive knowledge on the SARS-CoV-2 replicative cycle. To correlate cytopathic events induced by SARS-CoV-2 with virus replication processes in frozen-hydrated cells, we established a unique multi-modal, multi-scale cryo-correlative platform to image SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero cells. Read More

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Subcellular localization of biomolecules and drug distribution by high-definition ion beam imaging.

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 30;12(1):4628. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Simultaneous visualization of the relationship between multiple biomolecules and their ligands or small molecules at the nanometer scale in cells will enable greater understanding of how biological processes operate. We present here high-definition multiplex ion beam imaging (HD-MIBI), a secondary ion mass spectrometry approach capable of high-parameter imaging in 3D of targeted biological entities and exogenously added structurally-unmodified small molecules. With this technology, the atomic constituents of the biomolecules themselves can be used in our system as the "tag" and we demonstrate measurements down to ~30 nm lateral resolution. Read More

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Alternative splicing of mRNA in colorectal cancer: new strategies for tumor diagnosis and treatment.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jul 30;12(8):752. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Medical Oncology, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Alternative splicing (AS) is an important event that contributes to posttranscriptional gene regulation. This process leads to several mature transcript variants with diverse physiological functions. Indeed, disruption of various aspects of this multistep process, such as cis- or trans- factor alteration, promotes the progression of colorectal cancer. Read More

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Integration of segmented regression analysis with weighted gene correlation network analysis identifies genes whose expression is remodeled throughout physiological aging in mouse tissues.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jul 29;13(undefined). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute of Biomedicine - iBiMED, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal.

Gene expression alterations occurring with aging have been described for a multitude of species, organs, and cell types. However, most of the underlying studies rely on static comparisons of mean gene expression levels between age groups and do not account for the dynamics of gene expression throughout the lifespan. These studies also tend to disregard the pairwise relationships between gene expression profiles, which may underlie commonly altered pathways and regulatory mechanisms with age. Read More

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Clinical evidence that a dysregulated master neural network modulator may aid in diagnosing schizophrenia.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Neurobiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 236-0004 Yokohama, Japan;

There are no validated biomarkers for schizophrenia (SCZ), a disorder linked to neural network dysfunction. We demonstrate that collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2), a master regulator of cytoskeleton and, hence, neural circuitry, may form the basis for a biomarker because its activity is uniquely imbalanced in SCZ patients. CRMP2's activity depends upon its phosphorylation state. Read More

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FAN1-MLH1 interaction affects repair of DNA interstrand cross-links and slipped-CAG/CTG repeats.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 30;7(31). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute of Molecular Cancer Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

FAN1, a DNA structure-specific nuclease, interacts with MLH1, but the repair pathways in which this complex acts are unknown. FAN1 processes DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) and FAN1 variants are modifiers of the neurodegenerative Huntington's disease (HD), presumably by regulating HD-causing CAG repeat expansions. Here, we identify specific amino acid residues in two adjacent FAN1 motifs that are critical for MLH1 binding. Read More

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Macrophage regulation of angiogenesis in health and disease.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biology & Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK. Electronic address:

Macrophages are primarily known as phagocytic innate immune cells, but are, in fact, highly dynamic multi-taskers that interact with many different tissue types and have regulatory roles in development, homeostasis, tissue repair, and disease. In all of these scenarios angiogenesis is pivotal and macrophages appear to play a key role in guiding both blood vessel sprouting and remodelling wherever that occurs. Recent studies have explored these processes in a diverse range of models utilising the complementary strengths of rodent, fish and tissue culture studies to unravel the mechanisms underlying these interactions and regulatory functions. Read More

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Fluorescence "turn-off/turn-on" biosensing of metal ions by gold nanoclusters, folic acid and reduced graphene oxide.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Aug 10;1175:338745. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Nanotechnology Research Group, Centre of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, University of Nottingham Malaysia, 43500, Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Metal ions homeostasis plays an important role in biological processes. The ability to detect the concentration of metal ions in biological fluids is often challenged by the obvious interference or competitive binding nature of other alkaline metals ions. Common analytical techniques employed for metal ions detection are electrochemical, fluorescence and colorimetric methods. Read More

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Molecular features and vulnerabilities of recurrent chordomas.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jul 30;40(1):244. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081, Ulm, Germany.

Background: Tumor recurrence is one of the major challenges in clinical management of chordoma. Despite R0-resection, approximately 50% of chordomas recur within ten years after initial surgery. The underlying molecular processes are poorly understood resulting in the lack of associated therapeutic options. Read More

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A workflow for streamlined acquisition and correlation of serial regions of interest in array tomography.

BMC Biol 2021 Jul 30;19(1):152. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

KU Leuven Department of Neurosciences, Leuven Brain Institute, O&N5 Herestraat 49 box 602, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Array tomography (AT) is a high-resolution imaging method to resolve fine details at the organelle level and has the advantage that it can provide 3D volumes to show the tissue context. AT can be carried out in a correlative way, combing light and electron microscopy (LM, EM) techniques. However, the correlation between modalities can be a challenge and delineating specific regions of interest in consecutive sections can be time-consuming. Read More

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NR1D1 suppressed the growth of ovarian cancer by abrogating the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway.

Huailin Wang Yan Fu

BMC Cancer 2021 Jul 30;21(1):871. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Gynecology, the First Hospital of Jilin University, 71 Xinmin Avenue, Changchun, 130021, China.

Background: Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 1 (NR1D1), a nuclear receptor associated with a variety of physiological processes, has a low level in ovarian cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. However, its role in ovarian cancer remains unclear.

Methods: The level of NR1D1 in ovarian cancer cells was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Read More

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