383,469 results match your criteria cell lung

PD-L1 and CD47 co-expression predicts survival and enlightens future dual-targeting immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

Thorac Cancer 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Backgroud: Recent studies have indicated that programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) play an essential role in tumor immune evasion and may serve as potential targets for combined immunotherapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the PD-L1/CD47 expression status in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and explore its survival impact and relevance with the immune microenvironment.

Methods: The specimens from 190 LUSC and 240 LUAD patients who underwent intent-to-treat surgeries were retrospectively collected for immunohistochemistry assays of PD-L1, CD47, cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8), and cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68). Read More

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Prognostic value of ferroptosis-related genes in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

Thorac Cancer 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Lung Cancer Surgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: The prevalence of lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) has dramatically increased in recent decades. Ferroptosis is a process of iron-dependent regulatory cell death. It is still unclear whether the expression of ferroptosis-related genes (FRGs) is involved in the pathogenesis and survival of patients with LUAD. Read More

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Mapping the peripheral nervous system in the whole mouse via compressed sensing tractography.

J Neural Eng 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 2167 CIEMAS, Duke Box 3382, 101 Science Drive, Durham, North Carolina, 27708, UNITED STATES.

Objective: The peripheral nervous system (PNS) connects the central nervous system (CNS) with the rest of the body to regulate many physiological functions and is therapeutically targeted to treat diseases such as epilepsy, depression, intestinal dysmotility, chronic pain, and more. However, we still lack understanding of PNS innervation in most organs because the large span, diffuse nature, and small terminal nerve bundle fibers have precluded whole-organism, high resolution mapping of the PNS. We sought to produce a comprehensive peripheral nerve atlas for use in future interrogation of neural circuitry and selection of targets for neuromodulation. Read More

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Glutathione S-transferases and their implications in the lung diseases asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Early life susceptibility?

Redox Biol 2021 May 2;43:101995. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Our lungs are exposed daily to airborne pollutants, particulate matter, pathogens as well as lung allergens and irritants. Exposure to these substances can lead to inflammatory responses and may induce endogenous oxidant production, which can cause chronic inflammation, tissue damage and remodeling. Notably, the development of asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is linked to the aforementioned irritants. Read More

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Blood neutrophils from children with COVID-19 exhibit both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers.

EBioMedicine 2021 May 9;67:103357. Epub 2021 May 9.

División Infectología, Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Juan A. Fernández, Av. Cerviño 3356, CABA C1425, Argentina.

Background: Perhaps reflecting that children with COVID-19 rarely exhibit severe respiratory symptoms and often remain asymptomatic, little attention has been paid to explore the immune response in pediatric COVID-19. Here, we analyzed the phenotype and function of circulating neutrophils from children with COVID-19.

Methods: An observational study including 182 children with COVID-19, 21 children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), and 40 healthy children was performed in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Read More

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Thorny ground, rocky soil: tissue-specific mechanisms of tumor dormancy and relapse.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Public Health Sciences Division/Translational Research Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; Human Biology Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) spread systemically yet distinct patterns of metastasis indicate a range of tissue susceptibility to metastatic colonization. Distinctions between permissive and suppressive tissues are still being elucidated at cellular and molecular levels. Although there is a growing appreciation for the role of the microenvironment in regulating metastatic success, we have a limited understanding of how diverse tissues regulate DTC dormancy, the state of reversible quiescence and subsequent awakening thought to contribute to delayed relapse. Read More

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Probing thoracic dose patterns associated to pericardial effusion and mortality in patients treated with photons and protons for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Radiother Oncol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

National Research Council, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Napoli, Italy. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate thoracic dose-response patterns for pericardial effusion (PCE) and mortality in patients treated for locally advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) by Intensity Modulated RT (IMRT) or Passive-Scattering Proton Therapy (PSPT).

Methods: Among 178 patients, 43.5% developed grade≥2 PCE. Read More

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Alveolar epithelial cell fate is maintained in a spatially restricted manner to promote lung regeneration after acute injury.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109092

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Penn-CHOP Lung Biology Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Penn Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Alveolar epithelial type 2 (AT2) cells integrate signals from multiple molecular pathways to proliferate and differentiate to drive regeneration of the lung alveolus. Utilizing in vivo genetic and ex vivo organoid models, we investigated the role of Fgfr2 signaling in AT2 cells across the lifespan and during adult regeneration after influenza infection. We show that, although dispensable for adult homeostasis, Fgfr2 restricts AT2 cell fate during postnatal lung development. Read More

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Resident memory T cells in tumor-distant tissues fortify against metastasis formation.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109118

Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

As a critical machinery for rapid pathogen removal, resident memory T cells (Ts) are locally generated after the initial encounter. However, their development accompanying tumorigenesis remains elusive. Using a murine breast cancer model, we show that Ts develop in the tumor, the contralateral mammary mucosa, and the pre-metastatic lung. Read More

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Transferrable protection by gut microbes against STING-associated lung disease.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109113

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

STING modulates immunity by responding to bacterial and endogenous cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs). Humans and mice with STING gain-of-function mutations develop a syndrome known as STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI), which is characterized by inflammatory or fibrosing lung disease. We hypothesized that hyperresponsiveness of gain-of-function STING to bacterial CDNs might explain autoinflammatory lung disease in SAVI mice. Read More

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Fibroblast tissue priming-not so nice to C you!

Immunity 2021 May;54(5):847-850

Complement and Inflammation Research Section, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Institute for Systemic Inflammation Research, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany. Electronic address:

The molecular mechanisms explaining why relapses of inflammatory arthritis occur at previously affected sites are unknown. In this issue of Immunity, Friščić et al. propose that local fibroblasts perpetuate inflammation after priming through cell-intrinsic complement C3, which reprograms their bioenergetics and activates the inflammasome. Read More

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Tezepelumab in Adults and Adolescents with Severe, Uncontrolled Asthma.

N Engl J Med 2021 May;384(19):1800-1809

From Royal Brompton Hospital, London (A.M.-G.), Leicester National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester (C.E.B.), and Late-stage Development, Respiratory and Immunology, BioPharmaceuticals R&D, AstraZeneca, Cambridge (S.P.) - all in the United Kingdom; the David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles (J.C.), and Global Development, Amgen, Thousand Oaks (P.K.) - both in California; Physiologie et Médecine Expérimentale du Cœur et des Muscles, Université de Montpellier, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, INSERM, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montpellier, Montpellier, France (A.B.); the Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (G. Chupp); the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Allergy and Immunology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (E.I.); National Jewish Health, Denver (M.E.W.); Translational Science and Experimental Medicine, Research and Early Development, Respiratory and Immunology (J.M.G.), and Biometrics (K.B.), Late-stage Development, Respiratory and Immunology (G. Colice), BioPharmaceuticals R&D, AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD; and Biometrics (Å.H.), Late-stage Development, Respiratory and Immunology (G.A.), BioPharmaceuticals R&D, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Tezepelumab is a human monoclonal antibody that blocks thymic stromal lymphopoietin, an epithelial-cell-derived cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. The efficacy and safety of tezepelumab in patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma require further assessment.

Methods: We conducted a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Read More

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Interplay between H1N1 influenza a virus infection, extracellular and intracellular respiratory tract pH, and host responses in a mouse model.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0251473. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America.

During influenza A virus (IAV) entry, the hemagglutinin (HA) protein is triggered by endosomal low pH to undergo irreversible structural changes that mediate membrane fusion. HA proteins from different isolates vary in the pH at which they become activated in endosomes or become irreversible inactivated if exposed to extracellular acid. Little is known about extracellular pH in the upper respiratory tracts of mammals, how pH may shift during IAV infection, and its impact on replication of viruses that vary in HA activation pH. Read More

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The IL-10GFP (VeRT-X) mouse strain is not suitable for the detection of IL-10 production by granulocytes during lung inflammation.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0247895. Epub 2021 May 12.

Izmir Biomedicine and Genome Center (IBG), Balcova/Izmir, Turkey.

The clear and unequivocal identification of immune effector functions is essential to understand immune responses. The cytokine IL-10 is a critical immune regulator and was shown, for example, to limit pathology during various lung diseases. However, the clear identification of IL-10-producing cells is challenging and, therefore, reporter mouse lines were developed to facilitate their detection. Read More

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Decreased HLF Expression Predicts Poor Survival in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Med Sci Monit 2021 May 12;27:e929333. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences Affiliated Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is a type of non-small cell carcinoma. Its pathogenesis is being explored and there is no cure for the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) was searched to obtain data on expression of messenger RNA. Read More

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Mechanics of dystrophin deficient skeletal muscles in very young mice and effects of age.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, 77030, United Statesgrid.39382.33.

The MDX mouse is an animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a human disease marked by an absence of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. We hypothesized that (1) dystrophin serves a complex mechanical role in skeletal muscles by contributing to passive compliance, viscoelastic properties, and contractile force production and (2) age is a modulator of passive mechanics of skeletal muscles of the MDX mouse. Using an in vitro biaxial mechanical testing apparatus, we measured passive length-tension relationships in the muscle fiber direction as well as transverse to the fibers, viscoelastic stress-relaxation curves, and isometric contractile properties. Read More

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Immunotherapy for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Decade of Progress.

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2021 Mar;41:1-23

Department of Oncologic Sciences, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida,Tampa, FL.

The treatment paradigm for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer has substantially changed with the discovery of immunotherapy. The incorporation of immunotherapy into treatment algorithms has resulted in better outcomes for patients, with fewer side effects compared with classic chemotherapeutic agents. Multiple treatment options are now available for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, ranging from single-agent immunotherapy to quadruple therapy, which involves dual immune checkpoint inhibitor plus chemotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitor plus chemotherapy plus anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs. Read More

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New Therapies and Biomarkers: Are We Ready for Personalized Treatment in Small Cell Lung Cancer?

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2021 Mar;41:1-10

Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive form of lung cancer with a 5-year survival rate of less than 7%. In contrast to non-small cell lung cancer, SCLC has long been treated as a homogeneous disease without personalized treatment options. In recent years, the incorporation of immunotherapy into the treatment paradigm has brought moderate benefit to patients with SCLC; however, more effective therapies are urgently needed. Read More

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LncRNA NEAT1 Regulates Infantile Pneumonia by Sponging miR-146b.

Mol Biotechnol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Shangdong Provincial Western Hospital, No. 4 Duanxing West Road, Huaiyin District, Jinan, 252022, Shandong Province, China.

This study designed to investigate the potential role of lncRNA NEAT1/miR-146b in infantile pneumonia. In this study, 58 children with pneumonia and 58 healthy children collected for routine examination from December 2016 to January 2019. The lncRNA NEAT1 and miR-146b expression levels were detected by qPCR in both groups. Read More

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Down-regulation of long non-coding RNA XIST aggravates sepsis-induced lung injury by regulating miR-16-5p.

Hum Cell 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou University People's Hospital, Medical College of Henan University, Weiwu Road No. 7, Zhengzhou, 450003, Henan Province, China.

This study aims to explain the role and related mechanisms of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) X inactive specific transcript (XIST) in sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI). The in vivo septic models and in vitro septic model were established. In animal models, the lung injury of the rats was evaluated after XIST was overexpressed. Read More

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Expression of serum response factor in the lung mesenchyme is essential for development of pulmonary fibrosis.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, United Statesgrid.14003.36.

Extracellular matrix deposition characterizes idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and is orchestrated by myofibroblasts. The lung mesenchyme is an essential source of myofibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis. While the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) has shown to be critical in the process of myofibroblast differentiation, its role in development of pulmonary fibrosis has not been determined in vivo. Read More

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The Oxygen Dissociation Curve of Blood in COVID-19.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

German Sports University, Germany.

COVID-19 hinders oxygen transport to the consuming tissues by at least 2 mechanisms: In the injured lung saturation of hemoglobin is compromised, in the tissues an associated anemia reduces the volume of delivered oxygen. For the first problem increased hemoglobin oxygen affinity (left shift of the oxygen dissociation curve ODC) is of advantage, for the 2nd, however, the contrary is the case. Indeed a right shift of the ODC has been found in former studies for anemia caused by reduced cell production or hemolysis. Read More

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Utility of Volumetric Metabolic Parameters on Preoperative FDG PET/CT for Predicting Tumor Lymphovascular Invasion in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, China.

Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is an adverse prognostic indicator in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and serves as an indication for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy recommendation after resection. To assess the utility of clinicopathologic factors and volumetric metabolic parameters from preoperative FDG PET/CT in predicting primary tumor LVI in NSCLC. This retrospective study included 161 patients (mean age, 61. Read More

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Sublobar Resection in Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Role of Preoperative CT Features in Predicting Pathologic Lymphovascular Invasion and Postoperative Recurrence.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Prognostic factors on preoperative CT in stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may help select patients to undergo sublobar resection or lobectomy. To identify CT features predictive of pathologic lymphovascular invasion (pLVI) in stage IA NSCLC and to evaluate the features' prognostic value in patients who undergo sublobar resection. This retrospective study included 904 patients (mean age 62 years; 453 men, 451 women) who underwent lobectomy (n=574) or sublobar resection (n=330) for stage IA NSCLC. Read More

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Theranostic Near-Infrared-Active Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles.

ACS Nano 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Physics Department, King's College London, Strand Building, London, WC2R 2LS, U.K.

Conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) based on a common solar cell material (PTB7) have been prepared, and their potential in theranostic applications based on bioimaging and photosensitizing capabilities has been evaluated. The main absorption and emission bands of the prepared CPNs both fell within the NIR-I (650-950 nm) transparency window, allowing facile and efficient implementation of our CPNs as bioimaging agents, as demonstrated in this work for A549 human lung cancer cell cultures. The prepared CPN samples were also shown to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photoexcitation in the near-infrared or ultraviolet spectral regions, both in aqueous solutions and in HaCaT keratinocyte cell cultures. Read More

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MiR-3130-5p is an intermediate modulator of 2q33 and influences the invasiveness of lung adenocarcinoma by targeting NDUFS1.

Cancer Med 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

National Institute for Data Science in Health and Medicine, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reported a handful of loci associated with lung cancer risk, of which the pathogenic pathways are largely unknown. We performed cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping for 376 lung cancer related GWAS loci in 227 TCGA lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and reported two risk loci as eQTL of miRNA. Among the miRNAs in association with lung cancer risk, we further predicted and validated miR-3130-5p as an intermediate modulator of risk loci 2q33 and the tumor suppressor NDUFS1. Read More

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Tobramycin Liquid Crystal Nanoparticles Eradicate Cystic Fibrosis-Related Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

Small 2021 May 12:e2100531. Epub 2021 May 12.

Clinical and Health Science, University of South Australia, North Tce, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms cause persistent and chronic infections, most known clinically in cystic fibrosis (CF). Tobramycin (TOB) is a standard anti-pseudomonal antibiotic; however, in biofilm infections, its efficacy severely decreases due to limited permeability across the biofilm matrix. Herewith, a biomimetic, nanostructured, lipid liquid crystal nanoparticle-(LCNP)-formulation is discovered to significantly enhance the efficacy of TOB and eradicate P. Read More

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Dysbalance of ACE2 levels - a possible cause for severe COVID-19 outcome in COPD.

J Pathol Clin Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research, Graz, Austria.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a serious threat to healthcare systems worldwide. Binding of the virus to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important step in the infection mechanism. However, it is unknown if ACE2 expression in patients with chronic lung diseases (CLDs), such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), or pulmonary fibrosis (PF), is changed as compared to controls. Read More

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An eight-year experience of Nocardia infection in Italy: does immunosuppression matter?

New Microbiol 2021 May 1;44(2). Epub 2021 May 1.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

Nocardia has always been considered a pathogen of the immunocompromised host, but recent evidence has also highlighted its role as a pathogen in the immunocompetent. We aim to assess the role of immunosuppression in the disease. We reviewed all the cases of infections due to Nocardia spp. Read More

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SATB2 Is Expressed in a Subset of Pulmonary and Thymic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

Am J Clin Pathol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Rochester, MN, USA.

Objectives: To evaluate SATB2 expression and prognostic implications in a large cohort of thoracic neuroendocrine tumors.

Methods: Surgical pathology files (1995-2017) and an institutional thymic epithelial tumor database (2010-2020) were searched for resected neuroendocrine tumors. Cases were stained with SATB2 (clone EP281). Read More

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